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§ 1. John, Bishop of Nikiu and his Chronicle. 

John of Nikiu 1 was probably born about the time of the 
Mohammedan invasion of Egypt. He was the Coptic bishop 
of Nikiu and 'rector' of the bishops of Upper Egypt who 
took part in the election of the successor of John of Samntid 
in 690 A. d. In 696 he was appointed administrator general 
of the Monasteries, but was later deposed from these offices on 
the ground that he had abused his powers. 

His Chronicle, though even imperfectly preserved, is of 
immense value to historians of Egypt. As Butler 2 remarks: 
1 It is the acquisition of John's manuscript by the British 
Abyssinian expedition which has made it possible "to write 
a history of the Arab conquest of Egypt.' Unhappily, how- 
ever, his Chronicle has suffered in the course of transmission. 
Large portions of it have been lost. That some of these losses 
were sustained after it had been translated into Arabic is 
shown by the fact that the rubrics (see pp. 1-14 of this book), 
which were prefixed by the Arabic translator, do not always 
correspond to the chapters they profess to summarize. Thus 
rubric CXIV (CXV) 3 : 4 How the Moslem took Misr in the 
fourteenth year of the cycle and made the fortress of Babylon 
open its gates in the fifteenth year', has no relation to the 
actual contents of that chapter. Again, there is a lamentable 
gap of thirty years, from 610 to 640, from the accession of 
Heraclius to the arrival of the Arabs before Babylon in Egypt. 
Hence we are without John's account of the Persian wars, 

1 I have followed the general usage in England, using the Coptic form of 
the name. In the Ethiopic text, however, this form never occurs. Some- 
times we have Nikius and at others Nakius (the Arabic form of the word). 
The Greek was Kik'iov ; but see p. 15, note 2. 

2 Arab Conquest of Egypt, p. ix. 

3 See p. 13. 



of the Persian occupation of Egypt, and of their evacuation of 
it early in 627 under pressure of Heraclius's victories : also 
of the ten years' persecution of the Copts by Cyrus, patriarch 
of Alexandria, and of the first acts of the invasion of Egypt 
by the Arabs. When John resumes his story Theodore the 
commander-in-chief of the Roman armies in Egypt has just 
learnt the defeat of the local levies under John and the death 
of that general. 

Those who wish to gain a coherent and historical knowledge 
of the contribution made to the history of Egypt by John of 
Nikiu have only to read the resume' in Butler's The Arab 
Conquest of Egypt, pp. 8-27. But this work must be read 
as a whole for the new light it throws on Egyptian history of 
this date. In this field Gibbon fails us, since he often mis- 
conceives the role played by Egypt at this period. Seeing 
that Egypt took a prominent part in the revolution against 
Phocas and was one of the most turbulent countries in the 
whole Empire, as we now learn from John of Nikiu and other 
less authoritative sources, it is clear that he could not have 
described the rebellion of Heraclius against Phocas in the 
terms he did (v. 66-7, Bury's ed.) and declared that Egypt 
was ' the only province which had been exempt, since the time 
of Diocletian, from foreign and domestic war' (v. 71) if he 
had had John of Nikiu's Chronicle at his disposal. 

§ 2. Versions of John of Nikiu. 

John of Nikiu was written originally in Greek, but it is not 
improbable, as Zotenberg points out, that some chapters which 
dealt with purely Egyptian affairs were written in Coptic. 
This hypothesis is supported by the Coptic forms of proper 
names. But this question needs to be critically and fully 
threshed out. It is impossible at present to attempt to 
delimit the boundaries of the Coptic sections. 

A Sahidic fragment was discovered in the Berlin Museum, 
which according to its discoverer, Dr. Schafer, is closely 
related to John's Chronicle. Future investigation must 
determine whether this Sahidic fragment is derived directly 
from the original work or translated from one of its versions, 



or whether it is merely an independent document dealing 
■with the same material as our Chronicle. 

From Greek the Chronicle was translated into Arabic, and 
from Arabic into Ethiopic in the year 1602. The Arabic 
version is wholly lost, though Ame'lineau, in his Vie du Pa- 
triarche Copte Isaac, p. xxiv, n., states that he knows of an 
Arabic manuscript of John's Chronicle. But when asked for 
further information by Dr. Butler, none was forthcoming (see 
Butler, op. cit, p. ix, n.). 

The Ethiopic version gives the student the impression of 
being a literal reproduction of the Arabic. It is rather of 
a hybrid description. The Ethiopic itself is very late and 
unclassical, and exhibits idioms impossible in the earlier period. 
It contains many transliterations from the earlier languages 
in which the Chronicle was written. Thus we have 'Iw fxanaipa 
transliterated in 22 4 , tto,v6tttt]s in 33, 6 iravrapyos in 51 62 , rjXiaKrj 
. . (reXriviaKTi in 74 G , avayvwarrjs in 79 13 , <f>i\ak^9T]s in 89 53 , &c, &c. 
The Arabic names of five of the planets are transliterated in 
2\ and other Arabic words in 84 30 , 97 2 > 16 , 102 10 , 107 18 > 33 , 109 3 , 
&c, &c. Amharic words appear occasionally, as 96 2 , 107 10 , 
108 10 , but this is due to the Ethiopic translator's use of 
Amharic colloquially. The Coptic article has survived in 31 1 , 
107 u , as Zotenberg has shown. 

§ 3. The Ethiopic Manuscripts. 

There are only two manuscripts at present known of this 
version, which for convenience are designated A and B. 

A is No. 146 in Zotenberg's Catalogue of the Ethiopic 
manuscripts in the Bibliotheque Nationale. It is written on 
vellum, being about 368 mm. by 296. Each page has three 
columns of thirty-two lines each. According to Zotenberg it 
was written in the seventeenth century. Our Chronicle begins 
on fol. 62 and ends on fol. 138. 

. B. This manuscript is Orient. 818 in the British Museum 
(391 a in Wright's Catalogue of the Ethiopic manuscripts there). 
It is written on vellum, being about 14§ in. by 13, and con- 
tains 191 folios. Each page has three columns of thirty-six 
lines each. It is well written, and belongs to the first half of 
the eighteenth century. 



John of Nikiu begins on fol. 48* and ends on fol. 102 b . In the 
last column it is stated that it was translated from the Arabic 
version in 1602 by Gabriel the Egyptian, son of John of 
Kaljub, at the order of the Abyssinian general Athanasius and 
of Mariara Sena (Malak Mogasa), the wife of Jacob, Malak 
Sagad the younger (1597-1603 A.D.). 

These two manuscripts are not copies of the same manuscript, 
but are derived, and not distantly, from one and the same 

§ 4. Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text. 

Zoten berg's text (Chronique de Jean, fiveque de Nikiou, 
Texte eth'iopien publie et traduit, Paris, 1883) is on the whole 
reasonably good as a first edition. Since there are only two 
manuscripts, and these are closely related, there was little 
difficulty experienced in forming the text. But Zotenberg's 
chief merit lies not in the making of the text, but in the 
great ingenuity he has shown in deciphering the very cor- 
rupt forms under which a considerable number of the 
proper names are disguised. The corruptions in question 
are due to the fact that the Ethiopic translators were using 
an unpointed Arabic text, and were largely ignorant of the 
historical persons and events described in John of Nikiu's 
Chronicle. But this merit should be dealt with rather in 
connexion with Zotenberg's translation than with his text. 

We have observed that the text is reasonably good. This 
qualified praise will become more intelligible as we proceed. 
Thus, frequently, where the text is unquestionably and some- 
times hopelessly corrupt, no attention is drawn to this fact 
either by the use of obeli in the text or footnotes, and not 
unfrequently the translation proceeds as if the constructions 
were quite normal. In footnotes in my translation I have 
called attention to some of these passages. Here I mention a 
few cases either where an absolutely corrupt text has been 
reproduced, or the text has been wrongly emended. First let 
us take the proper name ff»hfiy D i > S > fl: (i.e. Maximian), which 
is allowed to stand wrongly in 77 47 > 48 > 73 ' 74 > 83 > 88 > 92 , where it 
should have been emended into (fl>tifta J Ll-tli (i.e. Maximin). 



On the othor hand, he wrongly allows the latter to remain 
in 77 2 > 25 . In his translation, however, these errors are set 
right silently save in two instances. In 88 G9 Zotenberg omits 
the clause ' to set free her mother ' It: <\X°7;)> 

and thus fails to recognize the meaning of this verb in 88 67 , 
where he renders it by permettre, i.e. 'de permettre a Ve'rine 
de demeurer dans le chateau d'Isaurie '. But this gives exactly 
the opposite sense to what we require. See my emendation 
on p. 117, note 4. 

In the passage just dealt with we have a very common kind 
of error into which Zotenberg falls. He emeDds a passage in 
such a way as to make it inconsistent with its context or 
with the universal tradition on the subject. Thus in 88 67 
Zotenberg emends the vox nulla £$"1: into JE^^M; ( = ' to put 
her to death '), but the rest of the verse suggests that Zeno 
only intended to keep the empress under guard. Hence we 
should read J&O^O:. 

Another instance of Zotenberg's wrong restoration of the 
text occurs earlier in this chapter. In 88 44 he renders his 
reconstructed text as follows, the words enclosed in brackets 
being Zotenberg's addition to supply an indubitable loss : 
43. ' Quant au patriarche Pierre, on le transporta, charge' de 
chaines, dans la ville d'Eucha'ites .... 44. [On nomma 
ensuite patriarche d'Antioche fitienne] qui proscrivait la secte 
de Nestorius. En consequence tous les habitants de la ville le 
de'testaient, et il fut massacre' par la population d'Antioche et 
le clergeV Here, according to Zotenberg's restored text, Peter 
the Fuller is transported to Euchaites, and his successor 
Stephen is put to death by the clergy and laity of Antioch 
because he had persecuted the Nestorians. Now the facts are 
exactly the opposite. Peter was a persecutor of the Nestorians, 
but Stephen was charged before a Council of Nestorianism 
and, when his enemies failed to prove their accusation, the 
inhabitants of Antioch, who were strong opponents of Nes- 
torianism, took the law into their own hands and put Stephen 
to death. See my note on p. 113. 

In 82 1 Zotenberg inserts thUli after Uft°:, and flRvn: before 
htm;. Thus he arrives at the following translation, in which 
he omits aoftfr, : ' Apres la mort de Jovien, l'ami de Dieu, 



[regna] Valentinien. Oomrne il y avait une grande affliction 
parmi les officiers, a cause de la mort de l'empereur Jovien, [il 
dtait venu] pour pleurer avec les autres.' I have inserted in 
square brackets Zotenberg's additions. Now this is not John 
of Nikiu, but Zotenberg. John's text is literally as follows: 
'And after the death of the Godloving Jovian, Valentinian, 
being the foremost amongst the officers, came to mourn with 
them over the death of the emperor Jovian.' 

In 120 4G the text is not defective and is perfectly right 
historically and grammatically. The literal rendering of the 
text is : ' This letter was sent by Martina ... to David . . . 
(urging him) ... to put down the sons of Constantine, who had 
been emperor with Heraclius, his brother.' The persons 
referred to are as follows : Heraclius I married first Eudocia 
and had by her Constantine III here mentioned, and married 
secondly Martina and had by her the Heraclius II here 
mentioned. Thus ' brother ' in the text means in reality ' half- 
brother'. Again, 'the sons of Constantine III ' in the text 
were Constantine (i. e. Constans II) and Theodosius. Now it is 
these grandchildren of Heraclius I that Martina requested 
David to remove in favour of her own children by Heraclius I. 
Zotenberg, however, misconceives the passage utterly and 
emends it. His rendering then is : ' Une lettre que Ton disait 
avoir e'te' adressee par Marti ne ... a David . . . pour l'engager 
... a, deposseder les fils de Constantin, c'est-a-dire Constantin 
(le jeune), qui gouvernait avec Heraclius et son frere.' The 
phrase ' c'est . . . Constantin ' is needlessly inserted by Zoten- 
berg, and ' et\ quite wrongly added before 'son frere'. This 
last addition makes the text unintelligible. 

I will content myself with adducing another erroneous 
emendation. On p. 25 of his text Zotenberg quite rightly 
follows his manuscripts in reading H'cnQfc 9m-}; cn>iyj v 'V: , but 
as a footnote on p. 236 of his translation, and in the list of 
'Corrections' on p. 487, he writes that av'iV^'Vi must be 
emended into or>17^: or av'iys*'T:. Thus he takes fritipXg 
to be a transitive verb and accordingly translates ' tu de'truiras 
bientot le gouvernement '. But cn^&i is always intransitive. 
Hence the manuscripts are right, and the text should be 
rendered : ' the kingdom . . . will speedily be destroyed.' 


This list could be largely increased, but sufficient facts have 
been given to prove that Zotenberg's text needs to be carefully- 
revised . 

§5. Zotenberg's Translation and Index. 

Though this translation is still more faulty than the text, 
the gratitude of all scholars interested in this subject is due 
to this scholar for the immense industry and the great learning 
he has shown in the illustration and explanation of his 
author. The student will find the results of such studies in 
the notes on the French translation as well as in the earlier 
contributions in the Journal Asiatique^t. x, 1877, p. 451 sqq.; 
t. xii, 1878, p. 245 sqq.; t. xiii, 1879, p. 291 sqq. I have 
learnt much from the notes, but I have preferred to work to 
a great extent independently with the help of the Greek 
chronographers. The translation is suprisingly faulty. I will 
confine my criticism to the later chapters, and select from 
these only a limited number of typical mistranslations. 

In 120 44 the text is to be rendered ' whom Heracleonas .had 
taken unto him (as colleague)', as is manifest from 120 43 . 
But Zotenberg renders ' qu' He'racleonas avait lev6 des fonts 
baptismaux ' (!). In 82 4 he emends the text and reads 
h^i^K: ch&fii wM7"2i (MSS. coftA? 1 "*;) fthTF:. This = ' he 
did not accept gifts and bribes rashly' — a statement which 
would imply that he exercised great discretion in his acts of 
maladministration. But this is quite contrary to the context, 
and so Zotenberg abandons his emended text and likewise 
the manuscripts and simply writes ' il ne se laissait pas 
corrompre par des dons'. But flhl*F: (=' rashly') must be 
rendered. Hence we have only to emend Ayf: into h^h 
and we arrive at the following excellent sense : { he refused 
bribes, and did not give his confidence rashly.' 

In 84 97 OMi£: and H?OnA; frtLfrV: are omitted in his 
translation. In 88 51 he renders dfifi AU7C: rtHj&Mf; ThJ»i by 
' il . . . y fit reconnaitre la souverainete de l'empereur Zenon '. 
This is an impossible rendering. If the Ethiopic means 
anything it is: 'he made the city of (or Ho belong to') 
' the emperor Zeno.' But, as I have shown in the note on 
p. 115 of my translation, the key to the text is given by 



John Malalas, and the text must be emended accordingly. 
Of 88 80 titn>: W: <VrXHW: is given the strange ren- 

dering of 'pour etre l'executeur fidele de notre autorite '. 
The words are literally : ' that he might be chosen for our 
commands.' But the original form of the phrase occurs in 
88 82 , where Verina declares that she has chosen Leontius 
emperor ' that he may be solicitous after every good work 
Hence here ^4*?: is to be emended into and so we have 

' that he might be solicitous as regards our commands '. 

In 90 31 *nhXYL\ "k^KWVx ha><$h>\ cannot under any circum- 
stances be rendered ' certaines femmes firent paraitre leurs 
enfants ', but ' others (i. e. men) drew forth certain women '. 
It is extraordinary that Zotenberg should make hi^Kih^i 
(feminine) the subject of the transitive verb fia*f$\?K (masculine 
termination) and omit hlKhlYs, ( = ' others ' (masc.) ), which is 
the real subject of the verb. 

In 119 18 we have an instance of Zotenberg's paraphrasing 
the text — a thing he does frequently. ' Apres la mort de 
Constantin, flls d'Heraclius, on fit monter sur le trone 
Heraclius, son frere d'un autre lit.' The italicized phrase 
is a rendering of X7°hQrU"., which should be rendered literally 
' on his father's side \ Heraclius II was a half-brother of 
Constantine, son of Heraclius, by the same father. But ' d'un 
autre lit ' does not express this fact. 

I will only adduce one more of the many errors in trans- 
lation. In 120 13 we find an astonishing misrendering of the 
text. ' II fit ouvrir (?) la citerne dans laquelle se trouvait la 
Sainte-Croix qu'il avait recue avant son exil du general 
Jean.' It is true that the query after ouvrir is Zotenberg's. 
But hO(\Si cannot under any circumstances be rendered by 
ouvrir. It means ' extolled '. As Butler (Arab Conquest, 538 sq.) 
remarks, Cyrus was here ' recounting the story of the Invention 
of the Cross . . . with the Eastern Church the Invention and 
the Exaltation of the Cross were always celebrated on one and 
the same day, September 14.' 

In his Index, which is admirable in its fullness, there are 
some errors. Constans II is not to be found in 120 39-45 as 
appears in his index, though he is there named ' Constantine 
the younger' (120 45 ). Constantine (i.e. Constans II), son of 



Constantine III, though expressly mentioned in 20 38 > 44 > 45 , is 
not given in the index. Under 'Jean l'Evangeliste ' two 
personalities are confused, i. e. ' J ohn the Fourth Evangelist ' 
and ' John the Theologian or Divine the author of Revelation. 
Under ' Jean (Talai'a), patriarche d'Alexandrie ' lies another 
error. The John actually mentioned in 94 23 had been patri- 
arch of Alexandria under Tiberius, 578-582 A.D., whereas John 
Talaia was elected patriarch of Alexandria in 482, and is 
actually referred to in 88 60,cl . Maximin is not mentioned 
in the Index, while Jeroboam, the son of Nebat (93 5 ), 
appears as Roboarn. Apparently Zotenberg confuses him with 

§ 6. The Present Translation. 

Since John of Nikiu is merely an annalist, who records in 
the simplest language the facts at his disposal, the present 
translator has made it his aim to translate the Ethiopic version 
as literally as possible. In this respect his translation differs 
greatly from Zotenberg's, which is of the nature of a para- 
phrase, and aims at giving a smooth and rather a literary 
version of a very rough piece of writing. 

In the present translation the roughness of the Ethiopic 
version is reflected. Form has been sacrificed to accuracy. 
As respects accuracy, owing to the corruptness of the text 
this has not been achieved to the extent I could wish. Sub- 
sequent translators will carry forward the identification of 
corrupt proper names, as well as the further emendation of the 

In the translation words enclosed thus ( ) are supplied by 
the translator, and words enclosed ( > are necessary restora- 
tions ; while words enclosed f f are treated as corrupt, and 
words enclosed [ ] are regarded as interpolations. 

Amongst the Greek Chroniclers I have chiefly relied on 
John Malalas (the Bonn edition), John of Antioch (fragments 
of whose Chronicle are edited in Miiller's Fragmenta His- 
toricorum Graecorum, iv. 535-622), Chronicon Paschale (ed. 
Ducange). These were undoubtedly at our author's disposal. 
But I have found the Church History of Eusebius, as well 


as those of Evagrius and Socrates, of great service, and 
in a slight degree that of Theodoret. The Chronicles of 
Syncellus (Bonn ed.) and Cedrenus (Bonn ed.) have also been 
found helpful as preserving more accurate accounts of events 
recorded in our author. 

On the later chapters regarding the Mohammedan invasion 
of Egypt, Butler's work — The Arab Conquest of Egypt (Oxford 
University Press, 1902) — is simply indispensable. 




(Pp. 1-14 Contents of the CXXI.T Chapters) 

In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Spirit, one God. An introduction to this Chronicle with an 
enumeration of its one hundred and twenty-two chapters. These 
accounts of the primitive events which are past and gone (the 
author) has put together from the chronicles of primitive genera- 
tions : i.e. (the events) from Adam to Tiw (=Dido) who reigned 
over the Greeks and over Africa, and from the time of Romanos 
(? = Remus) and Romulus, who reigned over Rome, of happy 
memory, to the end of the reign of the holy Constantine, first 
Christian emperor of Rome ; from the accession of the sons of the 
great Christian emperor, the Godfearing Constantine, to the end 
of the Godloving emperor Jovian; and from the accession of 
Andejas (? Valentinian) to the end of Theodosius, the great and 
blessed emperor; and from the time of Arcadius and Honorius, 
the sons of the Godloving emperor Theodosius, to the end of the 
blessed emperor Anastasius ; and from the days of the emperor 
Justin to the days of the reign of Heraclius (even) to its end ; and 
from the time of Theodore, chief prefect of the province of Egypt, 
to John, monk of the convent of Sinai, who believed in the faith 
of the Chalcedonians. And furthermore these accounts were put 
together in (their) completeness by John the ascetic and Maddabbar, 1 
which is by interpretation, administrator, who was bishop of the 
town of Nakijus in Egypt, which is called Absai. And these he 
has put together from more extended histories, and these are (in) 

1 The text reads ' the Madabbar and Ascetic '. The meaning of Mastagaddal 
is doubtful here : it = AOKrjTTis in its literal sense, and next in its metaphorical 



chapters to the number of one hundred and twenty-two, which is 
(thus) a chronography beginning with the generation of primitive 

Chapter I. Concerning the names of Adam and Eve and their 
children and all creatures. 

Chapter II. Concerning the names of the stars and of the sun 
and of the moon and the things that are found in the books of 
the Hebrews. 

Chapter III. Concerning those who first began to make ships 1 
and went upon the sea. 

Chapter IV. Concerning those who engraved astrolabes from 
first to last. 

Chapter V. Concerning the beginning of the building of 
Babylon, and those who worship the image of the horse as a god, 
and the beginning of the chase and the eating of animal food. 

Chapter VI. Concerning those who first eat human flesh, and 
him who first slew his sons, and likewise him who slew his father. 

Chapter VII. Concerning him who first took his sister and 
made her (his) wife. 

Chapter VIII. Concerning him who founded the city of Nineveh 
and who first took his mother and made her (his) wife. 

Chapter IX. Concerning him who first- wrought gold and 
brought (it) from mines. 

Chapter X. Concerning him who first made weapons of war. 

Chapter XI. Concerning him who first made a furnace and who 
married two women. 

Chapter XII. Concerning him who built a city named the City 
of the Sun. 

Chapter XIII. Concerning him who built two cities, Abusir, 
the one in upper Egypt, the other in northern Egypt. 

Chapter XIV. Concerning him who built the city of Samnud and 
Elbarabt, which is the house of idols. 

Chapter XV. Concerning the Greeks, who were the first to 
proclaim the glory of the coequal Trinity. 

Chapter XVI. Concerning those who first made a plough in the 
provinces of Egypt, and in what condition Egypt was at the first. 

Chapter XVII. Concerning him who first levied taxes on the 
country of Egypt and measured the land with a reed and made 
1 I have necessarily changed the order of the text here. 


the inhabitants give (a return) to the king. And who it was that 
dug channels in the land for the water to flow in and the canal 
named Dik. 

Chapter XVIII. Concerning him who made the waters to 
disappear and drained the marshes of Egypt, so that they could 
build cities and villages thereon and plant plantations. 

Chapter XIX. Concerning those who built three temples 
(? pyramids) in the city of Memphis. 

Chapter XX. Concerning him who first made dyes for garments. 

Chapter XXI. Concerning him who made beautiful statues and 
worshipped them. And concerning him who founded the cities of 
Iconium and Tarsus. And who named Assyria Persia, and who 
planted trees in Egypt, and who was the first to worship the sun 
- and the moon and fire and water. 

Chapter XXII. Concerning him who worshipped the moon 
only and built an altar to her as a goddess. 

Chapter XXIII. Concerning him who named Libya. And who 
built Tyre and who named Canaan, and Syria and Cilicia. 

Chapter XXIV. Concerning him who named the cities of 
Europe and built the city of Gortyna. 

Chapter XXV. Concerning him who first put beams of wood to 
the feet of men. 

Chapter XXVI. Concerning him who first built an altar to 
idols and worshipped them. 

Chapter XXVII. Concerning Melchizedek the priest, the nature 
of his descent : and concerning those who built Sidon and Sion, 
which is called Salem ; and the naming of the Jews, that is, the 

Chapter XXVIII. Concerning those who first invented the 
letters of the Greeks and the teaching of the writing of letters. 

Chapter XXIX. Concerning the deluge in Attica, 1 and the 
cause of the long continuance (of the waters) upon it and of its 
becoming a desert. 

Chapter XXX. Concerning the condition (?) of Pharaoh before 
Moses and his destruction with his own in the depths of the 
Red Sea. 

Chapter XXXI. Concerning him who changed the name of the 

1 Text reads JIM', • corrupt for A*|Jg*i; 

B 2 



town of Absai and named it Nakijus, and the cause owing to which 
the river changed its course from the east and came to be on the 
west of the city according to the commandment of God. 

Chapter XXXII. Concerning the building of Jerusalem, and 
the alteration of its name into Nablos, and concerning the house 
of God which was built in it. 

Chapter XXXIII. He who first pursued a handicraft among the 

Chapter XXXIV. Concerning him who was the first to find an 
inscription and communicate it to men : and concerning him who 
found the teaching and who interpreted the verses which were 
written on the table of stone. 

Chapter XXXV. Concerning him who established the law of 
marriage, that men should take to wife young virgins and call 
them spouses : and concerning him who was the first to institute 
the (common) meal. 

Chapter XXXVI. Concerning him who first among the Greeks 
believed in the Holy Trinity as coequal in one Godhead. 

Chapter, XXXVII. Concerning those who first practised medicine 
in the world. 

Chapter XXXVIII. Concerning him who first built a bath in 
the world. 

Chapter XXXIX. Concerning him who first played on the flute 
and like instruments such as the horn and the trumpet. 

Chapter XL. Concerning the building of Cyzicum and the cause 
which led the spirits to confess the unity of the Holy Trinity and 
announce to all men that God should be born of a virgin. 

Chapter XLI. Concerning him who established the sanctuary 
of Sosthenium and the building of a church by the command of the 
Godloving emperor Constantine. 

Chapter XLII. Concerning the nails (of the cross) of our Lord 
Jesus Christ and the victory which the kings won by their means. 

Chapter XLIII. Concerning him who gave their names to the 
two provinces Achaia and Laconia. 

Chapter XLIV. Concerning him who named the Peloponnesus 1 
and built in it a city called Peloponnesus. 2 

Chapter XLV. Concerning him who built Parma and Bulkinun. 

1 TheEthiopic is hopelessly corrupt here; = island of Lfinanja. 

2 Ethiopic = Lubanijun. 



Chapter XLVI. Concerning him who first taught playing on 
instruments of music. 

Chapter XLVII. Concerning him who named the island of 
Ephesus which is in Asia ; formerly it was named Saqalbah, but 
they changed its name and called it Iconia (sic). 

Chapter XLVIII. Concerning him who built the city which 
is named Bulmiz (= Palmyra), for 1 in its neighbourhood David 
conquered the Philistine. 

Chapter XLIX. Concerning the cause of Nebuchadnezzar's 
conquest of the city of Tyre, which is an island. 

Chapter L. Concerning the Ark of God and the tables and 
Aaron's rod which budded and the measure of manna and the 
fragment of hard rocks, and concerning him who hid them from men. 

Chapter LI. Concerning the kingdom of King Cyrus and 
his sending back the captive children of Israel ; and how Cambyses 
forbade them to build the temple and Yasid the Commander of the 
Egyptian forces provoked Cambyses and Cambyses 2 slew the 
Egyptian officers and took away captives, which he had taken 
from Egypt, to his own country, and (how) the Egyptians returned 
a second time to their own land, and (how) after forty and one 
years Alexander of Macedon, called the conqueror of the world, 
became king. 

Chapter LII. Concerning the building of the city named 
Lavinia. 3 

Chapter LIII. Concerning him who was the first to build a 
house and call it a palace. 

Chapter LIV. Concerning him who built the city named Alba. 4 

Chapter LV. Concerning him who built Carthage. 

Chapter LVI. Concerning him who buiit Eome and the reason 
they were named Romans : and concerning the origin of the formulas 
in demanding and decreeing, and the circuit of the courts, 5 and 
how the army went to battle on horseback : and concerning the 
establishment of a place of combat for women, and the administrative 
decrees for the army and concerning those who are sent and those 

1 Or, ' indeed \ 

2 Transposed to this clause. : it wrongly occurs in the clause, 1 which he had 
taken from Egypt '. 

3 Texfc = Lun J a - 4 Text = Helvin (A, Helvan B). 

5 So MSS. But I emend 0\gt; into as in Chap. LVI, and translate 

'and the courts'. 



who minister to them ; and the reason on account of which our 
Fathers the monks of Egypt celebrated the Eucharist on the first 
day of every month. 

Chapter LVII. Concerning him who invented, as it appears, 
stamped money, which gave rise to selling and buying. And con- 
cerning the institution of prefects, magistrates, and judges. 

Chapter LVIII. Concerning him who built the city of 

Chapter LIX. Concerning him who built the cities of Alexandria 
and Chrysopolis of Byzantium, i.e. Alexander. How he conquered 
Darius and took his daughter captive : and how queen Candace 
took Alexander prisoner when he came to her with spies (even) the 
messengers whom he had sent to her : and how he made her his wife. 

Chapter LX. Concerning the epoch when the Scriptures inspired 
by God were translated, and how many translations there were. 

Chapter LXI. Concerning him who built Antigonia, and 
Antioch, and Laodicea and Apamea, cities of renown. 

Chapter LXII. Concerning him who first wrote chronicles and 
named them. 

Chapter LXIII. Concerning him who persecuted the Maccabean 

Chapter LXIV. Concerning the birth of Julius Caesar, King of 
Rome : and the reign of Cleopatra, and the building of a great 
Church named Caesarion in the city of Alexandria. 

Chapter LXV (LXVI). Concerning him who built Caesarea in 

Chapter LXVI (LXVII). Concerning him who built the Pharos 
of Alexandria and made a channel through the land in order to 
conduct the canal of Kariun, which is by interpretation ' ditch 
so that the water came from the great river Gihon to the great 
city Alexandria. And concerning the passage of the water to the 
skilfully constructed and deep reservoir. And at what time our 
Lord Jesus Christ was born in the flesh.' And why the Romans 
made their months to begin with the sixth month of the year. 

Chapter LXVII (LXVIII). Concerning him who fixed one of 
the ' changes ' 1 on the sixth day of the month Ter. And how Ezra, 
the holy man, was unjustly rejected. 

1 Text reads ft^C^V;, which I emend into hyCS^l See Dillmann, 
Lex. 169. 



Chapter LXVIII (LXIX). Concerning the reign o£ the Emperor 
in which our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified : and concerning him 
who built the city Tiberias. 

Chapter LXIX (LXX). Concerning that which befell the 
Emperor Nero and his bitter death. 

Chapter LXX (LXXI). Concerning the Emperor Domitian and 
how he sent St. John the Evangelist twice into exile, and concern- 
ing his (St. John's) death : and how he built Domitianopolis, and 
concerning the grievous death of Domitian, and the abolition of 
(gladiatorial) combats and the smiting of men. 

Chapter LXXI (LXXII). Concerning the death of Ignatius, 
clothed (?) with God and the women who became martyrs with him : 
and the building of a fortress in the Egyptian Babylon. And con- 
cerning him who named it Babylon and him who made the channel 
for the canal called by the name of Trajan which terminates in 
the Red Sea, and concerning (him who built) the fortress in 

Chapter LXXII (LXXIII). Concerning him who built Antinoe 
in the province of Rif. 

Chapter LXXIII (LXXIV). Concerning him who established 
the decree as to fathers that they should make wills in favour of 
their children : and the construction of two gates in the city of 
Alexandria in its east and west. 

Chapter LXXIV (LXXV). Concerning him who introduced 
lions into Egypt and Palestine. 

Chapter LXXV (LXXVI). Concerning him who founded the 
usage of writing accounts and pledges that a man might be made 

Chapter LXXVI (LXXVII). Concerning the reign of Diocletian 
the Egyptian and how he lost his reason and was exiled : and which 
of his sons wrought the evil. And concerning the pestilence which 
God brought on the idolaters till there were none to bury them. 
And concerning the reign of the Godloving Constantine and the 
achievement of the works which he wrought and the magnificence of 
the churches 1 in his days. And concerning him who was the first 
to make a qanatra 2 , i.e. a bridge. And concerning the finding of 

1 Zotenberg has rightly restored fl»T: here. 

2 A transliteration of an Arabic word; while the word rendered 'bridge'; 

is Amharic, though wrongly vocalized. 



the cross. And concerning the building of Constantinople and its 
designation by this name, being called aforetime Byzantium. And 
concerning the faith of Gelasinus (which was produced) by a wonder 
which he saw, i.e. the holy baptism, and his marvellous death : and 
in what way the Indians came to know our Lord Jesus Christ, one 
God. Eor the holy Athanasius, the apostolic, was the first to 
ordain for them a bishop of India and of Yemen. And (how) there 
had been visible to Constantine all the days of his life an angel of 
God who awaked him for prayer. 

Chapter LXXVII (LXXVIII). Concerning the building of a 
qantarah {sic), i.e. a bridge on the river named Pyramus : and the 
disaster at Nicaea, and the appearance of the holy cross at midday 
on Golgotha in the place where our Lord was crucified. And the 
tribulations which the holy Athanasius, the apostolic, had to endure 
at the hands of the Arians. And the exile of Liberius and the 
holy bishops who were with him through the evil devices of the 
Arians. And moreover concerning the emperor Julian, the apostate : 
and how he forsook the orders of the Church and became the general 
of the army until he acceded to the throne in the place of Gallus 
his brother : and how he persecuted the holy Athanasius, in order 
to slay him at the instigation of the heathen. And how Alexandria 
was deemed worthy to receive the body of St. John the Baptist, 
that it might dwell there and a magnificent building might bq 
constructed for it by the command of the patriarch Theophilus, 

Chapter LXXVIII (LXXIX). Through whom it is we know 
the city and family 1 of Theophilus, the patriarch of Alexandria and 
the place of the birth of Cyril, his sister's son. 

Chapter LXXIX (LXXX). Concerning the consummation of 
the death of the holy martyr Domecius : and the vengeance which 
God brought upon Julian, the apostate, and how God punished him 
by the hand of the holy martyr Mercurius and how he died by 
an evil death. 

Chapter LXXX (LXXXI). Concerning the reign of Jovian and 
how the Church became glorious : and how the holy Athanasius 
returned to his throne with great honour : and the Church every- 
where was conspicuously in the orthodox faith. 

Chapter LXXXI (LXXXII). Concerning the reign of Sallustius 
(? Valentinian) and his hatred of iniquity and his just and equitable 
1 The Ethiopic is very irregular here. 



judgement : and his construction of stone gates, i. e. the Heracleotis, 
the gates of the great river of Egypt which he had caused to be 
made with excessive labour. And how the ocean tide rose to 
Alexandria to such a height that it would have submerged 1 the 
city had not the holy Athanasius the patriarch checked it by his 

Chapter LXXXII (LXXXIII). Concerning the reign of the 
Godloving Theodosius the elder : and the address which he pro- 
nounced before Amphilochius bishop of Iconium on the unity of the 
Holy Trinity. And concerning the Council which the emperor 
convoked in Constantinople : concerning the strengthening of the 
Churches. And concerning Timothy, patriarch of Alexandria, who 
admonished Gregory bishop of Nazianzum 2 to leave the city of the 
emperor Constantine and go to his own city and nominated a man 
named Maximus patriarch of Constantinople. And further con- 
cerning the building of the church of Theodosius at Alexandria 
and the church of the holy martyrs Cosmas and Damian and the 
martyrs their brethren. And concerning the burning by fire of the 
city of Antioch by the command of the emperor : and the reproof 
which was sent to him by the holy monk of the desert of Asqeto 
on this matter and the grief of the emperor regarding it. And 
further concerning the wine-merchants and the brothels which 
were suppressed in his days: and the splendour of his reign in 
all places, 

Chapter LXXXIII (LXXXIV). Concerning the accession of 
the emperors Arcadius and Honorius: and Arcadius was over 
Constantinople and Honorius over Rome. And concerning Arcadius' 
love of God and the devotion of Honorius. And concerning the 
revolt which Alaric raised in the city of Rome. And how the sister 
of the emperor Honorius was taken prisoner by him. And the 
plundering of all the treasures of the palace. And further how 
Honorius quitted Rome and went to Constantinople and became 
the colleague of the emperor Theodosius the younger, the son of 
his brother Arcadius, till the day of his death. And further con- 
cerning the empress Eudocia, the consort of the emperor Theodosius 
the younger — her family, and how the emperor made an alliance 

1 Here we must emend h.£P>?°\ (B) into J?flT.7 D : 

a The Ethiopic 'flCjPrt'fli is owing to a faulty transcription of the Arabic, 
as Zotenberg points out. 



with her and took her to wife. And at what time they inscribed 
the name of St. John Chrysostom in the diptyehs, after he had 
gone to our Lord. And concerning- the anathema of Nestorius and 
the victory of Cyril. And further concerning a heathen woman of 
Alexandria and the tumults which she caused between the Jews and 
Christians in Alexandria. And how the holy Cyril took the 
Synagogue of the Jews and made it a church in consequence of 
his controversy with the Jews. And how they dragged the heathen 
woman through the streets till she died. And how they burned 
her body with fire by the command of the patriarch, Abba Cyril. 

Chapter LXXXIV (LXXXV). Concerning the massacre made by 
the J ews in Qimitra : concerning the mockery they practised against 
the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, when in mockery they crucified 
a young infant and put it to death. 

Chapter LXXXV (LXXXVI). Concerning Finkeser the Jew 
who presented himself to the Jews saying, I am Moses the chief of 
the prophets. 

Chapter LXXXVI (LXXXVII). Concerning the apple which 
they brought as a present to the emperor Theodosius and the 
appointment of his sister Pulcheria : and the darkness which 
prevailed over all the earth from morning to evening on the day 
that Marcian the schismatic became emperor. 

Chapter LXXXVII (LXXXVIII). Concerning the occasion 
when the heaven rained diran, i.e. the lightnings on Constantinople, 
and the fire flamed from sea to sea : and the conversion of the 
heathen philosopher Isocasius to the orthodox faith. And from 
what place came the patriarch Timotheus. And concerning the 
terrible pestilence which prevailed in Constantinople : and the fall 
of the mountain in Syria and the apostasy of Basiliscus after the 
manner of the Chalcedonians for corruptible goods. And con- 
cerning the reign of the emperor Zenon over the imperial city of 
Constantinople, and the banishment of Basiliscus for life, and the 
death which was inflicted on the judges because of their negligence 
in the administration of justice. And concerning the reign of 
Zenon and his command that the letter should be read in every 
place. And concerning Verina his mother-in-law and her warring 
against him till death overtook her and her adherents. 

Chapter LXXXVIII (LXXXIX). Concerning the reign of 
Godloving Anastasius in consequence of the prophecy of Abba 



Jeremiah, an anchorite of the convent of Mantif : and the building 
of the stone gates of Elmuwrad and a trench in order to make 
a great bridge which should start from Babylon and terminate 
with the river. And concerning the naming of Philaletes, and 
the victory of the great patriarch Severus, and the banishment of 
Macedonius and the abrogation of the Chalcedonian Council. 

Chapter LXXXIX (XC). Concerning the banishment of the 
holy Severus from his throne in Antioch through the instrumentality 
of heretics, and the prayer which he made to God on behalf of the 
inhabitants of Constantinople regarding the evil that the emperor 
Justin had wrought, and the admonition which he heard from God. 
And concerning the fire which raged in Antioch and in the cities of 
the East : and the destruction of many oratories of the Martyrs, 
and all kinds of marvels which befell. And concerning the baptism 
of the people of the Arians (?) .and the kings of India and the 
Elmarits, that is, the Nubians. And of what religion they had 
been formerly. And concerning the earthquake in Egypt : and 
the Huns 1 (?) without the city. And the Indians, that is the 
Elmakurids, were formerly Jews. 

Chapter XC (XCI). Concerning the manifestation of the towel 
and mandil of our Lord Jesus Christ : they were found in the 
house of a Jew who lived in Alexandria. 

Chapter XCI (XCII). Concerning the reason of us Christians 
being named after the name of Theodosius, and the appearance of 
the Athenawjan and their doctrine. And concerning that which 
the chief officials published in the market-places that there should 
be a memorial with them till all who wished might take. 

Chapter XCII (XCIII). Concerning the primitive building of 
the city of Rome. 

Chapter XCIII (XCIV). The tumults which took place in the 
city of Constantinople concerning the holy body of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Chapter XCIV (XCV). Regarding Aristomachus the son of 
Theodosius of the city of Absai and the accusation which they 
brought against him (before) the emperor, so that he was put in 
bonds. And how Chosroes the King of the Persians believed and 
became a Christian. 

Chapter XCV (XCVI). Concerning Galanduh, a woman of 
1 Text wholly corrupt. I have adopted Zotenberg's suggestion. 



patrician rank — the name of a dignity — and the vision which she 
clearly saw in prison during her exile. 

Chapter XCVI (XCVII). Concerning those who were in a 
corner of a dwelling in the city of Mausal : and concerning the 
animal which appeared in the likeness of a woman in the river 
of Egypt. 

Chapter XCVII (XCVIII). Concerning Paulinus the magician 
who sacrificed to demons in a silver bowl. 

Chapter XCVIII (XCIX). Concerning him who first wrote 'In 
the name of our Lord Jesus Christ'. 

Chapter XCIX (C). Concerning the flood that covered the city 
of Antinous and of Tarsus, the capital of Cilicia, in the same night. 

Chapter C (CI). Concerning the setting of the sun at midday, 
and the appearance of stars and a great earthquake. 

Chapter CI (CII). Concerning Surikus the prefect who practised 
piety and the death which overtook him, and how the inhabitants 
of Constantinople chased the emperor Maurice. 

Chapter CII (CIII). How the captains of vessels were dis- 
charged of responsibility when their cat-go was lost at sea. And 
concerning the reign of Phocas and his murders. 

Chapter CIII (CIV). How it was forbidden to appoint a 
Patriarch or any other Church dignitary without the consent of 
Phocas : and concerning the action of the people of the East and 
of Palestine in this matter so that the tombs (?) 1 of the churches 
were filled with blood when the people took refuge in the 

Chapter CIV (CV). Concerning Theophilus of the city of 
Maurad : and the massacre which Phocas carried out because of 
his death in Antioch and Palestine. 

Chapter CV (CVI). Concerning the wife of Heraclius the elder 
and the wife of Heraclius the younger and Fabia 2 her daughter, 
a virgin : and how Crispus the magistrate saved them from the 
impure attempts of Phocas. 

Chapter CVI (CVII). Concerning the tumults which were 
raised against Phocas in Egypt, in Mareotis and the city of 
Alexandria, and the great massacres which were made in connexion 
with this matter. And how they cast his statue to the ground. 

1 Lit. ' cisterns ' (or, ' wells ') ' of the sepulchres '. 

2 Text quite corrupt = Anlejfi. 



Chapter CVII (CVIII). Concerning- Theophilus the Stylite 
and his prophecy to Nicetas 1 : 'Thou wilt conquer him and the 
kingdom of Phocas will speedily be destroyed and then Heraclius 
will reign.' 

Chapter CVIII (CIX). Concerning the bridge which was in 
the city of Dafasher near the church of St. Minas. 

Chapter CIX (CX). Concerning the death of Phocas and the 
dispersion of the treasures of the palace : and the chastisement which 
Heraclius inflicted on Phocas because of the outrage he had done 
to his wife and daughter. 

Chapter CX (CXI). Concerning the appearance of the Moslem 
on the confines of Frjum and the defeat of the Romans who 
dwelt there. 

Chapter CXI (CXII). Concerning the first encounter of 'Amar 
with the Romans at the city of "Awn (i. e. Heliopolis). 

Chapter CXII (CXIII). How all the Jews assembled in the 
city of Manuf owing to their fear of the Moslem, the cruelties 
of 'Amar and the seizure of their possessions till (at last) they left 
the gates of Misr open and fled to Alexandria. And how wicked 
men multiplied in the beginning of wickedness and began to help 
('Amar) to destroy the people of Egypt. 

Chapter CXIII (CXIV). How the people of Samnud so flouted 
'Amar as to refuse to receive him : and concerning the return of 
Kaladi to the Romans : and how they seized his mother and his 
wife — now he had hidden them in Alexandria — because he had 
joined and helped the Moslem. 

Chapter CXIV (CXV). How the Moslem took Misr in the 
fourteenth year of the cycle and made the fortress of Babylon 
open its gates in the fifteenth year. 

Chapter CXV (CXVI). Concerning the death of the emperor 
Heraclius and the return of Cyrus the Patriarch from exile and his 
departure for Mesr to pay tribute to the Moslem. 

Chapter CXVI (CXVII). How God gave the Romans into 
the hands of the Moslem and rejected them because of their 
incredulity and their divisions and the persecution which they had 
brought on the Christians of Egypt. 

Chapter CXVII (CXVIII). How 'Amar got possession of 

1 Text ( = Yeftatas) corrupt owing to a faulty transcription of a faulty 
Arabic form. 



Absadi, that is, Niqijus : and (concerning-) the flight of the general 
Domitian and the destruction of his army in the river, and the 
great massacre which took place in the city of Absadi, and in all 
the remaining cities — till 'Amar came to the island of Sawna — 
which were under the sway of Absai and its island on the eighteenth 
day of the month Genbot, in the fifteenth year of the cycle. 

Chapter CXVIII. How the Moslem got possession of Caesarea 
in Palestine and the trials that overtook it. 

Chapter CXIX. Concerning the great earthquake and the loss 
of life in Crete both in their island and in all their cities round 

Chapter CXX. Concerning Cyrus the Patriarch of the Chalce- 
donians — the same who went to Babylon and to 'Amar the chief 
of the Moslem and took the tribute in a vessel and paid it into 
his hands. And further how 'Amar increased the taxes of the 
Egyptians : and concerning the death of Cyrus the Chalcedonian 
after he had repented of having delivered the city of Alexandria 
into the hands of the Moslem. 

Chapter CXXI. Concerning the return of Abba Benjamin the 
patriarch of Egypt from his exile in the city of Rif (where he had 
been) fourteen years, and of these (he had been there) ten years 
because the Roman emperors had exiled him, and four under the 
dominion of the Moslem. And concerning the remaining history 
with the conclusion of the work. 

Chapter CXXII. A second epilogue concluding this history. 




The holy father/ John bishop of Nikiu, 2 who put this work 
together, said : ' O thou that hast loved toil till thou hast acquired 
the love of goodness, till the love of toil, which is pain, 3 giveth 
increase to all the good qualities which every zealous man covets, 
and for the sake of all the good qualities which constitute the 
eternal wisdom belonging to the Omnipotent and Lord of all ; for 
He hath reserved it for those who come after them, that they may 
accomplish what they have chosen/ For this task, moreover, I am 
wanting in eloquence beyond 4 all authors and feeble in discourse, 
though with many a testing I have tested the chosen portions. 
We will begin to compose this work from many ancient books, 
which deal with the (various) periods and the historical events, 
which we have Avitnessed also in the times to which we have come. 
And I have been honest (in this work) in order to recount and 
leave a noble memorial to the lovers of virtue in this present life. 
And we have left this narrative which is written in good order and 
in an exalted translation. Yea it is exalted beyond everything that 
has been by the interpretation of the translator, so that those who 
find it may not be without past and present gain, without portion 
or inheritance. 

Chapter I. We will begin with the first beings that were 
created; for it is written concerning Adam and Eve, that it was 
God who named them, but as for his children and all created things 
it was Adam that named them all. 

1 Zotenberg does not attempt to translate this introduction, owing to certain 
obscurities and phrases the sense of which 'escapes' him 'completely'. I have 
only found it necessary to make one or two slight changes. 

2 This city was called Pshati by the Egyptians. Champollion (II. 164) identi- 
fies it with the ancient Prosopis. Next Pshati appeared in Arabic as Abshadi. 
This form is reproduced, somewhat slightly changed, as Absai or Absadi in our 
text. In Greek the form was N(««W. Bury calls my attention to Strabo, xvii. 
1. 14 Ni/ct'ov KWfxr] : Oxyrhynchus Papyri, ix, no. 1219, p. 262 ds tt/v Nd/ciov (third 
cent. a. d.) : Hierocles, Synecdemus (ed. Burckhardt, p. 44), NWou (sixth cent, a.d ) 
In the Itinerarium Antonini 155 it appears as Nikiu (or Nicia or Nicium). In Arabic 
it was spelt Naqius or Niqius. For details on this important city see Champollion 
Vtgypte sous les Pharaons, ii. 162-71 ; Quatremere, Sur Vfigypte, i. 423-30. 

s I have omitted (D&ivtl 

* Text reads "iXM: YttVa^i, corrupt for X7°U ^O^l This idiom recurs 
eight lines later. 



II. T 

Chapter II. 1. And Seth, the son o£ Adam, who received wisdom 
from God, named five planets 1 : the first Cronus ; the second Zeus ; 
the third Ares ; the fourth Aphrodite ; the fifth Hermes. 2. And 
on a different ground he named the sun and the moon. And the 
number of the planets was seven. 3. And, moreover, he was the first 
to write letters in the language of the Hebrews; for he had 
received wisdom from God : and he composed history in it in the 
times of the giants. And, moreover, he said that Ovid a wise man 
of the heathen and Plutarch wrote about them after the deluge. 2 

Chapter III. The sons of Noah were great and strong, (and) 
they began to build ships 3 and to go upon the sea. 

Chapter IV. 1. It is told regarding Cainan, 4 the son of Arphaxad, 
who was sprung from Shem, the son of Noah, that he was a wise 
man and a shepherd. 2. He was the first to compose f astrolabes f 
(read ' astronomy ') after the deluge. 

Chapter V. 1. And after him the Indians composed (it), 5 and 
there was a man from India, named Qanturjus, 6 an Ethiopian of the 

1 Cf. John of Antiocli (Muller, Fragmenta Historicorum Oraec. iv. 540) : <5 5^ vlbs 
«?x e &o<piav and 9eov, /cat . . . tOrjictv bvo^ara . . . rots irtvre TrAavrjTais . . . Kal Toy 

■npuiTov n\avi]Tr\v k/cd\ecre Kpdvov, rbv Zrjva, rbv 7' "Apfa l rbv 5' ' AcppoStTrjv, rbv e' 
'Epfirjy' tovs 5e 0' <pa)OT?ipas tovs /xeydKovs avrbs 0 6ebs kK&Ataev. 'O avrbs dl 
evpe . . . ra 'E&paiKa. ypapL/j-ara. Cf. also Cramer, Anec. Oraec. Paris, ii. 242 : 
Kronos . . . Zeus, &c. These words are represented in the text by Zuhal, Mashtari, 
Marik, Zehra, 'Atard, which are Ethiopic transliterations of the Arabic names 
of these planets : J.=».j , tjj^* , ^Jj* , ijitj , J,lkc . 

2 And he composed . . . deluge. Though Zotenborg abandons the attempt of 
translating these words as he fails to understand them, he very unwisely 
emends the text and wrongly. My translation follows the manuscripts and not 
the text here. ?iCD'J?.'S"(l', (so AB : wrongly emended in text) here is clearly 
= '0/3t'Sios and »flft\£iTift: = TlXovrapxos. Thus our text agrees closely with 
John of Antioch, loc. cit. : Ovtoi tt)v laropiav ffvveypd\paTO 'O&'tSios, aKrjOeaTepov 5£ 
ttwtv 6 Xaipoiv tvs UXovrapxos. After the word ' Plutai - ch ' in the text the word 
9C(D'h't (= 'weakened') occurs. This I have omitted in the translation. We 
are to follow B here, and read RrflGUr**;, and not to follow A as in the text. 

3 Began to build ships. Cf. John of Antioch, iv. 541 Tipwroi iiroirjaav ir\o?a. 

4 Cainan, dc. Cf. John of Antioch, iv. 541 ; Syncellus, i. 150. For ' astrolabes ' 
in the text we should read 'astronomy', as Zotenberg has already pointed out. 
Cf. John of Antioch's statement : Kaivdv, 6<tti$ fxerd rbv KaraicXvap-bv ovvtfpd\paTo 
rfjv dcrrpovo/j-lav. 

5 And after . . . composed it. These words, which appear at the close of IV, 
I have placed here. 

0 Qanturjus, i. e. Gandubarius or Andubarius. Cf. Cramer, op. cit. ii. 234 Iv 
5« rots dvaiTfpw xpo^ois . . . dv«pv(i tis 'Ivdbs o~o(pos dvi)p darpovofios, ovSptari Tavfiov- 
fidpios, oaris avi'cypdip'aTo Trpwros do-rpovopiav 'IvSots : also Chron. Pasch. 36, where 

vir - r BISHOP OF NIKIU 17 

race of Ham, who was named Cud,. 2. He begat Afrud i e 

3 ZdVe ; e glant - He ,t was that built the ° f 

6. And the Persians served him and worshipped him as a o-od and 
■ ^S;;^ ^ndhewasthefirsttohunt^and 

Shem, the firstborn of Noah, who was thus named after the name of 
the first planet, winch is Cronus. 2. f And his son, named DonTs « 
was a warrior, a redoubtable man and a slayer (of men) 8 Hp 
was the first to rule over Persia and Ac ■ l°* men * 3 - Hfi 
a ■ reisia and Assyria : and he married an 

A-ymn woman, named Rhea, and she bare him twe sens, Picu 
whom they named Zeus,* and Ninns, who built a royal ity i„ 
Assyna, ,. e. Nmeveh. 4. And Cronus left his son in his kingdom 
and went to the west and ruled over the people (there) as theftd 
no bug 5. And Pjeus l„s son, who was named Zeus, rebelled 
hH££T S fathCr 6W **""" he -ad devoured 
Chapter VII. 1. And he made pregnant the daughter of fNikst 
h,s mother, who was named Rhea. And Pious, moreover, that £ 

the name is 'AvSovBdoios. 'AvAn >t > > 

Cash are di^peX! 'b^ ZZ 7^7 t N ^ A ^iu S and 

> Called Mm Orion. So John ■ ^ ^ Work " 

an E thi opic ^^^S^™**?- ^ «• 

ffr* to A**, A, Cf. Oknm. Pasck. 36 • John of Ant.' iv 541 

3 Shem. The manuscripts read 'Ham ' h,,f h <• /a, 

of is defined by the subsequent or I ^Jlb. rv f , * Pei ' S ° n Sp ° ken 
Greek chronographers so far as iTanV , ° f Noah '> and fch ^ all the 

of Shem, shows that the text 00™" The co^r ^ 3 
to our text. Thus ^ was co^ i n^r Pt, ° n ' ^ " ^ 

4 fffw son, named Domjosf. As Domj6s was the father fv\ ft fn „ ■ ~~ 
corrupt ; for even a few lines later the son of C™„ - 2- Cl ° nm ' th& text is 
(AW). Hence m ,v J a r SP ^- d ^ mnuS 
'His father's name was Domnus' TheLm." ■ ^ ° f ^ = 
then belong to Cronus. h ^T?^ * thi " ente ™ 
identified according to the ^t'lS:1^^^-"t? ,ma " « 

6 Zetts. In manuscripts which ;« rl„o f f u , 

Arabic 1. 17 , , . ' Wftlch ,s due to fa »lty transcription of the 
Aiabic asZotenberg has shown. For tho ,till „t.„ -nJ- 



VII. 2 

Zeus, was the first to take his sister to wife. 2. And he begat by 
her a son named Belus, who resembled his grandfather Cronus. 
3. And this Belus ruled in Assyria after the disappearance 1 of his 
father and his grandfather Cronns. 4. And him also after his death 
the Persians worshipped with the gods. 

Chapter VIII. 1. And after the death of Belus, Ninus his father's 
brother reigned over Assyria. 2. He married Semiramis his mother 
and made her his wife, and established this impure custom and 
transmitted it to his successors : and they are f designated by this 
evil name f 2 till the present day. 3. This conduct does not create 
a scandal amongst the Persians; for they take to wife their mothers 
and sisters and daughters. 

Chapter IX. 1. After the death of Picus, Faunus, called 
Hermes, ruled in the west for thirty-five years. 2. And he became 
a silversmith. He was the first to begin to work in gold 3 in the 
west, and to smelt it. 3. And when he learnt that his brothers 
were envious of him and wished to slay him, he became afraid and 
fled to Egypt, taking with him a great quantity of gold. 4. And 
he dwelt in Egypt and clothed himself in a beautiful robe of gold. 
5. And furthermore he became a diviner, for he declared everything 
before it came to pass, and he gave to people money in abundance 
and he gave gifts in abundance to the people of Egypt. 6. And 
for this reason they received him with honour and called him 'the 
Lord of gold\ And he was honoured by them as a god. And 
the poor worshipped him. 

Chapter X. 1. And there was a man named Hephaestus. He 
ruled over Egypt : and they made him a god. And he was warlike 
and full of fury. 4 2. And men believed that he investigated 
hidden things and received weapons of war from the non-existent; 5 

1 Text reads 'appearance': we must, therefore, add K. before Cf. 
Chron. Pascli. 30 a<pavijs tK tt/j 'Svpias ■yfvopevo , >. 

2 Corrupt. 

3 He was the first to begin to work in gold. The other chronographers give the 
sense differently, and no doubt rightly. John of Antioch, op. cii., iv. 542 
lipevpe to fieraWoi' to xpt/crow iv tt) 5vcrei yrpwroi, nal to -)(0)vtvnv : Chron. Pasch. 44. 

4 Warlike and full of fury. Cf. John of Antioch, op. oil., iv. 543 TroX(fiio-Tr)s ml 
fivcrTiKos (fxavTiieos in Cramer, op. cit., iv. 237). 

5 He investigated hidden things and received weapons of war from the non-existent. The 
original sense is, no doubt, that given in the Chron. Pasch. 45 and p.vOTUcri's twos 
fvXW T W o(v\a/37]v kdt£aro Ik tov aipos eh to KaTaoitivafyiv l/c ai5r]pov ouXa. Similarly 
John of Antioch. 

XV. r 



for he was an ironsmith and was the first to make weapons of war 
to fight with in time of war and stones wherewith men contended. 1 
3. Now he was lame; (for) when going to war he fell from (his) 
horse and was injured and was lame all his days. 

Chapter XI. 1. And Methuselah begat Lamech, and Lamech 
married two wives. The name of the one was Ada and the 
name of the other was Zillali. 2. And Ada bare Qabel and after 
some time she bare Tobel who wielded the hammer in working 
brass and iron. 3. And Tobel the son of Lamech was a brass and 
iron smith before the deluge; for he had received wisdom from 
God — Praise be to Him. 

Chapter XII. 1. And after Hephaestus, who was named the Sun, 
there reigned in Egypt his son who was named the Sun after his 
father's name. 2. It was he who built the city of the Sun after 
his own name, and in it there were temples of. the supreme gods 
and likewise the bodies of kings. 

• Chapter XIII. 1. And there was a man named Matunavis who 
succeeded Aiqasbera, which name is by interpretation Dionysus. 2 
2. He built a city in upper Egypt, named Busir, and another Busir 
in the north of Egypt. 

Chapter XIV. Osiris, which is by interpretation Apollo, being 
so named by the Greeks, built the city of Samnud and (in it) 
a temple of the supreme gods. And this is the city which is called 
Bab'el Eegor. 

Chapter XV. 1. In the writings of the Egyptian sages 'Abratus 3 
is mentioned ... at that time, (i. e.) he who was Hermes, a man of 
extraordinary judgement, through whom they declared among the 

1 In time of war . . . contended. This clause is corrupt. The original sense is 
that of John of Antioch : irpd yap avrov p"owa\ois «at \i9ois tiro\tfxovi>. So also 
Chron. Pasch., and Cramer, op. cit. 

2 Zotenberg conjectures that this chapter is an inaccurate resume of a passage 
in Diodorus Siculus (i. 17, 18) reproduced in Eusebius [Praef. Evang. ii. 1), 
containing an Egyptian myth to the effect that Osiris, whom some identified 
with Dionysus (teal top fxiv "Oaiptv that tov AtSvvaov), had, in his journejings 
through the world with his brother Apollo and his sons Anubis and Macedo 
(i. e. the corrupt Matunavis in our text), given the government of Phoenicia to 
Busirus and that of Ethiopia and Libya to Antaeus. 

3 'Abratus. Who this is is difficult to determine, the word being so corrupt. 
The passage in the Chron. Pasch. 47 runs : iv tois xpovois . . . Xto-uarpios -qv 'Epfxyjs 
6 rpiafttyiaros, 6 Alyvnnos avrjp <po(3epbs kv ao<piq. 'Abratus may thus be Sostris or 
even a mutilated form of rpianiywros. Zotenberg suggests that it is for 

c 2 


heathen saying : « There are three supreme powers that have created 
all things, (but only) one divinity/ 2. And this same Hermes, who 
was a gr eat sage among the heathen, declared, saying: 'The 
Majesty of the holy coequal Trinity is the Giver of life and King 
over all things.' 

Chapter XVI. 1. And there was a certain city that was the first 
to learn the use of the plough (and) the sowing of seeds and all 
kinds of grain. 2. It was the most elevated city in Egypt; for 
the land of Egypt is full of waters and lakes owing to the abundance 
of water in the river Gihon. 

Chapter XVII. 1. And Sesostris, who ruled over all the land of 
Egypt and the adjoining countries, was the first to levy taxes and 
to measure the land. 2. And when he had gathered together much 
booty and many captives from all countries, thereupon [gathering 
them together] he brought them to the land of Egypt : and all the 
souls over whom authority was given to levy taxes he made to dig 
channels in the land and to fill up all the waters of Egypt with 
earth. 3. And owing to this measure the Egyptians were enabled 
to plant plantations and plough arable lands like those of Said, 
which was the first province to learn the art of ploughing. 4. And 
besides he commanded (the people) to pay taxes and a proportionate 
return of the products of the earth to the king. 5. And he dug 
the canal which is called Dik unto this day. 1 

Chapter XVIII. 1. And after him Sabacon, king of India, 
reigned over the country of Egypt fifty years. 2. And he was a 
lover of his kind and was averse to shedding blood unjustly. And 
he established a law in Egypt to this effect, that no criminal should 
be put to death or torture ; but should be permitted to live : and 
every criminal according to his crime he ordered to purify the earth 
and to collect soil together and cast it upon the morasses (lit. river 
or sea). 3. And when they had been long engaged in these forced 
labours, the waters of the river retired from the land, and (the 
inhabitants) made their towns higher through fear of being 
inundated by the waters. 4. And previously indeed in the days of 
Sesostris there had been inundations before that they had dug 
channels in the land for the river. And yet, notwithstanding all 
they did in casting earth into the marshes, they failed to realize 
their purpose because of the great quantity of water brought down 
1 Cf. Herod, ii. 108-9; Diodorus Siculus, i. 56-7. 

xxr. i 



by the river. 5. And Sabacon, king of India, in the vigilance of 
his affection had dwellings made for the people on the heights. 1 

Chapter XIX. 1. And there was a man named Rampsinitus, 2 the 
Pharaoh who reigned over Egypt. 2. He (i. e. Cheops) closed 
the temples of the gods and the other idols which the Egyptians 
worshipped : and they sacrificed to demons. And he built three 
temples (i. e. pyramids) in the city of Menvphis and made the 
Egyptians worship the Sun. 3. And he paid the builders 16,000 
talents of silver besides leeks and vegetables; for so it was found 
written in the inscriptions in the Egyptian language, which were 
engraved on a stone wall and made known these facts to such as 
read (them). 4. And he paid away all the taxes and exhausted the 
royal treasuries owing to the multitude of builders — and yet to no 
good purpose. 5. For when he fell into great poverty and want 
he was sore troubled : he had a daughter of beautiful form (who) 
was stirred up by the practices and foul seductions of Satan, and 
he placed her in the quarter of the debauchees : and she dwelt there 
in obscurity and sorrow and became a prostitute. 6. And such as 
wished to lie with her had to carry one of the great stones and add 
it to the structure. 7. And the stone so carried measured, it is said, 
not less than thirty feet, i. e. twenty cubits. (So they did) until 
they had built one of the three pyramids by means of the shameful 
lust of this wretched girl. 

Chapter XX. 1. Heracles, a philosopher of the city of Tyre, 
discovered the art of making silk 3 and clothed himself (with it), 
2. And Phoenix, king of Tyre, the Canaanite, and all the kings of 
all countries, as well as his successors, did likewise and so became 
conspicuously distinguished from the multitude. 3. Now the 
clothing of the ancients was of wool, but the kings and chief rulers 
abandoned such clothing and clad themselves in silk. 

Chapter XXI. 1. And there was a man named Perseus.* He 
aspired to the throne of Assyria; but the sons of Ninus, the brother. 

1 Cf. Herod, ii. 137 ; Diod. Sic. i. 05. 

2 Here, is an internal corruption for C?i? v (l.*il n ll'. i.e. 'Pc^t- 
flviTos, in Herod, ii. 121. The next verse, however, refers to Cheops : cf. Herod, 
ii. 124. 

3 The chronographers only speak of his discovery of the purple dye : cf. 
John Mai. 32 'HpaicKfjs . . . icpevpe tt)v Koyx^W- 

* Text reads Nirus. The corruption has, as Zotenberg shows, arisen from a 
faulty transcription of an Arabic form which was itself corrupt. 



XXI. 3 

of his father Zeus/ were his rivals. 2. And when he came to 
Qorontos, there met him a young 1 girl, walking alone. 3. And he 
seized her by her hair and cut off her head with (his) sword, and 
placed it on the shield which he had according to the magic which 
his father Zeus had taught him. 4. And he carried it with him 
in all his warlike expeditions. 5. And after he had journeyed and 
gone down into 'Elbawna, he turned towards Assyria. And when 
the Lycaonians made war upon him, he took the head of the Gorgon 
the virgin magician and by displaying it before them vanquished 
them. 6. And he built the town of Iconium, which had previously 
been a small town named Amandra ; (and he called it Iconium) 
because he had set up formerly his statue (eUwv) near it together 
with the detestable Gorgon. 7. And when he came to Isauria, 
a city of Cilicia, and its people, moreover, warred against him, he 
vanquished them by the magical power residing in the head of the 
Gorgon. 8. And the village of Cilicia, named Andrasus, he made 
into a city and named it Tarsus. 9. And from Cilicia he went to the 
land of Assyria, and there moreover he slew Sardanapalus — now this 
is the name of a dignity. 10. And he disowned his claims of con- 
sanguinity and took possession of his kingdom as a spoil, and changed 
the name of the country, that is, Assyria, and named it Persia 2 after 
his own name and their kingdom by the second name. 11. And when 
he had taken away this name he planted trees there, called Persea, 
that is plums. 3 12. These trees, moreover, are planted to the present 
day in memory of his name. And the Persians were Assyrians at 
that time, and he reigned over them all during fifty and three years. 

13. And there was a great commotion and a hissing and much 
rain, and the river in Syria, named Orontes, was quickly filled. 

14. (And) he urged the Ionians 4 to make prayers, and when they had 

T Word corrupt here, as in vi. 

2 Changed the name of the country, that is, Assyria, and named it Persia after his own 
name. I get this excellent text by simply changing the order of three words. 
Thus instead of wClavf; fiCf; Um-k^OV". I read HfD-M-fflX; (\CJP-, (D(\ao£; 
Cf. John Mai. 37 Kal £n wo^an avrov he6\tcrtv avrovs Vlepffas, d(p(\6fievos and 
' ' Kouvp'iaiv rr\v 0a<xi\iiav Kal to ovofia. The text as it stands is absurd: 'changed 
the name of the country and named it Assyria, that is, Persia after his own name.' 

3 Hums, or 'peaches'. The word tbitttl'. is transliterated from the Arabic 

4 (And) he urged the Ionians to make prayers, and when they had offered supplications. 
These words are found in the manuscripts after the clause 'And Perseus was 

XXII. 4 



offered supplications there fell from heaven a globe of fire in the 
likeness of lightning-. 15. And the people became still and ceased to 
be indignant, and the Sowings of the river were stayed. 16. And as 
Perseus was surprised at what had befallen, forthwith from that 
tire he kindled a fire and preserved it. 1 17. And this fire he took 2 and 
brought to Persia on his return and placed it in the kingdom of 
Assyria. 18. And the Persians made it a god and honoured it and 
built it a temple and named it 'The immortal fire \ 19. And they 
say that fire is a son of the Sun enveloped in crystal, and the form 
of the crystal resembles the cotton tree (?), the colour of which is 
like water; for it is born from water and its interior resembles 

Chapter XXII. 1. Inachus of the race of Japhet, the son of Noah, 
who ruled in the west over the country of the Argives, was the 
first to rule over that country. 2. He paid honour to the Moon 
and made her a goddess. 3. And he built in the country of the 
Argives a city 3 named Iopolis after the name of the Moon ; for 
the Argives in their secret mysteries name the moon Io unto this 
day. 4. And he built a temple, and set up an altar in it, and he 

surprised at what had befallen' and before the clause 'forthwith from that fire 
he kindled a fire'. But since these two clauses form the protasis and apodosis 
of one and the same sentence, they must be taken together as in John Mai. and 
Chron. Pasch. (/cat Oavpaaas Irrt tw yeyovoTi 6 Tlcpatiis t£ t/cetVov tov irvpos tvQt&s 
avfift Tvp), and the intruding words removed. From the same authorities we 
learn that the intruding clause should be read before the words ' there fell from 
heaven', &c. Hence I have restored them to their original context. In the 
next place, the words rendered ' And he urged . . . supplications ' are in the 
manuscripts : J&ft: \\av x KlK&STtii H£l>(\C9>i fYflfi; ^Vrh^: Ptfay-jei; 
which = ' he said that the who did it were men of demoniacal appari- 
tions '. As this is impossible I have emended and restored the text by means 
of John Mai. : nrnatv tovs 'iwvhas tv£ao~6ac icai kv tw (vx eo ~& ai avrovs «oi ftvaraywytiv 
KaTT/vs'x0»7 <r<pa(pa trvpbs Kepavvov Ik tov ovpavov. Hence I propose : jE.fl>; JlffD; 

2tA£?Tft: fthrtt: a)Kat> { tWs wiA fcfVfr tifWls 

1 Forthwith from that fire he kindled a fire and preserved it. The text here is 
W(\Zlh7\ i&\ X<Vh WMl ?0^0; (YHft-; Vlt:=<and forthwith a fire was 
kindled and he preserved that fire'. But this is corrupt, and the text of 
John Mai., If tKiivov tov Trvpd<> evOews dvrjipf irvp koi <fxe fvKarTo/xevov /jk9' iavTov, 
shows that di^e was wrongly taken by the Arabic translator as intransitive. 
Hence I restore as follows: 07(12117: fcyfifH K^lfl K\&&\ Xflt; ff?N: 

2 And this fire he took, i.e. emending (D([}\'i-Yl *HTF; Iffr, = 'and on this 
account he took' into (DCl&W'i HTF; l^ttl Cf. John Mai. onep ndp 

8 ffVflSi't a transliteration of an Arabic word for city. 




represented the Moon by a brazen image, whereon he inscribed 
'Iw [xaKaipa, which is by interpretation, 'full of light'. 1 

Chapter XXIII. 1. And Libya, who was the daughter of Picus 
by her mother 2 Qalfmja, 3 became the wife of Poseidon, who ruled in 
the south. 2. And he named the country over which he ruled after 
the name of his wife Libya. And he begat by her Poseidon and 
Belus and Agenor. 4 3. And this (last), having gone to Canaan, 5 
took him a wife named Diro, and also built a city and named it 
Daims, that is Tyre, after the name of his wife. 4. And during 
his reign there he begat by her three sons, men of renown and 
founders, i. e. Syrus and Cilix and Phoenix who was the first to 
wear silk. 5. And when about to die he divided (his empire) 
among his three sons and made the land subject to them. 6. And 
Phoenix took Canaan and all the adjoining country and named it 
Phoenicia after his own name. 7. And the second took Syria and 
gave it his name, 8. And Cilix the third took his territory and Cilicia after his own name. 

Chapter XXIV. 1. And there was a man named Taurus, king- 
of Crete, and he made an expedition against Tyre about the hour 
of sunset, and attacked it, and made himself master of it, and took 
its riches and f led away captive many cities f. 6 2. And in that way 
he took Europa and made her his wife. For Taurus having made 
a night expedition by sea 7 returned to his own country, Crete, 8 
and having taken Europa to be his wife, he named that country 
after the name of his wife. 3. And he built a city there and 

1 Sense quite missed here. Cf. John Mai. 28 'Id ^d/catpa Xan-mjSacpopf. 

2 By her mother. The text gives ' with her mother 

3 Qalunjd. Should this be 'Io>, or MeAta the mother of 'lw ? Cf. John of Ant. 
"ivaxos . . . fiyayeTo yvvalua MeXiav. 

4 Agenor. The text gives fiftHM'ft; 

5 And this (last), having gone to Canaan. The text states that the sons of Poseidon 
were born ' in Canaan '. But the phrase ' in Canaan ' belongs to the next sen- 
tence. Hence with John Mai. 30 6 8e ^Ay-qvup km. tt)v $oiv'ikt]v t\9wv -r/yayero 
rrjv Tvpw /cat kt(£«( troXiv ^i/ 1/caAccre Tvpov (is uvofxa rrjs eavrov yapier^s, I have 
emended dMKlll COWVi Mi into (D*Ktt; M: <MK\\ 

6 Led away captive many cities. The true text is probably that in John Mai. 30 
(\a/3(v alxp-aAdirovi in rrjs -rroKfws noWovs. Hence for *flH*^i"; hWl'dl read 
•fltt^M; h^VlC'. 1 led away many captives from the city '. 

7 By sea. The text h.7 T} (\rhd is a mistaken rendering of 5<d 9a\daans. 

8 His own country, Crete. The text reads ' His own country Tarsus and Crete'. 
Here Tarsus is corrupt for Taurus. Cf. John Mai. 3.1 dn-qyaye Si rr\v Evpwinjy 
tis tt)v Idiav irarpida 6 Tavpos. 

xxvu. 7 



named it Gortyna after the name of his mother. Now she was 1 
of the race of Picus, i.e. Zeus. 

Chapter XXV. And there was a certain man named Laius. f His 
father was Waika,f> who, seeing that his son would have commerce 
with his mother, commanded his soldiers to suspend him on a tree 
of which they had cloven the branches in order that the feet of 
him that was suspended might be made fast in it. 

Chapter XXVI. 1. And there was a man named Seruch of the 
race of Japhet, the son of Noah. 2. He appears to have been the 
first of those who worshipped idols through the influence of Satan. 
And he set up altars to the idols and served them. 

Chapter XXVII. 1. And Melchizedek was found to be 3 holy 
though of Gentile origin, 4 and he served God and was chaste (and) 
without sin. 2. And Holy Scripture declares him to be without 
father and mother because he was not of the family of Abraham. 
3. And he hated his father's gods and made himself a priest of the 
living God. 4. He was descended from the race of Sidus, son of 
(Egyptus) the king of Egypt and Nubia, on whose account the 
Egyptians are (so) called. 5. Now Melchizedek signifies king of 
righteousness. 6. Now King Sidus, though a priest, ruled 5 over 
Canaan, being sprung of a powerful race, and the Egyptians so named 
him because of (the land of) the Canaanites, which is the land of 
Palestine until this day, 7. And when he warred with them, they 
submitted themselves to him, and as they were pleasing unto him, 
he dwelt in their country, and built a city and called it Sidon after 
his own name, which till the present day has been reckoned in 

1 Now she was. Text wrongly gives 'Now he was'. Cf. John Mai. fjv ereaX<a« 
Tvprvvav di ovofia rrjs avrov fmjrpos rrjs ex ytvovs IIikov Ai6s. 

2 His father was Waikd. So text hQ?l (Ofi-h*. But the manuscripts combine the 
two words. Hence the whole word may be a corrupt form of Labdacus, the father 
of Laius. Then read (<»&.£;) A-fl^ft: 'son of Labdacus'. Zotenberg finds 
Iokaste in fl0J&*l! The original text referred of course to the story of Oedipus. 

8 Was found to be. Head fifttCfi?: (for fifYrCfcri-:) which = thpior,. Cf. 

Chron. Pasch. i. 90 evptBus Si iv rrj (pv\rj avrov ayiov yevv^/xa : or three lines 
lower down wv de ayios (kuvos 6 avOpomos not Zinaios. 

4 Though of Gentile origin, and he served God. Our text is closely connected with 
John Mai. 57 sq. 'O Me\xiae5fK, dvfip Otoof0T)<>, iOviKos, Karayopfvos (K rov ykvovs 
2i'5ov, vlov AiyviTTov, 0aai\(ws rrjs AiQvrjs x^/** 5 ' «f °*> A(7i/7rno« nkKk-qvrai. bans 
2(5os Ik rrjs Myvvrov IvtXOwv wapiXa&t rfjv x<^P av r! » v tefopivav XararaW kOviKwv, 
tovt' tori, tt)v vvv Ktyofxtvtjv IlaA.aicrT(V?;i', «tA. 

8 Though a pried, ruled. So the manuscripts. 




Canaan. 8. Now as touching the father of Melchizedek who went 
forth from Sidon, we have learnt that such was his origin. But 
his father was an idolater and his mother likewise. And this holy 
man used to reprove his father and his mother for their idolatry. 
9. And afterwards he fled away and became priest of the living God 
as has been recounted. And he ruled over the Canaanites and built 
on Golgotha a city named Zion, i.e. Salem, a name which being 
interpreted means in the language of the Hebrews ( the city of 
peace \ 10. And he ruled over it one hundred and thirteen years and 
died, having preserved his chastity and righteousness as the wise 
Josephus, 1 the historian, has written in the beginning of his work 
on the history of the Jews. 11. For he was the first (to offer) 
sacrifices to the God of heaven and bloodless oblations of bread and 
wine in the likeness of the holy mysteries of our Lord Jesus 
Christ 2 ; as David has sung, saying : ' Thou art His priest for 
ever after the order of Melchizedek/ 3 12. And again he said: 
f God manifested Himself in Zion 4 and His name is great in Israel, 
and His place abideth in peace 5 and His dwelling is in Zion/ For 
the Jews learnt from Abraham the knowledge of God. 13. And 
Salem also, that is, Jerusalem, is named [Jerusalem] 6 because peace 
abideth in Zion, that is, Melchizedek. 14. And the Jews were 
called 7 Hebrews from Heber, from whom Abraham, the chosen 
vessel, was descended. 15. And when the rebels against God built 
the tower and laboured in vain in their impious designs, Heber 
indeed refused to join with them : he alone preserved without 
wavering his loyalty to God. 16. And when the confusion of 
tongues took place, Heber alone was not deprived of his speech 8 

1 The same reference with others is found in John Mai., loc. cit. 

2 Sacrifices . . . Jesus Christ. Cf. Syncellus i. 184 kv apra> ko.1 o'ivcu rrjv dvaiptaKrov 
Overlay rov . . . Xpiarov rov dX-qOivov Oeov «at "Zcorrjpoi fjp.wv irporvrtiuv. See also 
Chron. Pasch. 50. 

3 Thou art His priest for ever, dec. Ps. ex. 4. This particular form of the text is 
so far as I am aware peculiar to the Ethiopic version. 

4 God manifested Himself in Zion, <C-c. Ps. lxxvi. 1. 'Manifested' (hlli'Chl'.), 
here instead of 'known' ('VOcV-tyl), appears to be due to the Arabic Version. 
' In Zion ' seems to be peculiar to our author for ' in Judah '. 

5 His place abideth in peace. So Eth. Version. The ungrammatical *flfhȣ?: 
is found also in the manuscripts of the Pss. ' In peace' instead of 'in Salem' 
is found also in the LXX, Vulgate, and Arabic Versions. 

6 Named [Jerusalem']. The manuscripts wrongly insert ' Jerusalem '. 

7 Emended. 

8 Lit. 1 was left without being deprived of (or ' divided in '). 

XXX. r 



in its integrity and perfectness. 17. And his successors guarded 
the language of angels which Adam spoke. And for this reason 
they are called Hebrews and their language Hebrew. 

Chapter XXVIII. 1. There was a man named Hesiod of the race 
of Japhet, the son of Noah. 2. He invented Greek letters and was 
the first 1 to teach them. 3. It is told 2 that there was in the times 
of the kings of the country f in Lydia f 3 a certain philosopher 
descended from the children of the giants who were of the race of 
Japhet, named Endymion. 4. He, it is told, prayed in secret to 
the Moon, and they say that he learnt from the Moon in a vision 
the name of God. 5. And when he f went one dayf, 4 he heard the 
sacred name and thereupon he gave up the ghost and died and 
rose not again. 6. And his body is preserved unto this day 6 in the 
city of f Lydia f, and any one can see it once a year when they 
open the coffin in which it is. 

Chapter XXIX. 1. It is told that in the time of Joshua the son of 
Nun, a king named Ogyges ruled over Attica, and that there was 
a great deluge in that country only. And the king himself perished 
and the inhabitants of that country. 2. And it became a desert 
and no man dwelt therein for two hundred and six years, 6 as 
Africanus has recorded in his chronicle. 

Chapter XXX. 1. And in the days of Moses the lawgiver, the 
servant of God who led the exodus of the children of Israel out of 

1 Was the first to teach them. In the manuscripts the word 'first' is wrongly 
connected with the previous sentence. Cf. John Mai. 59 k£tvpf tcL 'EKKrjvwv 
ypappiara ical . . . f((6ero tois "EK\r]<ri irpairos. 

3 It is told that there was, Ac. Tho text in the manuscripts is rery confused. 
I have followed Zotenberg's restoration. The original was very closely related 
to John Mai. 61 kv S« tois XP^ V0IS t ^ v (SaaiKtcav toiv irpoyeypapptvaiv dve(pavr] ris 
kv rfi Kapia x^P 0 } yiyavroyevty <ptk6ao<pos iic ttjs <pv\fjs rov 'Ia<pe9, ovopari 'Evdvpucw 
'6<TTis pivariKas (vxas \eycuv eh otk-qvrjv rjrti avrty paOtiv trap' avrrjs to Be'iicbv ovopa 
kv opaptari. real kv ra> (ijx*o~0ai ?j\0(v th virvov koX r)Kovcrt rb 6e'inbv ovopa kv opapiari. 
ical ov/dri dvkcTTT}, a\\' karl rb Xdxpavov avrov tcus rrjs vvv els rr)v Kapiav kt\. Cf. 
John of Antioch, op. cil., iv. 547. 

3 This should be ' in Caria '. See Greek in preceding note. 

4 Since the Greek (see note 2) has here r)\0ev et's virvov, our text is apparently 

0 The words 'unto this day' are transposed in the manuscripts to the pre- 
ceding clause. They are restored here in accordance with the Greek (see 
note 2). 

6 Africanus does not give the number, but John of Antioch (iv. 547) and John 
Mai. (62) give 270 years. Each author quotes Africanus as his authority. 



XXX. 2 

Egypt, f in the days of Petissonius, that is, Pharaoh Amosius, king 
of Egypt, who ruled by the help of the book of the magicians 
Jannes and Jambres, who wrought shameful things before the 
mighty Moses, who talked with God — for this reason, they say, 
they were not willing to let the children of Israel go after the 
signs and the wonders which were wrought by his staff, f 1 2. Now 
(Petissonius) went to the diviners who were in Memphis and to 
the celebrated oracle and offered sacrifice. 3. And when one of the 
Hebrews asked the diviner Taninus (Who is first among you ? he 
answered :) 2 ' He who is in heaven, the Immortal, the Eirst : before 
whom the heavens quake and likewise the earth and all the seas 
fear, and the Satans are affrighted and but a few angels stand ; for 
He is the creator of powers and measures.'' 4. And Petissonius 
inscribed this oracle on a tablet and placed it in the temple of the 
gods near the water-measure whereby they learn the volume of the 
Nile. 5. We should recount that, when the temple was already 
destroyed : this tablet was the only one in Egypt that was still 
unbroken till the foundations of the idol temples were overthrown, 
and it was no longer possible for any one to maintain the temple of 
Memphis. 6. It was only through the power of our Lord Jesus 
Christ that all the temples were destroyed. 7. Now this mad 
Petissonius, that is, the Pharaoh Amosius, was overwhelmed in the 
Red Sea together with his horses and horsemen. 8. And when, 
after the children of Israel had gone forth from Egypt, he learnt 
that they had taken (with them) the riches of the Egyptians— 
a thing they had done with the approval of God and in accordance 
with His law ; for the children of Israel had taken the riches of 
the Egjrptians in compensation for the heavy labours which had 
been imposed upon them without intermission — Pharaoh was rilled 
with indignation. 9. Thereupon he went forth in pursuit of them 
with his army. And he was overwhelmed in the sea with his 
followers and there was not one left. 10. And the children of 
Israel marched in the sea as on dry land, and they came to the place 
where God willed : for. He is the conqueror of all the elements of 
creation. — Glory be to Him. 11. And, after the Egyptians had 
been destroyed, those who remained worshipped demons and forsook 
God, Those unhappy ones destroyed themselves and became like 

1 Corrupt. Text translated as it stands. 

3 Supplied from Cramer, iv. 241 aa<p-fjvia6v /xoi t'is Iotiv npS/Tos v/xwv. 




unto the angels who rebelled against God, and they worshipped the 
work of their own hands. 12. Some worshipped the cow, and some 
the ox, and some the dog and also the mule : and some the ass, and 
some the lion : and some fish, and some the crocodile : and some the 
leek and many other like things. 13» And they named their cities 
of Egypt after the name of their god k And they worshipped the 
fbuildingsf of Busir andManuf and SamnM and Sahraisht and Esna 
and of the Tree and of the Crocodile. And they gave divine honours 
to fthe building of many cities f 1 and likewise to the storm. 

Chapter XXXI. 1. And during the time of him who first 
reigned over the Egyptians, when they served idols and such 
creatures as have already been mentioned and as regards the 
celebrated city Absai, that is, Nakius, and its king was named 
Prosopis, a name which being interpreted means ' Lover of the 
deities with three faces ' — now he lived on the west bank of the 
river and he was continually at war with the barbarians who were 
named Mauritanians who came from the five countries. 2 2. And 
when these came in wrath, the inhabitants warred vigorously 
against them and slew many of them. 3. And in consequence of 
this happy victory, (the barbarians) did not for a long period come 
again against the city) through the mercy of God who by the 
mighty power of his Godhead hath made all things to come into 
being out of nothingness. 4. And the great river of Egypt was 
named Chrysorroas by the Greeks but it is named Gihon in the 
book that is inspired by God. 5. Now this river flowed (anciently) 
to the east of the city, but it changed its course from the east to 
the west of the city, and the city became like an island in the 
midst of the river like a plantation of trees named Akrejas, that is, 
the myrtle. 

Chapter XXXII. 1. And as for Jerusalem which had been built 
by Melchizedek its king under the sway of the Canaanites, that is, 
the Philistines, Joshua the son of Nun subdued it and called it 
Jehus. 2. And he dwelt in Shechem,' for he had subdued all the 
adjoining country. And this (city) is named Nablus unto this 
day. 3. And in the days of the wise kings David and Solomon, 
David prepared all the building materials for the building of the 
holy temple of God, and Solomon built it in Jerusalem. 4. And he 

1 Cor nipt. 

This passage is corrupt. 


called it the city of the sanctuary on account of the consecration 
and the sacrifices according to the law and the abundance of 

righteousness and because our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ 

praise be unto Him — underwent the passion there. 

Chapter XXXIII. And in the days of the Judges, there was 
a judge of the Greeks named UavoTTT^, who was so named in regard 
to the hundred piercing eyes with which he beheld afar and saw 
better than all men. He was the first to devise in a city of the 
west all manner of handicrafts. 

Chapter XXXIV. 1. Prometheus and Epimetheus discovered 
a stone tablet with an inscription which had been written and 
engraved in the days of the ancients. 2. And Elijah the prophet 
interpreted the verses. So the Greeks (have recounted) this saying 
that on account of this he ascended to heaven and that what had 
been in heaven was in his heart. 3. And Deucalion, moreover, 
wrote a detailed history 1 of what had happened in the days of the 
deluge and the strange events (of that time). 

Chapter XXXV. 1. And after the deluge in Attica, the 
sovereignty passed into the hands of the Athenians. 2. And there 
ruled there a man named Elwates 2 and he established the (common) 
meal as a legal institution. 3. And he was also the first to ordain 
that all men should take as their wives young virgins and name them 
spouses : and that they should dig a fountain in a hidden place in 
order to cause milk to spring (from the earth) in abundance as 
a visible stream. 4. Now before his reign the women of Attica 
and the Ath enians lived in unclean intercourse and male was 
joined to male. And they were like beasts : each lusted (after 
the other) and none had a woman to himself; but they ravished 
with wicked violence as we have already recounted. 5. And they 
knew not their own offspring, either their male or female. And 
who eould have known, seeing that none of them had fathers and 
all whom they bare 3 were begotten by all. Owing to their 
promiscuous intercourse they could not know whether they had 
male or female offspring. And they were all pleased with this 
unclean mode of living. 6. As Cecrops the author of the prescript 
in bis law has said : 'This country of Attica will be destroyed bv 
a deluge from God.' 7. And after this time they became wise and 

1 =' chapters and history '. 2 = Cecrops (?). 

3 Slightly emended. 

XL. r 



conformed to the law of marriage, the men and the women. 
8. And Cecrops was highly honoured and esteemed all his days, 
and he brought it about that the children knew their fathers, as 
was befitting. 

Chapter XXXVI. 1. And in these days lived Orpheus of Thrace, 
the lyric poet of the Odrysae, 1 called the great sage among the 
Greeks. 2. He expounded to them that which is called the 
Theogony, which being interpreted in their language means 'The 
combatant of God', which things are recounted by the chronicler 
Timothy. 3. He said : ( Before all time was the holy Trinity 
coequal in one Godhead, Creator of all things/ 

Chapter XXXVII. 1. It is said that certain savants of the 
Athenians were the first to practise the art of medicine. 2. Indeed 
the philosophers were the first who made known the noble art of 
using medicines which agreed with the stomach. 3. And many 
people go to Athens for the sake of this art also, for it flourishes 
there until this day. 

Chapter XXXVIII. 1. King Solomon the son of David was the 
first to build baths and places for reading and instruction in every 
place under his dominion; for he had the demons subject to him. 

2. Now he enjoyed this privilege before he provoked God the Lord 
of all through the strange women who lived with him. These 
j)olluted Jerusalem with their gods. 

Chapter XXXIX. 1. In the days of the Judges also there arose 
in Phrygia a philosopher named Marsyas. 2. He was the first to 
play upon the flute and the horn and the drum (?). And he 
deafened the ears of men and made himself out to be a god, 
saying : ' I have found food for man by means of a small member/ 

3. And God was wroth with him and punished him and he became 
insane and cast himself into the river and perished. 

Chapter XL. 1. And in those days also lived the hero Heracles 
and the Argonauts, the people that were with Jason. 2 And they 

1 The words hCtf\\ M", M: XWibhi ntCfcfl; appear to be a tran- 
scription of 'Opcpevs 6 @p5£ 6 Xvpacds 'OSpwatos and to reproduce twice the Coptic 
article (Zotenberg). Cf. John Mai. 72. 

2 The hero Heracles and the Argonauts, the people who were with Jason. Here 
ifiJ^J-Cl is probably corrupted from 6 %pws, and (VIP: a corruption of 

i.e. 'Idaajv 'Jason'. So far Zotenberg. But another corruption lurks in the 
text. The words t^hjPff^: AS^JP^': ( = 'they helped the sailors') 
appear due to a misconception of 'Apjovavrai, whereby this word was taken as 



XL. 3 

went to the Hellespont. 2. And the people (of the Hellespont) had 
a king- named Cyzicus. And they attacked and slew the king 
Cyzicus without knowing- it. 3. And when they learned (this), 
they were grieved ; for they were all his kinsmen (and he was 
sprung) from their country. 4. And after they had attacked 
Cyzicus, who was called the lord of the seven images, and won the 
victory (they built a temple in Cyzicum, and) 1 named its name 
llhea, which is by interpretation, mother of the gods. 5. It is told 
(further) that they went to the place of those who announced 
(oracles) and to the seat of the elders and asked one of them, 
saying : c Prophesy to us, 0 prophet, servant of Apollo, of what 
nature this building will be and to whom shall it belong.'' 6. And 
they presented gifts to him who spake to them and he said unto 
them : ' There are three (Persons) but one God only. And behold 
a virgin will conceive His word, and this house will be His and 
His name shall belong to thousands/ 7. And the idolaters wrote 
down this prophecy on a fragment of marble with a brazen pen, 
and they placed it in one of the temples. 8. After these times in 
the days of the Godloving emperor Zeno, this temple was con- 
verted into a church, dedicated to the holy Virgin Mary, the 
Mother of God. 9. This the emperor Zeno did at his own costs. 
And thus was accomplished the prophecy of the demons who 
proclaimed the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Chapter XLI. 1. The Argonauts sailed to the Hellespont to an 
island named Principus. 2. Thence they went to Chalcedon and 
sought to pass into the sea of Pontus. 3. But the inhabitants 
brought with them a man of valour and fought with them. 
(And) he gained the mastery and overcame them. 4. And fearing 
the wrath of this man, they fled to a very desolate extremity of 
the coast. 5. And they saw a mighty portent from heaven which 
resembled a man with great wings on his shoulders after the 
likeness of a very terrible eagle. 6. And it said unto them : 
' When ye fight with Amycus ye will overcome/ And when 
they heard these words from the apparition which they saw, they 

a. common noun compounded of dpr/yw and vavrai, and thus arose the rendering 
in our text 'helped the sailors'. This restoration is confirmed by John Mai. 
77 kv 5e rofs naipois rov ®Si\a 'HpaKXiji 6 ijpa>s koi ol ' Apyovairai ol trtpl 'lacroia . , . 
oirtvts dv'tovTti rov "EWrjavovTOV. 
1 Restored by Zotenherg. 

XLII. 3 



took courage and fought and overcame him and slew him. 7. And 
they honoured that place where they had seen the mighty figure, 
and they built there a temple and they placed in it a statue 
resembling the apparition they had seen. 8. And they named 
this temple Sosthenium because they had sought refuge there 
and were saved. And so they name it unto this day. 9. And 
in the days of Constantine, the greatest and most illustrious of 
Christian emperors, the servant of Jesus Christ, when he first 
established the seat of empire in Byzantium, that is in Rome, 
he came to the Sosthenium to close the temple of the idols to 
be found there. 10. And when he saw the statue which was in 
it, he at once recognized that it was the statue of an angel. 
And as his thoughts were troubled with doubts he prayed and 
besought our Lord Jesus Christ in whom he trusted, saying: 
'Make me to know, O Lord, whose image this is/ 11. And 
thereupon he fell asleep and heard in a vision that the image 
was the image of! S. Michael the archangel. 12. Having learnt 
that it was he who had sent people to fight Amycus the emperor 
caused this temple to be adorned and commanded them to turn 
it to the east and [commanded them] to consecrate it in the name 
of the archangel Michael. 

13. And numerous miracles were wrought in this (temple) 
through healings of the sick. And after that Christians began to 
build churches in the name of S. Michael the chief of the angels. 
And they offered in them holy offerings unto God. 

Chapter XLII. 1. It is said touching the holy nails which were 
found in the cross of our Saviour Jesus Christ and with which 
his holy body was nailed, that the holy, Godloving Constantine 
took one of them and fixed it in the saddle 3 of his horse; and 
the second he made into a bit for his horse; and the third he 
cast into the pass of Chalcedon. 2. For they were in grievous danger 
till by means of this holy nail the waves of the sea, yea all 
the waves of the ocean, were quieted. 3. And the empire made 
itself strong in the city of Constantine. Now in the days of 
Zeno the empire had had its seat in Rome. Afterwards the 
(two) empires were united in one by a decree of the Senate. 2 

1 An Arabic word. After 'horse' the translator adds the words 'which is 
a saddle' — the word being different from the former. 

2 Here Wd.gfr: should be written fl^'iT; It is here a rendering of 
oiyichriTo's, being elsewhere a rendering of arpand, oxAoy, avvaywyq, &c. 



XLH. 4 

4. For one (of these) had been established on account of the con- 
tinual outbreaks of the barbarians, and the other in accordance with 
the counsel of the prefects in order that they might have another 
authority in Asia. 

Chapter XLIII. 1. And in the days of Samson the last of the 
Judges, Lapathus ruled in the land 1 of Aegistheus. 2 And he had 
two sons, whose names were Achaius and Lacon. 3 2. And he 
divided the provinces of his kingdom into two parts, one half for 
himself and the other half for his sons. 3. And when he died, one 
province was named Achaia after the name of his eldest son, and 
the other was named Laconia after the name of the younger son 
(and such are their names) unto this day. 

Chapter XLIV. 1. And at that epoch there reigned in Hellas a 
king whose name was Pelops. 2. After this man the Hellenes 
called the kingdom Peloponnesian by his name unto this day. 4 
3. And he built a city and they named it Peloponnesus after his 
name. And the name of his kingdom is Hellas unto this day. 

Chapter XLV. 1. And there was a man named Bilawon. He 
built the city Farma after his own name. 2. And Priam built the 
city of Malkibinun ( = Ilium?), in Phrygia ... in the city of 
Sparta in the country of Hellas, when he came there. 

Chapter XLA r I. And there was a wise and sagacious man named 
Palamedes. He was the first to teach the arts of playing on the 
harp and lyre 5 and the flute and all manner of musical instruments. 

Chapter XLV II. 1. And Tros, also, who ruled over the country 
of Phrygia 0 . . . before that he had slain Priam and Hecuba, and he 
slew their young men and plundered their royal palaces that it 
might be a memorial unto him, and this city came under his power, 
and he named it Enderjun. 2. And Setabarja of Panton he named 
Asia of the Ephesians. 7 It was named . . . which is now Saqilja 

1 Emended by Dillmann. 

2 This identification is most doubtful. The Ethiopic is hfLfi-llrl 

3 Correct form, though transliterated from the acc. 

4 The original meaning is no doubt that in John Mai. 84 sq. ffiaaiXtvatv 6 
TltKoip . . . If ov Kal neXonovvqcrtoi iKK-fjOrjaav ol 'EWaoiKoi . . . (ktots ical rieAo- 
txovvt\ciov oc\t}9t] to Paal\eiov 'EWaSos. I have emended 'YhV 1 ', into ^17^*1"; 

5 According to Guidi's Amharic Lexicon this is a lyre of ten strings. 

0 After Phrygia there seems to be a lacuna. The text is full of confusion. 
Zotenberg does not attempt a rendering. 

7 Of. John Mai. 108 eniaravrts tj) x<*W T ^ y ^pvyaiv i^cnopdrjcrav ra avraiv 
PaaiXeta . . . vapa\a(36vres Xlpiafiov @aot\(a Kal (povivaavra avrov Kal 'EKapT]v 



(= Sicily ?), and it became a great island and its earlier name was 

Chapter XL VIII. 1. And Solomon the son of David, king of 
Israel, built a great structure in f Bilimiktunf 1 in the midst of the 
city to be a memorial unto him in order that his name and the name 
of his father should not be forgotten. 2. And he gave it to a man 
named Aiwani, which is by interpretation in the language of 
Canaan ' light', but he named the structure Palmyra. 3. Indeed 
it was in that place that David his father, the strong and mighty 
one, was victorious when he slew and was victorious over Goliath 
the Philistine. 4. It is for this reason that he appointed its name 
to be Mezad in order that strange peoples (azmad) might dwell 
therein. And a great number of Jewish soldiers dwelt there. 
5. And Nebuchadnezzar king of Persia took this city, having to 
expend much toil and severe effort before he could take it and 
burn it with fire. And he caused the memorial of it to disappear 
till this day. 

Chapter XLIX. 1. And (he took) the city Tyre also, which is an 
island surrounded by water. And he put forth many a mighty 
effort to take it. 2. And he commanded his soldiers, the cavalry 
and foot-soldiers, and all the Persians to cast earth into the arm of 
the sea which surrounded it. 3. And they filled it with earth till 
the water of the sea dried up and (the strait) became as land. And 
by these means Nebuchadnezzar the king of the Persians was able 
to take this city. 

Chapter L. 1. And at the time of the Captivity which took place 
through Nebuchadnezzar — he was commanded to do so by God and 
a force of angels was given to him — before Nebuchadnezzar had 
come and burnt the sanctuary of God with fire, Jeremiah, 2 a prophet 
great among the prophets and a lover of that which is good, went 
into the second chamber which is called the Holy of Holies, and took 
the ark of God which was covered with gold, without and within, 

fiaoiX'iba' tovs 8« avruiv iraidas al^/naXd/Tovs flX^ores teal ttavra ra 0acri\(ia diapira- 
aafitvoi vrrecTTptipav . . . uaretrxev ovv rj fiaaiKda 'Etyftrov rrjs 'Aaias jraor/s kcu Tpolrjs 
tt)s $pvylas. Also 200 B 6 Tpwos 0acri\(w tis fiv^jajy avrov . . . rrju irp&rji' 
\(yof*£v7)V 'Emrponov ■fjv /xeT(Ka\eaev 'Aaiav. 

1 Zotenberg conjectures that this word is a transliteration of kv rS> Xifx'iTw — 
' on the border'. He compares John Mai. 143 itcTiat 5£ kcu \v tw Atpirai ■noXiv 
fjv kicaKeae Tla\fioTpay. Possibly it is a corruption of XlaXpioTpa. 

2 The text is very confused. 

I) 2 



L. 2 

and the glorious objects which were in it, 1 i. e. the tables of the 
law, and the golden box of manna, and Aaron's rod which bore 
almonds, and the stone from the hard rock, from which Moses 
bad given the people to drink when they thirsted. 2. And, 
moreover, Moses the prophet carried this stone as he went before 
the people in their journey through the wilderness, according to 
the commandment of God. 3. And as often as the people thirsted, 
he cast it upon the earth and smote it with the rod, and water 
came forth and the people were satisfied and all the cattle. 

4. And Jeremiah took those objects and the stone, and went hastily 
to the rock and hid them there until this day. 5. And on the 
second coming of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who will be 
preceded by the sign of the cross, this ark borne by angels will 
appear, and Moses also who made it will come and Jeremiah who 
hid it in the rock. 6. When the dead shall rise, the sign of the 
cross will appear and after it our Lord Jesus Christ who was 
crucified — glory be unto Him. 7. And these words are to be found 
in the teaching of S. Epiphanius, our light-giving father, bishop of 
Cyprus, who has written in his book a complete history of th6 
prophets after the overthrow of Jerusalem and the disappearance of 
the kingdom of Judah. 

Chapter LI. 1. Cyrus the Persian overcame Astyages and 
Cyrus became king 2 . . . that is, Cambyses. 2. And Croesus was 
stiffnecked and overweening. And all the kingdoms afar off and 
close at hand had submitted to him. 3. And the peoples that were 
subject to him paid him tribute and dwelt in peace. But those 
which resisted him, he led away captive, and spoiled their posses- 
sions and made himself master of their territories. For he was 
very great and formidable and victorious. 4. And Cyrus was 
disquieted in heart ; for he had a wife named Bardane, who had 
previously been the wife of Darius the successor of Belshazzar. 

5. She spake, saying : ' We have amongst us a prophet of the 
Hebrews named Daniel, in whom is the wisdom of God. He 
belongs to the captivity of the children of Israel. 6. Now Darius 
used to do nothing without his counsel, and every thing that he 
declared to him (beforehand) was accomplished/ 7. And when 
Cyrus heard these words he sent to Daniel the prophet and had 

1 Cf. 2 Mace. ii. 4-8 ; 2 Baruch vi-viii. 

2 Zotenberg rightly recognizes a lacuna here. 

Li. i 8 



him brought with honour, and he asked him and said unto him : 
' Shall I conquer Croesus or not ? > 8. But he was silent and did 
not speak for the space of an hour. And thereupon he spake, 
saying : < Who can know the wisdom of God ? ' And then Daniel 
the prophet prayed and besought the Lord his God to reveal unto 
him whether he (Cyrus) could resist this rapacious (and) overween- 
ing Croesus. 9. And God said unto him : < If he sends back the 
captivity of the children of Israel, he shall surely conquer and take 
to himself the power of Croesus.' 

10. And when he heard these words from God, he told Cyrus 
that he should conquer Croesus if he sent back the children of 
Israel. 11. And when Cyrus heard these words he cast himself at 
Daniel's feet and sware, saying : < As the Lord thy God liveth, 
I will send Israel back to their city Jerusalem, and they shall serve 
the Lord their God/ 12. And Cyrus, in accordance with his duty 
to God, heaped benefits upon Israel and sent them back (to their 
own country). 

13. Now Croesus went out with a great army to war against the 
provinces of Cyrus. And having crossed the river of Cappadocia 
in order to slay Cyrus, Cyrus put him to shame and 1 he was not 
able to escape secretly because of the river confronting him. 14. In- 
deed when Croesus came to this river, a large multitude of his 
soldiers were speedily overwhelmed (in it); but he himself was not 
able to cross ; for God had delivered him into Cyrus's hands by this 
means. 15. And Cyrus's soldiers pursued him and took him alive 
and seized him and put him in chains, and slew of his army 40,000 
men. And Cyrus had his adversary Croesus suspended on a tree, 
and the rest of his army he humiliated and shamed. 16. As for 
the Jews and their king he sent them off that they might return 
to their own country as he had promised to Daniel the prophet. 

17. And when Cyrus returned into Persia, he settled 2 all the 
affairs of his government and appointed his son Cambyses to be 
king over Persia and Babylon. And he was a bad man, and he 
rejected the wisdom of his father and the worship of the Lord God. 

18. And Apries moreover was king of Egypt and dwelt in the city 
of Thebes and in Memphis and in two (other) cities, Muhil and 

1 There is no need for the addition of three words to the text by Zotenberg 
It is only necessary to excise the CO before IbClStl'. and place it before h.W((\ 
3 The text reads O0 t M" A ', which I have emended into Wt\l([; 



LT. 19- 

Sufiru. 19. And in those clays, in consequence of the intrigues of the 
neighbouring peoples Cambyses sent to Jerusalem and gave orders (to 
his officers) to restrain them (the Jews) from rebuilding the sanctuary 
of God. 20. And afterwards he made an expedition to Egypt 
with a great (and) innumerable army of horse and foot from Media. 
21. And the inhabitants of Syria and Palestine got ready to oppose 
him (but in vain), and he destroyed not a few but many cities of 
the Jews, for he was supreme over all the world. 22. And in the 
pride of (his) heart he changed his name and named himself Nebu- 
chadnezzar. And his disposition resembled that of a barbarian, 
and in the evil counsel of his desire he hated mankind. 23. And 
his father Cyrus had been great and honoured before the living 
God, and had commanded that they should build the temple of 
God in Jerusalem with (all) vigilance and zeal, what time he had 
sent Joshua the high priest, the son of Jozadak and Zerubbabel, 
that is Ezra, and all the captivity of Judah that they might return 
to the land of the Hebrews and Palestine. 24. But Cambyses, that 
is, Nebuchadnezzar the second, and Belshazzar burnt the holy city 
Jerusalem and the sanctuary according to the prophecies of the 
holy prophets Jeremiah and Daniel. 25. And after they had burnt 
the city Cambyses came to Gaza and got together troops and all 
the materials of war, and he went down into Egypt to war against 
it. And in the war he gained the victory and he captured the 
Egyptian cities Earma and Sanhur and San and Basta. And he 
captured Apries, the Pharaoh, alive in the city of Thebes and he 
slew him with his own hand. 

26. Now there was in Egypt a warrior named Fusid who 
practised righteousness and hated iniquity. When there was war 
between the Persians and Egyptians, he had gone and fought 
in Syria and Assyria and he had taken four sons of Cambyses 
prisoner as well as his wives — in all forty souls. 27. And he 
bound them and burnt their houses and took all that they had 
captive and brought them to the city of Memphis and he imprisoned 
them in the palace of the king. 28. And when a second war arose 
between the Assyrians and Egyptians, the Assyrians proved the 
stronger and gained the mastery over the Egyptians and took the 
palace which is in the city of Thebes. 29. And the Assyrian 
soldiers shot arrows, and, as they shot, an arrow smote the warrior 
Fusid on the right side. But the Egyptian soldiers carried off the 

LI. 39 



warrior Fusid from the Assyrians, before he died. And he lived 
but an hour more and after this died and left a memory to those 
that came after. 30. But the Egyptians were moved with fear 
because they had lost such a warrior as Fusid. And for this reason 
they fled for refuge into the city Sais, because it was a strong city 
and its fortifications stronger than those of the others. 31. And 
Cambyses attacked this city a second time and carried 1 it by storm 
and destroyed 1 it. And he captured all the other cities of lower 
Egypt towards the north to the sea coast and plundered them of all 
their possessions and destroyed their cities and neighbourhoods and 
burnt their houses with fire and left neither man nor beast living. 
32. And he cut down their trees and destroyed their plantations 
and made the land of Egypt a desert. And returning in the 
direction of Rif he warred against the city of Memphis, and he 
conquered the king who was in it. 33. And the city of Busir also, 
which lies below Memphis, he destroyed and annihilated and took 
its possessions as a booty, and burnt it with fire and made it a 
desert. 34. And the sons of the kings which survived fled for 
refuge to another city, the nearest at hand, (even) into its citadel 
and closed the gates of the fortress. 35. And the Assyrians 
besieged this citadel and carried it by storm by night and destroyed 
the city of Memphis the great. 36. And one of the kings of 
Egypt, named Muzab, had sent in secret to his son, named Elkad, 
bidding him to bring all his wealth and that of all his officers 
and of the forty wives of Cambyses, that is, Nebuchadnezzar, even 
those which had been brought by Fusid the captain. 37. And they 
opened the gates of the fortress by night, and they took and led 
them forth into the desert by another way which the people knew 
not. And the four sons of Cambyses the inhabitants of the city 
of Memphis led back, and they made them ascend to the summit of 
the fortress and cut them in pieces and cast them to the base of the 
fortress where Cambyses was. 38. And when the soldiers of Cam- 
byses saw this evil thing which the inhabitants of the city of 
Memphis had done, they were filled with wrath and warred against 
the city without mercy. 39. And they set up engines against it 
and destroyed the palaces of the kings, and they slew without 
mercy the children of the kings Muzab and Sufir and all the chiefs 
of the army which were found in the city. 

1 I have transposed these words in the text. 



LI. 40 

40. And when (Elkad) was informed of the death of his father, 
he fled into Nubia. And Camhyses also destroyed the city of On 
and upper Egypt as far as the city Eshmun. And the inhabitants 
of this city on learning- (of his approach) were seized with fear and 
fled into the city of Eshmunin. 41. And they sent to Nubia to 
Elkad the son of Muzab, asking- him to come unto them that they 
might make him king in the room of his father. For he had 
formerly made war against the cities of Assyria. 42. And there- 
upon Elkad gathered a large army of Ethiopians and Nubians and 
warred against the army of Cambyses on the eastern bank of the 
river Gihon. But the Ethiopians were not able to make the passage 
of the river. 43. And the Persians, full of stratagems, wheeled about 
as though intending to flee. Then in the early part of the night 
they crossed the river with vigilance and took possession of the city 
and destroyed it before the army of Elkad were aware. 44. And 
when they had completed the destruction of the city Eshmunin they 
march into upper Egypt, and laid waste the city of Assuan. And 
they crossed to the opposite bank belonging to the city Ahif, and they 
destroyed Phile as they had done the other cities. 45. And they 
turned back to the cities and provinces which still remained, and 
they ravaged them and burned them with fire till all the land of 
Egypt became a desert and there was no longer found in it a moving 
creature, neither a man nor even a bird of the air. 46. Then Elkad 
king of Egypt devised another plan, he and all that had not been 
annihilated by the Persians. And they proceeded and came upon 
Cambyses at some distance off, and they took with them gifts and 
harps and drums and timbrels 1 and prostrated themselves before 
him and besought him that they might receive from him mercy and 
friendship. 47. And Cambyses showed mercy to the Egyptians 
that survived who had come to offer their submission, and he had 
compassion on them and led them away to Media and Babylon. 
And he appointed as their ruler one of their own number. 48. And 
as for Elkad he did not take from him his royal crown but estab- 
lished him on the royal throne and did not lead him away with him. 

49. And the number of the Egyptians whom Cambyses led away 
with him were 50,000, besides women and children. And they lived in 
captivity in Persia forty years, and Egypt became a desert. 50. And 
after devastating Egypt, Cambyses died in the city of Damascus. 

1 An Arabic word. 

LI. 60 



And the wise (and) great Artaxerxes reigned eight years, and he 
was not wanting in love either to God or man. 51. And he com- 
manded Nehemiah the cupbearer 1 to build the walls of J erusalem, 
and he dealt kindly with the Jews, because Cyrus and Darius had 
honoured the God of heaven, and served Him. And for this reason 
he supported all the enterprises of the Jews. 52. And as for the 
Egyptians he dealt kindly and well with them and made them 2 
officers in order to take counsel with his prefects. And later he 
sent back the Egyptians to their own country in the one and 
fortieth year of their captivity and the devastation of their country. 
53. And when they returned they began to build houses in their 
several cities : they did not construct great houses as formerly but 
small houses wherein to dwell. And they planted trees and vines 
in abundance. 54. And they set over themselves a king named 
Eiwaturos in compliance with the command of Artaxerxes the humane. 

55, And there was an Egyptian who comforted (his people), a man 
of indefatigable energy, wise and virtuous, named Shenufi, which 
is by interpretation f good news '. 56. And this man was very 
vigilant in rebuilding the cities and villages and restoring the 
tillage of the land so that in a short time he rebuilt all the villages 
of Egypt. And he restored Egypt and made it as it had been 
before. And there was great prosperity in his "days, and the 
Egyptians increased very much, and their cattle increased also. 
57. And he reigned over them forty and eight years in happiness 
and peace because of the return of the Egyptians from captivity. 
And he went to rest full of honour. But before he died he numbered 
the Egyptians, and their number was 500,000 men. 58. And after 
the death of Shenufi the Egyptians remained for a long time 
without a king, but they paid taxes to the Persians and Assyrians 
at the same time. And they remained at peace till they appointed 
a second Pharaoh as king and paid the taxes to him. 

59. Now the Persians did not approve that the Egyptians should 
pay the taxes to their own king. But the Persians also were 
without a king after the death of the great Artaxerxes who had 
had compassion on the Egyptians. 60. And he who reigned after 
Artaxerxes at first made war against the Jews and the Jews 

1 rtif'fc: in the text = poiator, 'wine-bibber', whereas we require tJI>H<5; 
or 7HA.! = pocillaior or oivo\6os. 

* We should expect ' some of them '. 



LI. 61 

submitted to him. And next he made war on the Egyptians and 
overcame them and took their possessions as a spoil ; for the land of 
Egypt is through the help of God a very goodly (land). 61. Now 
when Nectanabus, the last of the Pharaohs, was informed by the 
chief diviners — for he was himself also a magician and asked the 
impure demons whether he was to rule over the Egyptians or not — 
when (I repeat) he was surely informed by the demons that he 
should not rule over the Egyptians, he shore his head and changed 
his outward figure, and fled, and went to the city of Farina, and 
furthermore went to Macedonia and dwelt there. 62. And the 
Egyptians remained in subjection to Juljan6s till the time of 
Alexander <5 -navrapyos 1 , which is by interpretation f the ruler of 
the world And he slew the last 2 king of the Persians. 

63. And after some time Ochus reigned for twelve years over the 
Persians. And after him Artaxerxes reigned twenty-three years. 
And after him Darius, surnamed Akrejus, reigned for six years. 
And then Alexander rose up against him and slew him and took his 
kingdom of Babylon from him ; for Alexander the son of Philip of 
Macedon was ruler of the world. 

Chapter LII. And there was a man named Aeneas, who espoused 
the daughter of Latinus, named Lavinia. And he built a great 
city and named it after the name of Lavinia and established his 
kingdom in it. 

Chapter LIII. 1. And there was in Italy a man named Pallas and 
he had a son. And he became a good and warlike man. And he 
stormed many cities belonging to Aeneas. 2. And when he warred 
against fJustenf, he took his city and built therein a great house, 
and he adorned it and there was no such house in any city. 3. And 
he built a palace also and named it Pallantium, which is by inter- 
pretation ' stronghold ', after his name Pallas. 3 

1 The Greek is transliterated in the text. 

2 Text reads hestdtes, which Noldeke has recognized as a transliteration of 

3 The text is corrupt, as a comparison of John Mai. 168 shows ml airrjKOev 
6 Aivdas irpbs rov EvavSpov ml rbv vlbv avrov UaWavra, avdpas Tro\e/j.iKwT&Tovs' 
oirivts Birjyov (is rfjv ^IraXlav, oIkovvt(s Kwpvrjv Kiyonivrjv Ba\evriav, IBvvovres eirap- 
Xiav plav. 'Ev fj Kwp.r\ ml tKrioev 6 Tl&Was oIkov p-tyav iravv, olov ovit rtxev "fj trfpi- 
X&po? eKfivrj' oaris olnos (KA-qdrj rb Yla\K6.vr{i)ov ; tea lanb tote eK\rj9rj ra fiacriXiicct 
icaToucrfTTipia. UaWavnov itc rov TlaWavros. In our text Justen is due to a faulty- 
transcription of the Arabic for BaAfCTi'af, but the Arabic translator had already 
erred in taking Bakevr'tav as the name of a king, as Zotenberg has already- 

LVI. 4 



Chapter LIV. And when f Creusa became king, he built a city- 
named Alba. Then leaving Elbanja he came to Elwanjaf, 1 that 
is, Alba, which by interpretation means ' light \ 

Chapter LV. 1. And there was a Canaanitish woman named Dido, 
the wife of a man named Sichaeus. 2. And she came originally 
from a small city Kardimas, 2 situated on the sea-coast between 
Tyre and Sidon. 3. And she was very rich. And she had a 
brother named Pygmalion, who rose against her husband and slew 
him from the covetous desire to get hold of her wealth and 
treasures. 4. Then this woman arose in haste and collected together 
all the wealth and treasures in her house, and embarked on a ship 
and fled and went from Canaan to the country of Libya 3 in Africa, 
and built a great city in that province, which she named Carthage, 
but in the language of the Barbarians it is called f New city\ 
And she reigned there wisely until her death. 

Chapter LVI. 1. And in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah 
there were two brothers whose names were Romulus and Remus. 4 
2. And these built a great city near a small city Valentia in Italy, 
a city of Latinus where previously there had been a royal palace 
named Pallantium. And this they rebuilt. 3. Moreover they 
built a temple for their God named Zeus, and they named it in 
their own language the Capitol. 5 And the appearance of one of 
the buildings, the royal palace, was very wonderful. And in the 
Latin language they named the Capitol c Head of the city 4. And 
in those days they called themselves ' Romans' and the name of 
their city c Rome \ And the two brothers ruled together in it. 
But afterwards a cause of enmity intervened, and Romulus slew 
Remus his brother and reserved the throne for himself alone. 

1 This chapter is very corrupt. First, as we see from John Mai. 168 sq., the 
text should deal with Ascanius, the son of Aeneas and Creusa ('Aamvios ... 6 
vlbs tov Aivciov dirb rfjs Kpeovarjs). According to some traditions and those that 
have influenced our text, Ascanius left Lavinium (Elbanja in our text) and 
built Alba Longa (Elwanja in our text). But the text of John Mai. is here very 
confused and erroneous. Thus we have /cat skthjc (' Acicavios) tt)v Aa/3iviav rr6\iv, 
zeal rb fiao'iXtiov roTs Aapivrjaiots kirtQr)Kt, fieraycoywv 6 uvrbs 'Ackwios (K rrjs 
'A\@avias woAccos rb XlaWahiov (Is ri)v avrov KrioOtTaav iroAiv Aafiiviav. See also 
Cedrenus, i. 238. 

* Cf. John Mai. 161 cnrb jt6\(ojs piKpas . . . Xaprifms. 

8 Text reads Iona, through a faulty transliteration of the Arabic. 

4 Text reads Romanos by a corruption. 
. 6 Cf. John Mai. 171 vabv ftiyav tw Ail Kriaavns Itcaktaav avrov KajrercuAioi' 
'Pcufxaiari, 6 ko~nv fj K«pa\f) T7js woKetus. 


5. And thereupon the city was shaken with earthquake and all 
the people were panic-stricken- together because of the great 
quakings in their midst. And Romulus also was terrified and 
became heavy of heart by means of his great terror, and 1 he learnt 
from the diviners and the unclean spirits that his throne should 
not be established in Rome without his brother Remus. 6. Then 
he had recourse to many a device in order to raise his brother and 
he was not able. But a great quaking ensued and in the midst of 
that quaking he saw an image of his brother, a perfect likeness 
from his head to his breast. 7. And he made an image of his 
brother in the likeness of the apparition which he had before seen, 
a golden statue representing his brother from the head to the 
breast, and he placed it on his throne and he adorned it with all 
manner of ornaments. 8. And in his prescripts he wrote after 
this manner, saying : < (In) the prescripts emanating from me and 
my brother so we declare, and so we command, so we execute and 
so on. 9. And this custom derived from the Romans has prevailed 
to the present. Their kings and their magistrates have preserved 
this formula in the courts which are called ' praetorian', that is, in 
their places of justice. 

10. And Romulus also was the first to ride on horseback in 
Rome and to rush to the encounter at full speed and to be ardent 2 
to be victorious. And he devised these diabolical practices and 
source of evils and vices, in order that his horse soldiers should be 
the strongest in the world. 11. And he appointed also a place 
of conflict for women called Elmantatum 3 that the soldiers might 
resort (thither) in order to be with them (the women). For pre- 
viously they had violated all the women, whether married, virgin, 
or widowed. 

12. And by reason of his fear and discouragement Romulus 
instituted this order of female cavalry and made them alone with- 
out the men into one force. 13. And he divided them moreover 
into two parts, the virgins on one side and the married women on 
the other. And he assembled from all the cities far and near a 
great assemblage of women cavalry without number. 14. And 

1 This ' and ' occurs in the text before ' by means of. 

2 Read 'tVVttl 

3 Unintelligible. Cf. John Mai. 177 sq. : Chron. Pasch. 112. Zotenberg con- 
jectures it to be a corruption of arparov. 

LVI. 21 



they kept watch over the foreign women in their midst 1 who 
did not belong- to Rome, in order to accomplish (their) desire. 
And (Romulus ordered them) to lay hands on all they found. 2 
15. Now the young girls of the city of the Sabines which is near 
to Rome were beautiful women. And he summoned and assembled 
them (masc.) to him. And when Romulus had ended assembling 
the women, he gave them to the soldiers who had no wives. And 
he named those soldiers o-Tparuoras, 3 that is, warriors. 16. And the 
rest he ordered to carry them (the women) off as best they could. 
And subsequently to this ordinance they chose their wives according 
to their individual tastes without violence. 

17. And moreover he instituted 4 priests of the idols and named 
them priests of Apollo. 18. And next Romulus commanded his 
most illustrious officers and soldiers to entertain 6 in the winter 
season. And he invited (in order) from alpha to omega 6 the 
most illustrious of his officers, each in turn, and the commanders 
and magistrates of the people and all the soldiers whom he wished. 
And this ordinance existed in Rome. 19. And next he established 
a custom in Rome, called Abrastus ... 7 this is the place, to wit, 
of the officers in which they keep guard of the citadel at all times. 

20. Andnext hebuilt the wallsof the city of Romeand completed them. 

21. And next he built a temple in the city of Ares, in the month 

1 In the text the words ' in their (masc.) midst ' occur after ' desire 
» Read HttKlTll P7P>)*>V\: 

3 ffD^rriTrt; (?). 

4 The text is not to be emended as in Zotenberg, but the manuscripts to be 
followed. (DfM: in some instances as here = 'to institute'. 

8 Zotenberg resigns the attempt to translate verses 18-20. The text refers to 
the Brumalia. Cf. John Mai. 179 tovtov ovv evt/cev 6 'Poiifios kirtvorjat to. \cy6f*eva 
BpovpaKia, dprjKws, <prjaiv, avayicaiov tlvai to rpt<pHv tov tcarci /ccupbv PaaiXta rrjv 
eavrov avy/cXyrov naaav ical rovs iv d£ta ical waaas ras evSov tov nakariov ovaas 
arpariis, ws (vrifiovs iv rip xaipcp tov xtipwvos, ore ra TroKf/xtHcL ivSocriv eyei. ical 
rjpfaro trpaiTOvs tcaKtiv teal Tpk<puv tovs anb tov a\<pa (X 0VTas ro wofia ical \onrbv 
dnoKovOais ecus tov TtkfVTaiov ypap-paros, /reXeueray ml ttjv kavTOv avytcArjTov Opeipai 
rw wtSi <rxw ar ^ is to be emended into J&ft.fl?'; Cf. Gptyat in last line 

of the preceding extract. 

6 The words ftftll; ftSifc fflfc', = ' to- alpha and omega ' should be emended 
into ' from alpha to omega ', and should be transposed 

7 What this word refers to is doubtful. The words may, as Zotenberg sug- 
gests, form a fragment of a description of the four factions, and Abrastus in 
that case would represent rrpaiatVTov. Cf. Chron. Pasch. 112 k/cd\(oe Be to -npdaivov 
ptipos irpa'taevrov. 



LVI. 2 2 

of March, that is Magabit. Now March is the beginning of months. 
22. And in the beginning of the month they celebrate a feast, and 
they named that feast ' Primus'. And after this feast he commanded 
the soldiers to fight. 23. And they named this month March 1 
because of the custom of the heathen who are demon-worshippers 
according as the ancients had prescribed in their foolish ignorance. 
And the Romans have preserved this custom. 24. It is for this 
reason that the holy fathers, the Egyptian monks, who were clothed 
with God, offer at the beginning of every month an unbloody sacrifice 
to the holy consubstantial Trinity and receive the holy life-giving 
mysteries, while they chant the words of the 80th Psalm : ' Blow 
up the trumpet in the day of the new moon, on the notable day of 
our festival/ 2 

Chapter LVII. 1. And after Romulus Numa became king. He 
was a wise and very prudent man. 2. And he caused the government 
of the city of Rome to go along a good path by means of an 
excellent discipline. 3. And this illustrious man was the first to 
make money for selling and buying and for the exchange of 
silver. It is for this reason that stamped copper money is named 
feliis unto this day. 3 4. And next he appointed two places : one 
for the officers and one for the judges that they might give orders 
to the officers and all the army. 5. And furthermore he established 
(them) outside that they might judge the peoples who were under 
their authority ; and not only those who judged but those with 
functions which are subordinate according to rank, and (others) 
which resemble this. 4 6- And this law is ordained and established 
amongst the Romans unto this day. 

Chapter LVIII. 1. And in the days of the high priest of 
Jerusalem who was named Judas, Philip was king of Macedonia. 
And when he became king he warred against Thessaly and came 

1 This passage is corrupt. The original sense can be inferred from the Chron. 
Pasch. 292 A 6 Si auros 0aai\(vs 'PtD^os . . . c/mcre fcal tw 'Apa vaov, teal hv avrfy 
rSi fir/vl eiro'i7]a(v koprfjU ncyakTjv, 6vaa$ rw "Apei, /ca\eaas ical rbv fxrjva Mdpnou, 
TrpduTjv \(j6fi(you Tlpifiov, oirep ipn-qvevtrai "Apews, TjvTTtp koprty /tar' tros ol 'Pajpiatoi 
TTavres (TriT(\ovatv (ojs vvv, KaXovvTfs tt)v -qntpav TTjS Travrjyvpeajs Maprts iv Kafi-naj. 

2 Ps. Ixxxi. 3. The text agrees with the LXX \v euc^/xa; ^e/>a \oprr\s ^/xaiv. 

3 Cf. Cedrenus, i. 260 «ai aaa&pia 6i dird aa-qpiov ko.1 x a ^ K °v neiroiTjftfva irpwros 
'Papia'iois (xapiaaro. Here dcrrifiov means 'silver', but our author took it in its 
earlier meaning of ' unstamped', and some scribe omitted the negative. Hence 
we have 'stamped'. 

* The meaning of this verse is obscure. Zotenberg does not translate it. 

LIX. 10 



off victorious over it. 2. And when he had won the victory, he 
built a city (in Macedonia) and named it Thessalonica. 

Chapter LIX. 1. And when Alexander the son of Philip of Mace- 
don became king he built in Egypt the great city Alexandria, and 
named it Alexandria after his own name. 2. Now its name formerly 
in the Egyptian language was Rakoustis. 1 And after this he 
warred against Persia. (And he came) to the confines of Europe, 
and he built there a place where his army and all his troops 
assembled. And he gave there gold in abundance to his chief 
generals and to all his officers and his numerous forces. 

And he named that place Chrysopolis. 2 And so it is named by 
the inhabitants of Byzantium. 3. And in his war against Persia 
Alexander slew many of Darius' s troops, (nor did he stop) till he 
had annihilated them. And he seized all the kingdom of Darius 
and made himself master of it. 4. And moreover he took captive 
his daughter, who was named Roxana. And she was a virgin 
and he made her his wife. And he did her no injury. 5. Nor 
yet did he offer any outrage to Candace the queen of Ethiopia, 
because of her great intelligence ; for she had heard tidings of the 
great deeds of Alexander and how it was his custom when he wished 
to war against the kings of the earth to join with spies (and so to 
visit their territories). 

6. And queen Candace, being apprised of his arrival with the 
spies, had him arrested and said unto him : ' Thou art the king 
Alexander who hast seized upon all the world, and yet thou art 
to-day seized by a woman.' 7. And he said unto her: 'It is by 
means of thy knowledge and the subtility of thy intelligence and 
thy wisdom that thou hast seized me. Henceforth I will 
preserve thee unharmed, (even) thee and thy children, and I will 
make thee my wife/ 8. And when she heard these words she 
cast herself at his feet and made an alliance with him, and he 
made her his wife. And thereupon the Ethiopians submitted 
to him. 

9. And when Alexander was dying he divided his kingdom 
among his four companions who had helped him in his campaigns. 
10. And Philip, his elder brother, took Macedonia and reigned over 

1 In text Rakudi. Cf. John Mai. 192 rfjv ficyd\rjv 'AKt^avdpaav iKTtae rrjv 
irpwTjv \fyoixfVT)v KWfxr\v 'Va/cowTiv. 
» Cf. John Mai. 193. 



LX. 1 

it and all Europe. Furthermore he made Ptolemy, surnamed 
Lagus, king of Egypt. 

Chapter LX. And in the days of Ptolemy Philadelphus, son of 
Lagus, whose name by interpretation means c lover of the brethren 
a man of large thought and wisdom, the holy books of God were 
translated from the Hebrew into the Greek by old men 
in the space of seventy-two days, for there were seventy-two 
translators, but two died before they had completed the translation. 1 

Chapter LXI. 1. And Antigonus reigned over Asia and Cilicia 
and the river which is named Draco in the province of Orontes, 
2. And over Syria, Babylon and Palestine there reigned a king 
named Seleucus Nicanor. 3. And this (king) warred against 
Antigonus king of Asia and slew him, because he had built a 
city on the borders of the river Draco and had named it Antigonia. 
4. And he seized all the property in the region of Iopolis and of 
the fortress which faces mount Silpion. . . . Now this city was 
formerly named Bottia. 2 5. And he built there the great city of 
Antioch, and named it after the name of his son Antiochus. 
6. And again he built another city [in the name of his daughter], 
and he named it Laodicea, for his daughter's name was Laodicea. 
Now this city had formerly been named Mazabdan. 7. And again 
he built a city and named it Apamea, which formerly had been 
named Pharnace. 3 

Chapter LXII. Seleucus, that is, Pausanias, 4 was the first to 
write Chronicles and annals and to name them. 

Chapter LXIII. And Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes visited 
with punishment the Maccabees. 

Chapter LXIV. 1. History of the Consuls of the early Romans. 
Julius Caesar the dictator seized the power and administration 
among the Romans before the incarnation of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. 2. The birth of Julius was not' like the birth of 
(ordinary) men whom women give birth to in the ninth month. 
For his mother died during her pregnancy, and after she died the 
babe stirred in her womb. And the wise men seeing that the babe 
stirred, cut open the womb of the mother and brought forth the 

1 Cf. John Mai. 19G ; Ghron. Pasch. 173. 

2 Cf. John Mai. 199. 3 Cf. John Mai. 203. 

4 The text is a corruption of the account in John Mai. 317 C tunae 51 teal 
a\Aas 5ta<p6povs n6\(ts . . . fcaOibs o ootpbs Havcavlas owtypafaro. 

lxvi. 2 BISHOP OP NIKIU 4g 

(babe) living and nursed it and called its name Caesar AT 
Caesar means 'drawn forth', < cut out', ^sepaated" , A 1 
when he grew up they named him also Tri^vTandt \o 1 
with a decree of the Senate of Tt„™ i Umvlr ' and m accordance 
king 4 And whnn T ™ appointed and became 

ng. 4 . And when his empire was consolidated, the Persians and 
barbarians were se zed with fear Anrl fl,; A Asians and 

mnnf u • , • , , w »^reai. And this same Caesar made the 
month in which he became king the first month nf «, 
k a„,i i, B ; , . & lbL montn ot the year 

o. And next he left the east and came to Alexandria the chief city 

of Egypt. Ana ne met queen Cleopatra, the daughter nf P i 7 

surnamed Dionysus, king of Egypt V And ^ 

beautiful young girl. Caesar fi t 1 n 1 ™ a Ve ' T 

j s S Caesar tell in love with her and mnmori 

her and begat a son by her. And he gave her the khglm J 
Egypt, And he named that son Julius Caesar It ! , 

Consume, the emperor of flj "ch^ ul^Z 'of T 

Chap™ LXV. 1. It is fold regaling Arehelaus the „W f 

^rnorofCappadoeiaandregardinglerod/wht: I M ofwietd 
ness (and) the murderer of his father, who was the first to eat ™T 7 
wrth the Mood and not of the number of the fli^ I no" 
was kmg of Judea , (,t is told that) they submitted to Caes ar the 

Me. 2. And Arehelaus in Cappadoeia a eity and named t ■ 
Caesarea m Cappadoeia to be a memorial of him fCaesarl 1^ 
formerly it was named Mazaea C-aesa.). And 

namedT Ca L e XVI ' • ^ ^ buiIt 3 in and 

named it Caesarea m honour of the emneror An,) • 

i i o rio„ t .„„ a & 

i.e. Caesar Augustus. 



LXVI. 3 

previously impassable he made it a way fit for kings. 3. And 
he sent also a J ewish army into Egypt and he made all the cities 
submit to the emperor. And in like manner he caused the orientals 
to pay tribiite to Caesar. 

Chapter LXVII. 1. And queen Cleopatra went down from 
Palestine into Egypt in order to make her royal residence there. 
And when she came to the city Farm a she gave battle to the 
Egyptians and overcame them. 2. And next she came to 
Alexandria, and reigned there. And she was great in herself and 
in her achievements (in) courage and strength. There was none 
of the kings who preceded her who wrought such achievements 
as she. 3. And she built in the confines of Alexandria a great 
(and) magnificent palace, and all that saw it admired it; for there 
was not the like in all the world. 4. And she built it on an island 
in the quarter of the north to the west of the city of Alexandria, 
outside the city and at a distance of four stadia. 5. And she raised 
a dike against the waters of the sea with stones and earth, and 
made the place of the waters over which they voyaged formerly 
in ships into dry land, and she made it passable on foot. 1 6. And 
this stupendous and difficult achievement she wrought through the 
advice of a wise man named Dexiphanes, who made the sea into 
dry land that there might be a means of passage on foot. 7. And 
next she constructed a canal to the sea, and she brought water 
from the river Gihon and conducted it into the city. And by this 
means she brought it about that ships could approach and enter 
the city and by this means there was great abundance. 8. Now 
the city was formerly without access to water, but she brought all 
the water it required (lit. made it full of water) so that ships could 
sail thereon, and by this means fish became abundant in the city. 
9. And she executed all these works in vigilant care for the well- 
being of the city. And before she died she executed many noble 
works and (created) important institutions. And this woman, the 
most illustrious and wise amongst women, died in the fourteenth 
year of the reign of Caesar Augustus. 10. Thereupon the inhabi- 
tants of Alexandria and of (lower) and upper Egypt submitted 
to the emperors of Home, who set over them prefects and generals. 
11. And Augustus reigned fifty-six yeai's and six months. And in 
the forty-second year of his reign our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
1 Cf. John Mai. 217 sq. 




Christ was born in the flesh in Bethlehem Judah, very God alike 
in heaven and earth — to Him be praise. 12. (He was born) in the 
days when a decree went forth that all the world should be 
registered and every person numbered with a view to levying- of 
taxes. And this measure was carried out through the advice of 
Eumenes and Attalus, illustrious and great men of Rome. 

13. And Augustus moreover found the name of the month 
February inscribed in the middle of the year. Now if we start from 
the first, that is March, the earliest of the months of the Roman 
year, this month of February was the sixth in order of the 
R-oman months. 14. Now Augustus decreed 1 that they should 
make this month the last of the months of the year ; for Augustus 
blamed the chief of the army in those days, who was named 
Manlius of Cappadocia, 2 possessing as he had power and authority 
over them ; for it was he who arranged the order of the months, 
and he was influential and powerful amongst the Romans. 15. And 
instead of this month of February which he had made the last 
month, because it was the shortest of all the months, they intro- 
duced in its stead the full month named August after his name ; 
and it was the sixth month. 16. The month which preceded the 
sixth month, i. e. the fifth, he named Julius after the name of 
the emperor, the paternal uncle of Augustus. 17. And the Romans 
adopted and confirmed this regulation (and have observed it) till 
the present day. The sixth and fifth months are preceded by 

Chapter LXVIII. 1. Now Christians complete in faith do not 
receive 3 any other rule than that ordained for them in accordance 
with the statement of Ezra the prophet, 4 the illuminator of under- 

1 Cf. John Mai. 187. Avyovcrros . . . hnepttpspero rw MctAXiWi KamrcoX'ivtv ws 
Ta£avri rbv KaKoiwviarov $(/3pova.piov p.9jva, icai fterayaycbv fv$eus . . . Sid Ouas 
avrov Ke\({i<T(ws rb ovopta rod •$e(3povaptov pirjvbs vortpov travrtov rwv /xrjvwv €ra£e, ieai 
avr' avrov rb Idiov tavrov Svopa Avyovarov rbv ticrov amb rod trpipov, ko.1 rbv irpb 
rod Avyovarov prjvbs (tcaAtaev «t'y to ovopa. rov Oe'iov avrov 'lovK'iov Kalaapos. 

2 There is a dittograph and a disarrangement in the text. First fflC[(h6*(\\ 
UthaoST'. is to be excised as a dittograph, and fan*; CT 7&jPS > ft; H^A^JPi 
to be read immediately after (TD^O^! 

3 I have emended £avtlmri ( = 'carry off', 'plunder') into & (r %mOl l l = 
' receive '. Our translator has already used this latter verb in the like 

4 In Fabricius, Cod. Apocr, Novi Test., p. 952, and in his Cod. Pseudepig. Vet. Test., 

E 2 




standing f when the months come how on the sixth of Tuba, i.e. 
Ter, which is the first month amongst the Franks : 2. When the 
beginning of the month coincides with the first or second or third 
unto the end of the seven days.f 3. And they observe moreover 
the commencement of their months in seeking to know whether it 
will be lucky or unlucky. 4. And Socrates the sage and philo- 
sopher (and) astronomer established this custom in Rome. 5. And 
Socrates the ordainer and establisher of the practice had altered 
among the pagans the writings of Ezra the prophet and saint. 
He was deceived and he deceived those who read his book by his 
evil device. 

Chapter LXIX. 1. And after the death of the emperor Augustus, 
his son Tiberius became emperor, who had brought Cappadocia into 
subjection to Rome after the death of Archelaus the governor of 
Cappadocia. 2. And he built also a city in the province of Thrace 
and named it Tiberia. 1 And in the days of Tiberius Caesar our 
Lord Jesus Christ was crucified in Jerusalem. 

Chapter LXX. 1. And, after the death of Claudius, the abomin- 
able Nero became emperor in Rome. Now he was a pagan and an 
idolater. 2. And to his other vices he added the vice of sodomy, 
and he, married as though he were a woman. And when the 
Romans heard of this detestable deed, they could no longer endure 
him. 3. And the idolatrous priests particularly inveighed against 
him, and the senators elders of the people) deposed him from the 
throne 2 and took counsel in common to put him to death. And 
when this impure wretch was informed of the purpose of the 
senators, he quitted his residence and hid himself. But he was 
not able to escape the mighty and powerful hand of God. 4. For 
when he fell into this disquietude of heart, owing to the debauchery 
which he had practised as a woman, owing to this cause (I repeat) 
his belly grew distended and became like that of a pregnant woman. 
5. And he was greatly afflicted by the multitude of his loathsome 
pains. And therefore he ordered the wise men to visit him in the 
place where he was (hidden), and to administer remedies. 6. And 

p. 1162, notices of this work of Ezra on the unlucky clays of the twelve months 
will be found. See also Zotenberg in loc. 

1 Cf. John Mai. 236. 

2 The words ' deposed him from the throne ' occur in the text at the close of 
ver. 4. I have restored to ver. 3. 


when the wise men came to him thinking that he was with child 1 
eWlVefth ^ ° rder t0 ddiVer ifc * And he died ^ this 

Chap™ LXXL 1. And after the death of Titus Domitian his 
brother became emperor in his stead. And he was a great philo- 
sopher among the heathen. 2. And he stirred up a persecution 
against the Christian, and he brought many torments upon them 
by the hand of Deems and through the machinations of his officers 
3. And he had John the beloved evangelist brought to Rome, and 
he persecuted him and all the believers in God for their true and 
right faith. 4 And afterwards being struck with admiration at 
the greatness of his wisdom he set him free in secret and without 
the knowledge of his officers and the idolatrous priests he had him 
conducted to his residence. 5. But again Domitian, yielding to the 
persuasions of the wicked ministers of the demons, sent John the 
theologian into exile to the island called f Sun.* 6 And n ex f 
Domitian built a city in the province of Isauria and he named it 
Domitianus after his own name. 7. And when the consummation 
of his s,n was at hand, he had driven into exile the holy martyrs 
and he went to the temple of Titus and sought to offer a sacrifice 
to the demons; for he called a thing which could not speak 
a saviour 8. Then his officers took counsel to put him to death ■ 
for he had always humiliated them through his stiffneckedness and 
pride of heart, and, philosopher though he was, he had wholly failed 
to do justice. And they rose against him and put him to death 
secretly 9 But the people were not aware that they had put him 
to death. And they took his silk garments and suspended them on 
the chains of the temple lamps, in order to deceive all the people bv 
a lying statement, saying: '(The emperor) had been carried up 
from earth into the air by the priests of the gods, because he was 
a philosopher 10. Thus they misled the people for some time • 
but afterwards they were apprised of the death of this wicked man 
and there arose a tumult because they had put him to death in the 

^entd zt^: nkins he was with chiid> - the ^ 

2 drh£; = 'sun' is probably due, as Zotenbere coniecturp* fn * ™- a- 

3 Cf. John Mai. 267 : Chron. Pasch. 250-1. 



lxxi. ii 

temple and by their mad act had profaned it, though they said : 
'We are guiltless and our temple is not profaned/ 11. And after 
this [there arose a tumult and] they agreed upon Nerva and made 
him emperor. Now he was the commander-in-chief of the army, an 
old man, very excellent, humane, and wise. 12. And forthwith he 
sent to the sweet-tongued S. John and had him brought back from 
his place of exile to the city of Ephesus, where he died in goodly 
peace. And where his holy body is buried is not known save to our 
Lord Jesus Christ — unto whom be praise. 13. Now this emperor was 
a good man and he established good laws, and moreover he put an 
end among men to the custom which prevailed of buffet for buffet 
and blow for blow. And whilst he was engaged in this legislation 
the emperor died aged f forty-four f 1 years after a reign of one. 

Chapter LXXII. 1. And after the good emperor Nerva died, 
Trajan became emperor, who was much addicted to the worship of 
idols. 2. He was the third of those who persecuted the Christians. 
And there were many martyrs in every place who were put to 
severe tortures. 3. And furthermore the saint of God, Ignatius 
the patriarch of Antioch, who was appointed after Peter, the chief 
of the apostles, was brought by his orders in chains to Rome and 
delivered to a lion. 4. And next he seized (five Christian women 
of Antioch) 2 and interrogated them and said unto them: 'Whom 
do ye worship, and in whom do ye trust that ye run with such 
haste to death ? ' 5. They answered and said, ' We shall die for 
the sake of Christ, who will give us eternal life and deliver us from 
this body of corruption/ 6. And he was filled with wrath; for he 
was a heathen and was averse to the revelation of the doctrine 
of the resurrection. And he commanded the bodies of the holy 
women to be cast into the fire. 7. And he ordered the earth on 
which the bodies of the holy women had fallen to be gathered and 
f added to the brass which heated the public bath f 3 which he had 
built in his own name. 8. And it came to pass afterwards that 
when any one went to wash in that bath that a vapour arose, and 

1 This is corrupt. John Mai. 268 gives seventy-one years as his age. Nerva 
died at the age of sixty-four. 

2 Kestored from John Mai. 276. 

3 Text corrupt. Cf. John Mai. 276 tov xovv twv oartoov avjwv <Tvve(it£e x a ^ K ?', 
/cat k-noi-qoe tov xo-^kov f 'S b kito'i-qot hrjuoaiov xaXic'ia tov Otpixov. That is, he mingled 
the ashes of their bones in the brass out of which the brazen vessels of the public 
bath were made. 


when he smelt that vapour he was overpowered by it and had to be 
borne out. And all who saw it marvelled thereat. Therefore the 
Christians mocked the heathen and gloried in Christ and praised 
Him together with his Saints. 9. And when Trajan was apprised 
of this phenomenon, he f changed those who heated the bath f 1 
and removed the vessels of brass with which were mingled the 
ashes of the holy women, and he placed their ashes in five brazen 
pillars and set them up in that bath. 10. But he was on the watch 
to pour contempt on the martyrs, saying : f < They belonged neither 
to me nor to their god, but they have died foolishly/ f 1 11. And 
at that time his daughter Drusis and Junia the daughter of the 
patrician Filasanrun underwent martyrdom. And many other 
virgins likewise underwent martyrdom by fire through this un- 
believer. 12. And during Trajan's stay in Antioch, the earth was 
troubled and quaked in the night owing to the wrath of God, for 
it had been polluted three times. 13. And not only (in) Antioch, 
but also on the island of Rhodes was there a similar earthquake 
after cockcrow. 

14. And the Jews who were in the city of Alexandria and in the 
province of Cyrene assembled and chose a leader named Lucuas 2 to 
be their king. 15. And when Trajan was informed and apprised 
of this movement, he sent against them an officer named Marcus 
Turbo 2 with a numerous force, even a numerous army of horse and 
foot and also many troops in ships. 16. And Trajan came to Egypt 
and built a fortress with a strong impregnable tower, and he 
brought water into it in abundance and he named it Babylon in 
Egypt. 17. Nebuchadnezzar the king of the Magi and Persians 
was the first to build its foundations and to name it the fortress of 
Babylon. This was the epoch when he became its king by the 
ordinance of God, when he drove the Jews into exile after the 
destruction of Jerusalem, and also when they stoned to death 
a prophet of God at Thebes in Egypt, and added sin to sin. 
18. And Nebuchadnezzar came to Egypt with a numerous army 
and made a conquest of Egypt, because the Jews had revolted 
against him, and he named (the fortress) Babylon after the name 
of his own city. 19. And Trajan moreover added some buildings 
to the fortress and other parts in it. And he dug also a small 
canal— sufficiently large to convey water from the Gihon to the city 
1 Probably corrupt. Cf. John Mai. 277. 2 C f. Euseb. Hist. iv. 2. 



LXX1I. 30 

Clysma. And lie put this water into connexion with the Red Sea, 
and he named this canal Trajan after his own name. 20. And he 
built also a citadel in Manuf. And after all these achievements 
he fell ill and died in the twentieth year of his reign. 

Chapter, LXXIII. 1. And after Trajan [the first] Hadrian 1 his 
cousin became emperor in Rome. 2. He built in upper Egypt a 
beautiful city and its appearance was very pleasing, and he named it 
Antinoe, that is,Ensina. 3. And afterwards misguided men made him 
a god, for he was very rich. And he died by a distressing death. 

Chapter LXXIV. 1. And after him Aelius Antoninus Pius 
became emperor. He was kind, courteous, and virtuous. And the 
Romans named him at first < the servant of God'. He was a just 
man throughout his reign. 2. The chroniclers report concerning him 
that he was the first to do justice and to put an end to the unjust 
practices which had prevailed among the Romans before his time. 
3. Previously they used to commit the injustice of confiscating for 
the benefit of the crown a moiety of the possessions of the rich on 
their death on the ground of the covenant which the fathers had 
made with their children. 2 And his predecessors were not able to 
abolish this regulation. 4. But he issued a prescript and put art 
end to it in order that every man should have control over his own 
property and should give it to whom he pleased. And he established 
also many other equitable measures and laws in conformity with 
justice. 5. And next he went down into Egypt even to Alexandria, 
and he punished those who had wrought evil, and was gracious 
to those who had wrought good ; for tenderness and graciousness 
and forbearance were implanted in him. 6. And he built two gates 
in Alexandria on the west and on the east (of the city), and he 
named the eastern gate 'HAia«?7, and the western SeA^ta*??. 3 
7. And he built a place of pleasure with blocks of white stone 
in the city of Antioch and named it Amudum. 4 And he trans- 
ported the stone from upper Egypt. 8. And in all his cities he 

1 Text corrupt: = Trajan. Hence addition of the words 'the first'. 

2 Cf. John Mai. 281. » Cf. John Mai. 280. 

4 The present form of the text misrepresents the facts, as we see from 
John Mai. 280 (XOojv Si ical iv 'Avnox^a . . . (iro'trjcre tt)v nXanaxnv rrjs irKaTelas 
rwv fieydKoov (/j.(36\o}v twv vtio Ti/iepwv iin<s6kvr<x>v^ teat ndcrris Si rfjs ttoXcws, arpuaai 
(av)Trjv Sid fxvXhov \i6ov . . . and BrjPaiSos. The facts shortly are : The emperor 
constructed a great street between the two great porticoes (epPoXwv, transliterated 
Amulum in our text) in Antioch, and had this and the city paved with stones 
brought from the Thebaid. 




built baths and academies. 9. And after this he returned with 
a numerous army to Rome and remained there for some time and 
died, aged seventy-seven years, in the twenty-third year of his 
reign. 10. And he left his possessions to his son Marcus. And 
Marcus his son resembled his father in graciousness and virtues. 
And he did all that was lawful and just, and he died in the religion 
of his father. 

Chapter LXXV. 1 . And after him the impious Decius, the enemy 
of God, became emperor. 2. And he raised painful punishments 
against the Christians and established the law of the polluted 
heathen that search should be made for the Christians. And 
accordingly he shed the blood of many saints 1 in every quarter, 
even of those who worshipped the true God. 3. And this abomi- 
nable Decius had many male and female lions brought from Africa^ 
and also from the desert had many serpents and venomous beasts 
male and female and placed them fto the east of the city of 
Filmunti, of Arabia and Palestine t 55 to the fortress of Circesium 
in order to form a source of strength against the barbarians and rebels. 

Chapter LXXVI. 1. And after him a man named Aurelian 
became emperor. And immediately on his accession to the throne 
he rebuilt the walls of Rome, which had fallen into ruins, and finished 
them in a short time. 2. And he made all the inhabitants of Rome 
to work in order to accomplish the building, while he diligently 
overlooked it himself without pride. 3. And at that time he 
ordained a law that all the workmen should be registered and 
*that they should be named chief citizens 3 of the empire in 
honour of the emperor. 4. And all this was done in consequence 

1 Zotenberg inserts here in the text a word needlessly and without authority. 

2 The original form of the text can be reconstructed from Chron. Pasch. 271 
6 avrds Atitios 0a<ri\tvs tfyayev and rr}s 'Acppucrjs Ktovras (poPepovs /ecu \eatvas, Kal 
aire\vo~ev eh to Xifxirov 'AvaToXqs, ano 'Apa0las /cat TlaXaiorivris «eus tov KipK7]<riov 
nacrpov, npds to" noirjcrat yeveav, 8ta tovs @ap/3apovs 'Sa.paitrjvovs. 'Opioiws 51 clito rrjs 
^Tjpds KtfSvrjs tfyaytv tpneToi io06\a Kal (poptpcl dppevo6rj\ea, Kal d-rreXvcrev eh t6 rrjs 
AlyviTTOv \ifttTov 5lcL tovs NofiaSas . . . (iapffapovs. In the obelized phrase 
Filmunti is due to the translator taking Xiptnov as a proper noun. Hence we 
should restore here ' on the confines of the East, of Arabia and Palestine '. The 
Circesian camp was on the Euphrates. The lions were placed in its neighbour- 
hood, while the serpents were let loose on the confines of Egypt. 

3 The text is corrupt here ; it runs : 'and that one should name them, and ho 
named them \ The sense is that all the artisans in the city were to bo called 
Aureliani after the name of the Emperor. Cf. John Mai. S00 eiroirjae . . . 
KtKevaiv iva . . ol Ttjs irohews Trdarjs ipyaoTrjpiaKol AvprjXiai'ol XP r ]f iaTl fao~'v- 


of the labour he underwent in the building of the walls of the 
city. And this custom prevailed so among the Romans that it 
led to the registration of the peasants and artisans and sailors 
who sailed upon the sea. 5. And all the workmen Aurelian named 
' Am-elians' after the emperor's name, and he had them registered 
in the register of diwan, that is, dabdabe. And this institution has 
prevailed to the present. 

Chapter LXXVII. 1. And when Diocletian the Egyptian became 
emperor, the army turned to give its help to this impious man and 
persecutor of the faithful and the most wicked of all men. 2. But 
the city of Alexandria and Egypt declared against him and refused 
to submit to him. And he made himself strong to war against them 
with a numerous force and army and with his three colleagues in 
the empire, Maximian of a wicked stock, Constantius, and Maximian 1 
(Galerius). 3. And he went down into Egypt and made it subject 
to him, and as for the city of Alexandria he destroyed it. 4. Now 
he built a fort on the east of the city and lay encamped there for 
a long time ; for he was not able by these means to capture the city 
and bring it into his power. 5. And after a long time some people 
of the city came to him and showed him a means of ingress whereby 
he could enter. And so with much toil and trouble he stormed the 
city and he had with him an innumerable army. 6. And in the 
city also many thousand troops were assembled by reason of the war 
that was waged amongst them. And Diocletian set fire to the city 
and burnt it completely, and he established his authority over it. 

7. And he was an idolater and offered sacrifices to impure demons 
and persecuted the Christians. He was indeed like a brute beast. 

8. And he hated all good men and he resisted God; for all the 
power of Rome was in his hand. 9. And he put to death all 
the pastors, priests and monks, men, women and little children, 
and by the hands of his flesh-devouring agents whom he had 
appointed in every place, he shed without mercy or compassion 
the blood of innumerable saints. 10. And he destroyed churches 
and burnt with fire the Scriptures inspired by God. It was 
a persecution of all the Christians extending over nineteen years, 
beginning with the time of his accession to power and his conquest 
of the land of Egypt. 11. And at this time he sent men of 

1 Text wrongly reads Maximin here and in 77 2c , but rightly on 77 75 . Text 
has to be corrected in 77 47 > 48 > 73 > 74 i 8S . 88 > <*. 




Alexandria to cut off the head of the holy father Patriarch Peter, 
the last of the martyrs. 12. And he put to death all the bishops of 
Egypt whom he found attached to the orthodox faith and a pure 
course of life, till (at last) every one believed him to be the Antichrist, 
who had come to destroy all the world ; for he was the home of 
evil and the lurking-place of wrong. 13. And his colleagues were 
like him in action and character, and these were Maximian, who 
had perpetrated many crimes, for his sovereignty was derived from 
him (i. e. Diocletian), and Maximian the second, whose empire was 
in the east. He resembled a treacherous beast, and was an enemy of 
God and the perpetrator of abominable crimes. 14. But Constantius, 
who was associated with him in the empire in Asia, had not com- 
mitted any crimes, but he loved men and treated them kindly. 
15. And he made also a proclamation by the voice of a herald to 
the Christians in all places under his sway that they should do the 
commands of the Lord, the one true God. 16. And furthermore he 
commanded that neither should violence be done to them nor 
persecution be stirred up against them, nor their property be 
plundered nor any evil inflicted upon them. 17. And he commanded 
likewise that no hindrance should be put to their worship in their 
holy churches in order that they might pray on behalf of him and 
his empire. 18. And in the third year after the close of the 
persecution which he had instituted against the Christians, the 
impious Diocletian in the midst of such enterprises fell sick of 
a grievous bodily disease and lost his mind and reason. 19. And 
in consequence thereof he was deposed and in accordance with a 
decree of the Roman senate sent in exile to the island named 
Waros, in which there were great forests, and it lay in the west. 
And he remained there alone. 20. And in that island there were 
some believers who had survived; these supplied him with daily 
food sufficient to sustain his body. And whilst he pursued this 
course of life in solitude, his reason returned to him, and he 
became ambitious (again) of empire, and besought the army and 
the Senate to come and take him from the fortress (where he 
was) and make him emperor as before. 21. But the officers, the 
army and senate refused, saying: "This man, who has lost his 
reason and mind, whom also we have deposed, we will not receive 
back again. 22. And in consequence of this refusal this enemy 
of God and of the holy saints was deeply grieved and was not 



able to accomplisli his desire. He wept and his eyes shed tears 
in abundance now that misfortune surrounded him on every side. 
And he lost his reason to a very great degree and became blind 
and his vigour departed and he died. 

23. And Maximian, persistent in evil deeds, wrought many 
enchantments on Diocletian, and he was addicted to abominable 
practices and to the invocations of demons; and he cut open the 
wombs of pregnant women and sacrificed men and women to 
impure demons. 24. And in the midst of such actions he was 
strangled and died in the second year after his father's death, and 
his end came about not by the hands of others but by his own. 
25. And the impious Maximian (Galerius) also ceased not to 
perpetrate the same crimes as Diocletian : yea he perpetrated (them) 
in the east, in Africa, and in the great city of Alexandria and in 
Egypt and in Pentapolis. 26. And he put to death without mercy 
the holy martyrs : some he cast into the sea, others he gave to wild 
beasts, others to the edge of the sword, and others to be burnt in 
the fire. And he destroyed churches, and burnt with fire the 
holy Scriptures and restored the temples of the gods which were in 
ruins. 27. And he had no compassion on the women with child, 
but ripped open their wombs and drew forth the babes and sacrificed 
them to impure demons. And he compelled many to worship idols. 
28. And no more did he escape the wrath of God; for by the 
command of God a severe cough settled in his chest, he began 
to fail in health, his intestines became ulcerated, deadly worms 
were generated and the odour that emanated from him became 
fetid, so that one could not come near him. 29. And when he 
fell into this severe affliction and great tribulation, he despaired 
of life and found no solace in his grievous disease. And after- 
wards he recognized and learnt that his malady had befallen him 
through Christ the true God because he had afflicted the Christians. 
30. And when he had wisely collected his inner thoughts together, 
he commanded his appointed officials to put an end to the persecution 
of the Christians. And when he had done this act of humanity, 
the malady which God had inflicted on him departed from him, 
and he was restored to health. 31. And he continued (to enjoy 
health) for six months after his repentance for his sin, but again he 
took thought to organize a persecution of the Christians, and he 
forgat Him who had healed him of his grievous disease, (even) 




J esus Christ our Lord and Saviour. 32. And again he began to slay 
the Christians, and he set up new gods in the great city of Antioch, 
and he gave himself to dealings with demons and the enchant- 
ments which he used to practise. 33. But forthwith war stirred up 
against him in Armenia and there arose likewise a severe famine in 
every province of his empire. And the fields yielded no produce 
and nothing was to be found in the granaries, and the people fell 
down and died through want of food. 34. And the rich became 
poor; for the people of fAbrakisf had quickly plundered them. 
And all men wept and lamented bitterly, and they died and 
found none to bury them. 35. And the idolaters who lived in the 
west were full of lamentation and grief because of their loss of 
Diocletian and his son Maxim ian. 

36. And (Maximian) sent to them his son Maxentius, who estab- 
lished a high reputation for himself in that place. For this son of 
the impious (Maximian) was on the watch to ruin them, but, being 
treacherous, to begin with he sought to please all the inhabitants of 
Rome. 1 37. And he honoured our Faith, and he gave orders (to his 
subjects) to cease from 2 persecuting the Christians, and he fashioned 
himself after the likeness of the worshippers of Christ. And he 
began to exhibit a greater love for mankind than any of his prede- 
cessors that were like him. 38. But after a short time his treachery 
discovered itself, and so, just as his fathers, he became like a wolf 
in his lair. And he wrought in its fullness the treachery of his 
fathers and disclosed his secret vices, and committed every abomina- 
tion and impurity. And he became fierce and left no form of 
impurity and licentiousness unaccomplished: and he perpetrated 
every kind of debauchery and abused every man, and even legally 
married women who had husbands he lay with [in public], not in 
secret but openly, and thereupon sent them back to their husbands. 
39. And further he was not willing to let them rest from the 
oppression which they exercised upon them by his command. And 
he also seized under many pretexts the property of the rich and from 
such as had nothing to give he took whatever he found in their 
possession, and he put many thousands to death for the sake of 

1 Gf. Euseb., Hist. viii. 14, on which verses 36 sqq. appear to be based. 

2 The text has here ^A.tV: = 'to mitigate', 'relax*, a possible meaning of 
dvuvai, but not the right one in this context. Cf. Euseb. Hist. viii. 14 aveTvai 
trpoaT&TTCi 8tojy/j.6f. 



their property. 40. But one cannot give a complete account of the 
deeds perpetrated by this impious man. But the people of the city 
of Rome were helpless in what they did ; for he treated them 
contrary to the customs of their city. 

41. But Constantius was a servant of God, of good report, who 
accomplished his course in wisdom and prudence, being beloved and 
virtuous. All manner of men made prayers and supplications on 
his behalf, the nobles and people and army. 42. It was he that 
built the city of Byzantium and he pursued the good path in 
uprightness. Then he fell asleep and went to God, leaving his 
illustrious son, Constantine, the beloved of God, glorious and 
resplendent in righteousness, whom he appointed emperor to bear 
rule in his stead. 43. And this glorious (and) blessed worshipper 
of the Trinity wrought the will of God always. And he loved all 
the subjects of his empire and he did good unto all, and he accom- 
plished all the days of his sovereignty in modesty and firmness and 
integrity, and he became great before God who liveth for ever. 
44. And the army and all the people blessed him, for he was 
zealous with a goodly zeal for God. And there were revealed in 
his days light and Christian wisdom, powerful and true, and 
charity and tolerance. 45. And he rejected absolutely every charge 
of the informer, 1 and yet he made, without exerting any violence, 
all who were subject to his sway, servants of God. Moreover he 
could not endure to leave (as they were) the churches which had 
been cast down, and so he rebuilt them. Nor did he permit any 
obstacle to withstand the holy Christian worship of God whereby 
he had been consecrated to be emperor (endowed) with goodness 
and modesty. 46. And he took Licinius his sister Constantia's 
husband to be his colleague in the government of Rome, who 
was wanting in none of the virtues of Constantine the upright 
emperor; for he had made him swear a great and terrible oath 
that he would do justice and transgress in no respect against 
our Lord Jesus Christ or against His servants. 47. And at that 
time there came from the east the impious Maximin, the adversary 
of God and slave of Satan. For he had usurped the empire of 
the east as its sole ruler, and he plotted to put to death the 

1 So Zotenberg renders, and perhaps rightly, but this meaning is unknown 
to classical Ethiopic, according to which it should be rendered — ' apostate 
' heretic ', &c. 

lxxvii. 57 BISHOP OF NIKIU 


upright emperor Constantine and refused to execute the sealed 
rescript from 1 Constantine. 48. For he levied war on all the cities 
and provinces under the sway <of Licinius as far as) the city of 
Constantinople, but he was not able to make himself master of them. 
And both the godly Constantine and Licinius his sister's husband 
made preparations to war against these rebels. Constantine 
went to war against Maxentius who was in Rome, and Licinius 
went to war against the impious Maximin in the east. 49. And 
when Maxentius heard of the approach of Constantine the servant 
of God, he proceeded by ship and entered the river of Italy 
which flows by the city of Rome and built a bridge on a secure 
structure for the passage of the combatants, and of his followers, 
and of the augurs who announced to him the oracles of Satan! 
50. He knew not indeed that the godly Constantine had the help 
of Christ. And when the impious Maxentius and all his people 
had crossed the river of Italy, the cavalry that were posted on 
the bridge came to meet him before the arrival of the Godloving 
Constantine. 51. And when Constantine arrived, he took his 
position at a distance and did not enter the battle but waited to 
see the manifestation of the help of God. And the enemy indeed 
grew strong and powerful. 52. And while Constantine was so 
engaged, he lay down and fell asleep, grieved and sad at heart. 
And he saw a vision in the form of the holy cross in the heaven 
and there was written thereon this inscription : < By this sio- n of 
the cross thou shalt conquer/ 53. And thereupon he arose hastily 
and began the battle and fought and won the victory over his 
adversaries ; and not one of them remained, and he exterminated 
them all. 54. And those who were with Maxentius the commander- 
in-chief wished to escape and reach the city of Rome. But by the 
command of God the bridge was broken and they were all drowned 
in the depths. And there was joy in Rome that the impious were 
drowned. 55. And the senate of Maxentius, and his nobles and his 
army and all the people and the peasants together with their babes 
took waxen torches and clad themselves in clean and white garments 
and went with musicians to meet the servant of God the emperor 
Constantine. 56. And not only did the city of Rome rejoice but 
also all the cities and provinces and the city of Constantinople 
with them. 57. And Constantine was not uplifted in his heart 
1 I have emended = 'to ' or < with ' into fcyffl: = « f r0 




nor did he boast of his glory and his triumph as other kings 
had done. He was, on the contrary, modest and humble of heart 
and gave the praise to God and extolled his Lord, the Lord of 
all, Jesus Christ, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. 58. And 
thereupon he entered the city of Rome in triumph, and all the 
Romans prostrated themselves before him, and as many as had 
survived the battle submitted themselves to his commands. And 
Constantine thereupon entered the palace, crowned with the diadem 
of victory. 59. And he made known to all men the miracle with 
which he had been favoured and the victory which he had won 
through the vision which he had seen in the heaven in the form 
of the holy cross. And when they heard this recital all men 
exclaimed : ' Great is the God of the Christians who has delivered 
us and our city from the hands of the impious.' 60. And 
Constantine thereupon ordered the temples to be closed and the 
doors of the churches to be opened, not only in Rome but in every 
city. And S. S) 7 lvester the patriarch of Rome gave him many 
excellent admonitions and instructed him in the pure faith. 
61. And afterwards he went to war against the cities of Persia 
and he conquered them. And when he had conquered them, he 
f established them in peace and confirmed to them presents together 
with a hornf [which they used to blow for the king]. 1 62. And 
he received with kindness all the Christians who were there. 
And he removed the city magistrates and all the officials and replaced 
them with Christians. And he built beautiful churches in all the 
cities and villages. 63. Furthermore he sent his mother the God- 
loving empress Helena to search in the holy Jerusalem for the wood 
of the glorious cross on which was crucified our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ — Praise be unto Him. 64. It was in the days of the 
blessed father fAilimunf, bishop of Jerusalem. 65. And he built 
also the holy edifice of the Resurrection in glorious fashion and 
restored the buildings of Jerusalem so that they were finer than 

1 Our text here deals with the same subject as John Mai. 317 Kal In-etrrpa- 
revffe Kara Xlepawv Kal tv'uaiatv teat erroirjae ira/cra dpTjvrjs piera 'Sapafiapov, 0a<n\tcos 
Tltpawv. Here the Arabic translator read para Xapafidpov as ptera oapafiapas, i. e. 
' with a horn '. ^apapapos is otherwise known as Sapor. The words ' which 
they used to blow for the king' is an explanatory gloss. Hence we should 
probably read ' made peace with Sarabaros and confirmed it to them by 
presents', i.e. K\(\t\ McW; i^flA; (\d.aCftl W^^Ol lOA>lFffl>*! 

lxxvii. 77 



they had been at first, and so it has continued to the present. 
66. And the emperor Constantine also built a church of great 
magnificence and beauty in Byzantium. And its proportions were 
not small but very lofty. 67. And when he had completed the 
building of the city, he named it Constantinople after his own 
name; for previously it had been named Byzantium. 68. And 
he liked to reside therein, and he made it a habitation of Christ. 
69. And he gathered also the sacred Scriptures and placed them in 
the churches. 70. And next he assembled three hundred and eighteen 
saints in the city of Nicaea and established the orthodox faith. 
It is impossible to enumerate the good actions he accomplished. 
71. Amongst the most notable officials (of the empire) there was 
one named Ablawijus, a Christian (who) laboured zealously to 
discover the glorious cross on which our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ was crucified — Praise be to Him. 72. And the three hundred 
and eighteen whom he assembled at Nicaea honoured the emperor 
Constantine, the servant of God, and his mother the Godloving 
empress Helena, and raised to them a worthy memorial and recounted 
their glory from beginning to end. 

73. And Licinius who took over the empire of the east 3 set out to 
war against the impious Maximin. And this perverse wicked (man) 
learnt that he was marching to war against him and (was apprised 
of) the overthrow of Maxentius and his defeat by the godly emperor 
Constantine, and he sought for peace from Licinius. 74. And 
Licinius sent to Constantine saying : ' Maximin seeks for peace and 
offers to accept the glorious and pure Christian faith and forsakes 
his errors and concludes a treaty with me/ And Constantine sent 
the reply that they should accept his proposals. 75. Then Maximin, 
concealing in his heart his evil treachery, sent rescripts to all the 
officials under his sway, forbidding them to disquiet the Christian. 
76. And when the rescripts reached the officials they knew that this 
policy was not in conformity with his wishes but only with the 
faith of his superiors. And for this reason none accorded to him 
honour, anywhere, because of the evil he had previously done to the 

77. Now the emperor Constantine never prevented the chief 
Christians from holding synods or building churches, but he 

1 The grammar of the verse is impossible. I have omitted Afl: before 
' set out '. 



observed carefully the Christian faith and shunned the worship 
of idols. And thus he commanded and gave instruction to all 
that the churches should be left in peace, and he battled on behalf 
of the orthodox faith. 

78. There was a man named Gelasinus of the village of Mariamme, 
which is near to Damascus, about one mile distant. And he lived in 
the midst of a large population who were devoted to the worship 
of idols and dwelt in the city of Heliopolis in Lebanon. 79. And 
at that time they were assembled in a theatre, and they had brought 
actors with them. They put cold water into a large brazen vessel 
and thus began to mock all who came to the holy baptism of the 
Christians. 80. And one of these actors went down into the water 
and was baptized, and when he came out of the water they clothed 
him in a white garment ; for till this incident he had been an 
actor, but after he came forth from the water he refused to pursue 
the avocations of an actor or to play the mimic again, and said : 
1 1 wish to die in the Christian religion on behalf of Christ ' ; and 
added : 1 1 saw a great miracle while I made a mock of holy 
baptism'. 81. And when he had gone but a little way from the 
place of that water, all who were there were filled with wrath and 
indignation; for they were worshippers of idols. 82. And they 
went down from the theatre and seized that holy man and stoned 
him. And he received the crown of martyrdom which fadeth not 
away, and he was enrolled with the holy martyrs. And his relatives 
came with many Christians and took his body and buried it in the 
village and built a church over the place where his body was 
buried. Now the man's name was Gelasinus. 1 May God have 
mercy on us through his intercessions. 

83. Now the impure Maximin did not forsake his wicked errors 
and he was not possessed by the power of righteousness which had 
been acquired from God by the Godloving emperors, who pursued 
a good course through life in knowledge and in understanding. 
84. But this perverse man resolved to make war on the Christ- 
loving emperors ; for he was possessed by a demon that infuriated 
him. And as he had lost his former unlimited authority, he could 
no longer choose for himself those most agreeable or suitable to 
him. 85. And in his pride and stiffneckedness he began to violate 
the treaty he had made with Licinius. fAnd he exerted himself 

1 Cf. John Mai. 314 sq. ; Chron. Pasch. 275 sq. 




to execute deeds which should issue in his destruction through 
fear f, and he changed his mind and stirred up all men and threw 
all the cities into confusion and the officials under his sway. 
86. And he mustered many thousands to war against the God- 
loving emperors and he trusted in the demons from whom he 
received instruction. 87. But from the moment he began to war 
the help of God was withdrawn from him, and Licinius conquered 
him and slew all the soldiers in whom he trusted and the officers. 
And all the remaining troops betook themselves to Licinius and 
cast themselves at his feet. 88. And when Maxim in saw this he 
fled in fear ; for he was dispirited, and he quitted shamefully the 
field of battle and came to his own province. And he was full of 
wrath and indignation against the idolatrous priests and lying 
prophets, and augurs, for they had persuaded him through favourable 
counsels. 89. And for this reason he slew them in whom he had 
(formerly) boasted himself, and whom he had made gods. Then 
it was that he learnt for himself that they were impostors and 
powerless to give aid in war. And he renounced the demons who 
had instructed him with counsel, and he slew the magicians who 
wrought evil. But he had no zeal for the salvation of his soul : he 
was feeble, and praised not the God of the Christians, and he refused 
wholly to accept the law and its blessings. 90. And Licinius gave 
orders to carry on the war against those who remained in the tenth 
year after the persecution of the Christians, wherein Diocletian, the 
father (of Maximin), the adversary of God, had persecuted them. 
During all this length of days (Maximin) had not repented with 
a genuine repentance nor truly hoped for salvation. 91. And after 
his flight from the field of battle, he suffered from disease of the 
heart, and grew weak from a grievous disease which came upon 
him from God. And his flesh was devoured through the fire of 
the disease, and this fire burned in his belly, and his appearance was 
altered and his limbs wasted away, and his intestines were con- 
sumed, and his bones became prominent and finally his eyes fell 
out. And in the midst of all this affliction, his soul left his body. 

92. It is thus the three adversaries of God, Diocletian and his two 
sons, perished. But before he died the impious Maximin recognized 
that all this had befallen him because of his rebellion against 
Christ and the evils which he had inflicted on the Christian saints. 

93. And in those days Licinius took possession of the east and 

f 2 

68 THE CHRONICLE OE JOHN lxxvit. 9 4 

exercised authority over it and the adjoining provinces. And the 
church dwelt in tranquillity and peace, and he restored again its 
edifices and the church was lighted with the light of Christ. 

94. But again thereafter Satan, the evil-doer, who is ever seeking 
to seduce all the faithful as a devouring lion, which is treacherous 
and cunning, seduced Licinius also and made him forget his 
honourable deeds of aforetime, and he inclined towards doing the 
actions of those whose eyes have been blinded, and he was zealous 
to follow their evil way, and his heart was not glad as before. 

95. Formerly he had not been estranged from the emperor Con- 
stantine, but afterwards he forgot the covenant and the oath which 
had been made between them, and he took evil counsel against the 
great emperor Constantine to slay him. But Christ, the true 
God, foiled the plots of Licinius. 96. Formerly, indeed, he had 
honoured and praised Jesus Christ ; but when he denied Him He 
delivered him over to a cruel death, refusing him forgiveness 
because of the shameful deeds that he had done. 97. And Licinius 
began to persecute the Christians and to levy war upon the God- 
loving Constantine as his impious predecessors had done, whose 
memorial bad been blotted out by the Lord. 98. And he began 
also to demolish and close the churches and to put to death the 
holy believers. And as for the soldiers who were strong in the 
Christian faith, he degraded them, and subjected the rich to 
tortures. 1 99. And he appointed agents in every city and village 
to put a stop to the holy, that is, the Christian worship of God, 
lest prayers should be offered up for the faithful emperor Constan- 
tine. And he turned them from the worship of God to that of 
demons. And he wrought very many evil acts. 100. But Con- 
stantine did not cease to praise and worship the one true Lord 
God. And together with Crispus, whom he had appointed Caesar, 
a strong man, kindly disposed to men and faithful to God, he 
assembled a strong army, and they went forth to war against the 
adversaries of God, under the guidance of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ, with invincible powers. 101. And though Licinius 
was his brother-in-law, Constantine had no mercy upon him, but he 
was firm on behalf of the holy faith which that rebel had forsaken, 
turning to demons. And for this reason he went against him 

» Our .author seems to have had Euseb. Hist. x. 8, or an equivalent source 
before him when writing this section regarding the apostasy of Licinius. 




speedily armed with punishment, and he laid low him and all his 
army and exterminated them with a terrible and bitter death. 
102. And all these happenings had come upon Licinius because 
he had denied Christ and had violated the oath and the covenant 
which he had made with Constantine. 103. And thereupon he 
took possession of the empire of Licinius and made it one with 
his own : yea, he took possession of the empires of the east and of 
the west and of the south and of the north. And they all came 
under his authority, and he established universal peace and was at 
one with all men and blessed by all men, and he duly made strong 
all the frontiers of the empire till his adversaries submitted to his 
authority through the might of our Lord Jesus Christ the son of 
the true Lord God. 104. And he made his two sons emperors, 
Constantius and Constans, with honour and majesty. Then he fell 
asleep without regret or trouble; for our Lord Jesus Christ, the 
true God, protected his empire to the third generation. 105. And 
the blessed Constans resembled his father, and he walked in the 
right way and accomplished all his days virtuously. 

106. And after his death the people of Yemen received the 
knowledge of God, and were illuminated with the light of the praise 
of our Lord Jesus Christ — praise be unto Him — by means of a holy 
woman named Theognosta. 107. Now she was a Christian virgin 
who had been carried off captive from a convent on the borders of 
the Roman empire and bad been conducted to the king of Yemen 
and presented to him as a gift. 108. And this Christian woman 
became very rich through the grace of God and wrought many 
healings. And she brought over the king of India to the faith, 
and he became a Christian through her agency as well as all the 
people of India. 109. Then the king of India and his subjects 
requested the Godloving emperor Honorius to appoint them a 
bishop. 110.. And he rejoiced with gi-eat joy because they had 
embraced the faith and turned to God, and he appointed them a 
holy bishop, named Theonius, who admonished them and instructed 
them and strengthened them in the faith of Christ our God till 
they were worthy to receive baptism which is the second birth 
through the prayers of the holy virgin Theognosta. 111. Glory 
be unto our Lord Jesus Christ who alone worketh marvels and 
bestoweth goodly gifts on those who trust in Him. And so it was 
also in India, that is, the great India. For the men of that country 



had formerly received a man named Afrudit (i. e. Frumentius). 1 
He was of noble birth of the country of India and they had made 
him their bishop, having been instituted and ordained by Athanasius 
the apostolic, the patriarch of Alexandria. 112. Now (Afrudit) 
had told him concerning the grace which they had received through 
the Holy Spirit and the manner in which they had found the 
salvation of their souls through the grace of holy baptism and were 
made worthy of this gift. 

113. As for the Christ-loving emperor Constantine, there was 
with him always a bright angel of God which at all times directed 
and instructed him in the will of God until the memorable day of 
his death. And he waked him also from his bed for prayer every 
clay. And he was visible to him alone of the emperors. 114. And 
as he beheld visions in the heaven he fell asleep after a pure life : 
he was an oblation to God, and he went to his rest in heaven. 

Chapter LXXVIII. 1 . And these are the names of the sons of the 
great emperor Constantine, Constantius, Constans, and Constantine. 
And they divided the empire of their father into three parts which 
they assigned by lot. 2. And to Constantius there fell by lot the 
province of Asia and he became emperor over it. And to Constantine 
(there fell) Constantinople, and he seated himself on the throne of 
his father. And Constans became emperor over Rome, the great 
city of Rome. 3. But feuds arose between Constans and Constantine 
in regard to the empire and their subjects, and they warred against 
each other, and Constantine died in battle. 4. And thereafter 
Constans, the younger of the two, resided in Rome only, but 
Constantius reigned in Byzantium, that is, Constantinople. 5. And 
Arius appeared in his days and he attached himself to his doctrine 
and became an Arian. And in consequence of this (heresy) 
Sapor- Arsekius, 2 king of Persia, attacked the Roman empire, and 
there was much bloodshed between them. 6. And afterwards they 
were reconciled and there was peace and tranquillity and love 
between Rome and Persia. 7. And on his way back to Byzantium 
Constantius built a bridge strongly constructed over the river 
named Py ramus in Cilicia. 8. And in his days, moreover, the city 
of Nicaea, the chief of cities of our three hundred and eighteen 
Fathers, was overthrown by a great earthquake. And this fell out 

1 Cf. Socrates, Hist. Eccles. i. 19. 

2 Cf. John Mai. 325. The right designation is Xairwp 'ApaaKrjs. 

lxxviii. 17 BISHOP OF NIKIU 71 

through the will of God in order that the Arians should not assemble 
therein to corrupt the holy orthodox faith established by our holy 
Fathers, the three hundred and eighteen bishops, who assembled 
formerly in the days of Constantine — a festival of happy memory. 
And it was for this reason that the wrath of God prevented them. 

9. And afterwards there appeared in heaven a sign, that is, the 
holy cross standing at midday over the holy place where our 
Saviour Jesus Christ was crucified, before the arrival of Cyril, 
patriarch of Jerusalem, and other bishops who were with him. 
10. And Cyril thereupon and the bishops who were with him wrote 
a letter and sent it to the emperor Constans regarding the great 
marvel and the great sign which had appeared. 

11. Now the emperor Constans was zealous for the faith of his 
father, and he was earnestly devoted to the religion of God. And 
he resembled his brother who died in battle (and) admired him, but 
he hated his brother who ruled in Asia because he had not kept 
the faith of the Godloving Constantine, and promulgated many 
decrees against the apostolic Athanasius, the patriarch of Alexandria, 
and chased him from his bishopric in order to please the heretics, 
i, e. the Arians. 12. The hatreds and differences that divided the 
two imperial brothers, Constantius and Constans, were very violent. 
And this hatred had arisen not only on account of the death of 
their brother, but also because of Athanasius the patriarch of 
Constantinople, and of Constantius's declension from the faith 
of his father and his unacceptableness to our Lord Jesus Christ. 

13. And on these grounds he strengthened (his) hatred against 
his brother. And whilst so engaged Constans died, having pleased 
God and cursed Constantius his brother because of his evil deeds. 

14. And after the death of Constans, the emperor Constantius 
sent an officer to slay Athanasius, the glorious Father, the head 
of the church. 15. Heretofore Constans had protected him from 
the evil designs of his brother, and Constantius feared his brother 
and concealed his evil designs in his heart. 16. But after the death 
of his brother Constans, he disclosed all that was in his heart 
and sought to slay him. But the right hand of the Most High 
God protected him, and he took to flight and concealed himself 
and was saved from his hands. 17. And the officer who was sent 
to the apostolic Athanasius raised a tumult against the Christians ; 
for he belonged to the sect of Manes. And in those days it was 



not only the Arians who disquieted the church : the Manichaeans 
also were roused on a different principle, and stirred up a persecution 
of the Christians, and there was much disquiet and shedding of 

18. And afterwards there arose against the city of Rome 
a powerful leader named Magnentius, and he usurped the imperial 
power fat the hour of sunsetf 1 without the permission of Con- 
stantius. And he marched into Europe and gave battle to 
Constantius, and many were slain on both sides, and finally the 
mighty Magnentius was slain also. And Constantius won the day 
and made himself master of all the possessions of Magnentius. 
19. And after Constantius won the victory he did not praise God 
as had the Christian emperors who preceded him. In all his 
actions, on the contrary, he followed the guidance of the Arians. 

20. And later he assembled a council of heretical bishops in 
Milan, that is in Italy, at the instigation of these heretics who 
had rejected the orthodox faith and denied the worship of the 
Holy Trinity. 21. And he made them write a sentence of excom- 
munication against the apostolic Athanasius, the patriarch of 
Alexandria, and the bishops who followed him. 22. And these are 
the names of those who were exiled with the apostolic Athanasius : 
Liberius, patriarch of Rome, who was appointed after Julius; 
Paulinus, 2 metropolitan of Gaul ; Dionysius, metropolitan of Italy ; 
and Lucifer, 2 metropolitan of the island of Sardinia. And they 
made Auxentius the Arian bishop of the province of Italy. 
23. And (he sent into exile also) the aged and illustrious confessor 
Hosius, 3 bishop of the west. 24. And he made also the holy 
(Fathers) who had assembled in Nicaea to go forth, and exiled 
them from their bishoprics. And later, when the emperor Con- 
stantius was in Rome, illustrious women came in a body to him 
and besought him to recall Liberius the patriarch from exile. 
And the emperor brought him back to Rome. 25. Now Eelix 
was the minister of Liberius the patriarch who had come to terms 
with the Arians, and they made him patriarch after the expulsion 

1 As Zotenberg suggests, this is a mistaken rendering : he compares Socrates, 
Hist. Eccles. ii. 25 MayvtVTios ntpl to tontpia ptpr) kirefptir] rvpavvos. We expect 
' imperial power of the west '. 

2 Paulinus and Lucifer are very corrupt in the text, owing to faulty trans- 
literations of the Arabic. Cf. Socrates, Hist. Eccles. ii. 36. 

3 So Zotenberg conjectures. Text corrupt. 




of his master. Bat on the return of his master Liherius from exile, 
he (Felix) treated him with hauteur and dislike on account of his 
restoration. Then he, too, was exiled from Borne to a city of the 
west and obliged to reside there. 

26. And in those days Constantius sent Gallus, his fsister'sf son, 
to the east by night. This (Gallus) had formerly fought against 
Magnentius and slain him, and was a Christian in all his ways. 
27. And after he had slain this powerful (rebel), he returned to 
Constantinople. Then Constantius appointed him emperor of 
Rome and sent him to reside there. 28. And after Gallus arrived 
in Rome, his brother J ulian of evil name returned to Constantinople 
from the province of Bithynia to the emperor Constantius ; for he 
had put to death many of his relations and feared lest they should 
calumniate him to the emperor. 29. Now this Julian was a strong 
and powerful man. Formerly he had resided as reader in the church 
of Nicomedia, but he had been troubled with doubts regarding the 
Christian faith. 30. And Gallus, who was emperor of Rome by 
the will of the emperor Constantius because he was his f son-in-lawf 
and because he was attached to him, lived but a few days longer 
and then died. 31. Thereupon Julian gave up reading the holy 
Scriptures, and betook himself to the protection of the troops 
and officers of Rome, and let the hair of his head grow long and 
became a great captain. 32. And subsequently he was appointed 
emperor in Europe, according to the Christian custom, by the 
permission of the emperor Constantius. But he did not wait till 
they had placed on his head the imperial crown according to 
custom ; but walked according to the misguidance of augurs and 
the directions of magicians and became a servant of demons, 
and aspired to the proud position (of sole emperor) and began to 
make war on the emperor Constantius. 33. And when Constantius 
became aware of this movement he mustered a numerous army from 
the provinces of Syria, and he came into Cilicia in order to do battle 
with Julian; for he thought he should slay him. 34. But when 
Constantius was so purposing he fell ill and died, and so was unable 
to carry out his purpose ; 1 for God had brought evils upon him 
that he might return to the earth from which he came. 35. And 
when Julian was informed of the death of Constantius he took 
possession of the empire. He was strong and powerful exceedingly, 
1 U£VJP"J*; is here emended into U£Vf *!*: with Zotenberg. 

74 THE CHRONICLE OF JOHN lxxviii. 3 <5 

and he restored the exiled bishops to their thrones. And he brought 
the apostolic Athanasius from exile and sent him back to Alexandria : 
Meletius to Antioeh : Cyril, the author of the homilies, to Jerusalem : 
Eusebius, Lucifer, and Hilary to the west : and others who were in 
like plight to their several churches. 36. Bat after a short time he 
discovered his unbelief and apostasy owing to the philosophers, of 
whom one was named Libanius, of the city of Antioeh, and the other 
Maximus one of the augurs. 37. Supported and strengthened by 
these, Julian closed the churches and opened the temples, and 
plundered the precious vessels of the house of God and gave them 
openly to impostors. 38. Next he attacked the worshippers of 
Jesus Christ and proclaimed himself the restorer of temples, and 
offered abominable sacrifices to idols and kindled fire before the 
altars of demons, and polluted the earth with the blood of impure 
sacrifices, and polluted the air with the smoke of fat. 39. And at 
the instigation of the heathen he sent (agents) to slay the great 
(and) apostolic Athanasius. But he quitted his bishopric and fled and 
hid himself from him. 40. And this apostate emperor, like his 
father Satan, destroyed the holy edifices that had been built by 
the Godloving emperor Constantine, and made all these holy places 
into dwellings of demons and temples of idols. 41. And they 
lorded it over the inoffensive Christians and they began to mock 
them and destroy them and slay them and evilly entreat them, not 
only for a short time but for a lengthened period. And they 
bellowed like ferocious beasts against them and terrified them. 

42. It was at this period that evil and idolatrous men kindled 
a fire in order to burn the body of S. John the Baptist. But the 
power of our Lord Jesus Christ foiled their design, and all these 
apostates seeing a terrible apparition took to flight. 43. And there 
were there certain inhabitants of Alexandria who took the body of 
S. John and conveyed it to Alexandria and gave it secretly to the 
holy Athanasius the patriarch before his flight. 44. And he con- 
veyed it and placed it secretly in the house of a magistrate, one of 
the great people of the city. And this secret was known only to a 
few priests and to Theophilus the third patriarch (after Athanasius). 
45. Now the latter was reader and singer when they brought the 
body of S. John. And after Athanasius Peter became patriarch, 
and after Peter, his brother Timothy Aktemon, whose name is by 
interpretation * without possessions and after Timothy, Theophilus 




who destroyed the temple named Serapis(?) and converted it into 
a church. 46. Now (this church) was massive and its dimensions 
lofty and it was very much decorated. And he made it with pomp 
the abiding -place of the body of S. John the Baptist. And it is 
also said that after many days Theophilus took the body of S. John 
and his head and placed them in the tomb which had been con- 
structed in the midst of the church. 47. And he made great 
rejoicings and a glorious feast. And the inhabitants of the city 
were uplifted because of him and made him notable with praise. 

Chapter LXXIX. 1. And it is said in regard to the holy Theo- 
philus, the patriarch of Alexandria, that he was a citizen of Memphis, 
the city of Pharaoh, formerly called Arcadia. And he was of Christian 
origin. 2. And he had a little sister and an Ethiopian slave who 
had belonged to his parents. Now they were orphans and he was 
but a child in years and stature. 3. And one night about the time 
of dawn this slave took the children by the hand and brought them 
to a temple of abominable gods, namely of Artemis and Apollo, in 
order to pray there according to the errors of their worship. 4. And 
when the children entered, the gods fell to the earth and were 
broken. And the slave was frightened thereby and she took the 
children and went in flight to the city of Nikius ; for she feared the 
priests of the abominable idols. 5. And she feared also lest the 
people of Nikius should deliver her up to the priests of the idols, and 
so she carried off the children with her and came to Alexandria. 
6. And, as the divine inspiration moved her, and the grace of God 
rested upon her, she took the children and brought them to the 
church in order to be rightly acquainted with the practice of 
the Christian mysteries. 7. And at that time God revealed to the 
Father Athanasius, the patriarch of Alexandria, the circumstances 
of the children when they entered the church and their position 
near the place of exhortation (i. e. pulpit). And he gave orders 
that the three should be guarded till the celebration was over. 
8. And thereafter they brought the children and the slave to the 
holy Athanasius, and he interrogated the slave and said unto her : 
' What hast thou done and why did not the gods who are without 
understanding assist thee ? Why rather, when they saw the 
children of the Church, did they fall to the earth and were broken ? 
Henceforth these children will belong to me '. 9. And when the 
slave heard these things, she was astonished at the words of the saint 



in that he knew the secret things that had befallen in the temple. 
Then she could not deny all that she had done : nay more, she cast 
herself at his feet and begged to be baptized into the Holy Christian 
faith. 10. And he baptized them and made them Christians and 
they received the light of grace and were (born) anew. 11. And 
(he sent) the little girl to a convent of virgins to remain there till 
the time of her marriage. Then she was given in marriage to a 
man of Mahalle, in the north of Egypt, which was formerly called 
Didusja. 12. It was there the holy Cyril was born, the great star 
which lighted up all places by his doctrine, being clothed with the 
Holy Spirit. It was he who became patriarch after Theophilus, 
his mother's brother. 13. And after the child, the holy Theophilus, 
was baptized, they shaved his head and numbered him amongst the 
readers and appointed him to be an anagnostes. 14. And he was 
reared with care in the manner that befitteth saints, and he grew 
up and became a youth well pleasing to God, and he learnt all the 
God-inspired Scriptures of the Church and observed their laws. 

15. And next they ordained him deacon and he became very zealous 
for the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, in purity and holiness. 

16. And later he was clothed with the garments of the priesthood 
and he became the chief and sat on the throne of Mai'k the 
Evangelist in the city of Alexandria. 17. And when he became 
patriarch, he illuminated eveiy city with the light of his holy 
faith, and delivered all the cities of Egypt from the worship of 
idols and he destroyed all the makers of images, even as the holy 
apostolic Athanasius had prophesied regarding him. 

Chapter LXXX. 1. And the wretched Julian began to build 
the sanctuary of the Jews in Jerusalem which the Romans had 
destroyed, and he offered sacrifices there, for he was devoted to the 
shedding of blood. 2. But our Lord Jesus Christ — praise be unto 
Him — brought to nought his works and ordinances. 3. And Sapor 
Arsaces, king of Persia, who was of a pacific disposition and had 
paid tribute to the Godloving emperor Constantine, went forth to 
war with the Romans. 4. It was at that time that the holy martyr 
Domitius finished his course. 1 Eor the emperor Julian, the enemy 
of God, after having offered sacrifice to demons in the city named 
Casius, 2 in the neighbourhood of Antioch, about six miles distant, 

1 Cf. John Mai. 328 ; Chron. Pasch. 297. 

2 KvppTjariicd in John Mai. and Chron. Pasch. 

LXXX. 16 



where there was the idol Apollo, arose and went forth to war 
with the Persians, he and the forces of Rome. 5. And he was 
accompanied by all the demon-possessed and deceitful augurs. 
And as he marched he came to a grassy spot, and he saw there 
many men, women, and children. 6. And many of the sick were 
healed through the prayer of the holy Domitius, the servant of 
God. 7. And he questioned (them) saying : f What is this assem- 
blage which I see ? ' And they replied : ' A monk is working 
miracles and healing the sick : and this assemblage which thou 
seest is composed of Christians ; they receive a blessing from him 
and are healed by him '. 8. And Julian was wroth and sent to him 
a soldier treacherously 1 in a menacing tone and said : ' If thou 
dwellest in this cave in order to please God, why dost thou desire 
to please men, and why hast thou not hidden thyself ? ' 9. And 
the holy Domitius answered and said: 'I have committed wholly 
my soul and my body into the hands of the God of heaven, the 
true God, Jesus Christ. And behold it is now many years since 
I have closed this cave upon myself. And as for the assemblage 
which have come to me in faith, I cannot drive them away \ 10. 
And when the emperor heard these words he commanded the soldiers 
to close the mouth of the cave on the righteous old man till he 
died. 11. And thus he accomplished his course in the twenty-third 
day of the month Hamle, and received the martyr's crown which 
fadeth not away. 

12. But the punishment of God was not slow in overtaking 
Julian the Apostate. 13. Now he marched against the Persians 
who were idolators like himself, and he marched witli haste and 
never again saw Rome. 14. But he did not accomplish what the 
deceivers had promised to him saying: f We the gods will unite to 
give thee aid the moment thou dost enter the river \ 15. And 
this unfortunate man was deceived by their words and was not 
able to open his mouth by reason of their flow of speech. 16. And 
they named that river the river of fire because there were wild 
beasts in it. 2 And for this reason it is named by this name. 

1 The text seems corrupt here. Better read £ ; T <7 2f?': = for 
fZst'Wi', , and instead of ' treacherously ' render ' and requested '. 

2 The explanation of these words and ver. 14 is to be found in an oracle of 
Apollo given to Julian and recorded in Theodoret (Graecarum Affeclionum Curaiio, 
p. 382, ed. Gaisford) : XlapairKricriov 5e t< didpane ml iwl 'lovKiavov r?)v op/xty Zx oVTOS 


17. And Julian was obstinately attached to error and called himself 
< the despiser of the word of God \ For he trusted in idols and 
consulted demons who were not able to save him, but misled 
him with vain performances ; for they destroyed his understanding 
and he became an adversary of God, the glorious Creator and 
our Saviour Jesus Christ, who shed His blood on behalf of many 
and became the true foundation for believers, who avenged His 
Christian servants. 18. Now Julian shed the blood of many 
Christians, and in his days many believers were put to death, 
and he visited with severe persecution those who called upon the 
name of Christ. 19. Now, while this apostate was proposing to 
war against the Persians, vengeance came upon him from our 
Lord J esus Christ, and he was slain by the hand of His servant 
Mercury, the martyr. 20. And on the night on which this 
abominable transgressor was slain, the holy Basil, who was clothed 
with God, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, saw a vision. 21 And 
he saw the heavens opened and our Lord .Jesus Christ sittino* on 
the throne of His glory (and) saying with a loud voice : f Mercury, 
go and slay Julian the adversary of My anointed ones And the 
holy Mercury was standing before him clothed with a flashing corslet 
of steel. 1 22. And on hearing the command of our Lord Jesus Christ 
he departed, disappearing for a short space, and after a short space 
he reappeared 2 and cried with a loud voice: f I have slain the 
emperor Julian in accordance with Thy command, and he is dead, 
O Lord'. 23. The bishop awoke astonied and terrified. Now 
Julian used to honour the holy Basil greatly because they had been 
bound by tics of friendship from their youth. For they were versed 
in letters 3 and Basil also had written frequently to him in order to 

tcard twv 'Affffvptcov Nw ydp, (<p v , n&vres &p^6 W (v 0col irapA @ v pl nora^ vi K rjs 
rpu-rrata KofilaaoQcu. 

1 Cf. John Mai. 333 sq. Text has here 'a new and blooming corslet ', which 
Zotenberg accepts. But frW: = < blooming » is only used of plant life. The 
wrong sense seems due to the confusion of the participles of two different 
conjugations of jit) by the translator. Here it should have been 'shining', 
'flashing'. Again, (h%Cll - 'new' is corrupt for (hSLA =ferrum. Thus our 
text reproduces the same original as John Mai. 333 i<p6 P « e&paxa aibrjpow dvo- 
criX&ovTa. This corruption of the two manuscripts points to the fact that 
neither A nor B is an immediate copy of the original translation. 

2 Here text adds corruptly 'and appeared a third time'. 

3 We should not insert 'Ktd.t in the text as Zotenberg does. Cf. John Mai. 
334 Wiiia -ydp avrdv . . . <hs kWdytftov Kal av/xirpd/cTopa avrov K al "rypaQtv avrS, 


LXXX. 33 



prevail on him to forsake his errors, but he had refused. 24. Arid 
when the bishop Basil awaked from sleep, he called the venerable 
priests and the faithful to early morning' prayers in the church. 
25. And after the completion of the prayers, he recounted to them 
this vision which he had seen, saying : f Can J ulian really be dead ? ' 
And when they heard these words, the priests and the people 
feared and thereupon asked him to be silent till the matter was fully 
ascertained. But the man of God was not willing- to be silent, but 
spake out and feared not ; for he trusted in God and in our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 26. And soon it fell out according to the vision of 
S. Basil, and the death of Julian the apostate was heard of 
throughout all the provinces, even his destruction which God had 
accomplished by the hand of his martyr S. Mercurius. 27. Now 
this apostate had brought destruction and disasters on the army. 
He had the noses of two Persians cut off who, as guides, had con- 
ducted the army into a mountainous and waterless desert whence 
there was no means of issue, when he wished to attack the Persians. 

28. And the Roman soldiers perished in that region of hunger and 
thirst and many hardships ; for these Persians had dealt subtly 
with the Romans and had destroyed them. But this apostate 
Julian did not recognize (this) indubitable judgement of God. 

29. And his crimes had continued all the days of his life, even 
forty and four years. 1 

30. After the death of Julian the Roman troops assembled in 
order to appoint an emperor, and through the help of God being 
all of one mind whilst they were in Persia, they chose Jovian to 
be their emperor. 31. Now he was an orthodox Christian (and) 
.a faithful servant of God. He, however, was unwilling to be 
emperor, but he was made emperor by force. 32. Previously 
indeed he had been commander-in-chief, and for this reason he 
received the imperial crown. And after they had made him 
emperor, he ascended an eminence and addressed in a loud voice 
all the people and the troops as follows : ' If ye wish me to become 
your emperor, become Christians like me, and believe in Christ, and 
become the foes of idols \ 33. Thereupon all the people and the 
troops cried out with one voice, saying : ' We are Christians : 
Henceforth Christ is our emperor and His glorious Cross And for 

1 Julian was only 32 when he died, according to Eutropius, 31 according to 
Ammian. xxv. 3, 23 ; Socrates, iii. 21 ; 33 according to John Mai. 333. 



LXXX. 34 

this reason they honoured the emperor and praised him with great 

34. And when the Persians had been apprised of the death of 
Julian they sent ambassadors to Jovian the Godloving emperor to 
negotiate terms of peace and friendship. And the emperor Jovian 
received them gladly, and peace and friendship were made between 
Rome and Persia. 35. And the Persians agreed to pay tribute, and 
he (Jovian) remitted the tribute of one year, because Julian the 
apostate had previously destroyed and made a wilderness of the 
city of Anderwan. 36. Nevertheless he commanded them to build 
outside the imperial frontiers a city for themselves, and he named 
this city Amides. 1 And he strengthened it with walls and fortifi- 
cations, and filled it with a numerous population, and he made it 
like the first city which Julian the apostate had destroyed. And 
he that was set over this city besought greatly the emperor 
Jovian to name it after the name of Rome. But he refused on 
account of the peace and friendship subsisting between Rome 
and Persia. 2 

Chapter LXXXI. j. And after the conclusion of the war the 
Christian emperor Jovian evacuated Persia and brought back safely 
all the remaining troops. 2. But such as he found holding the evil 
sentiments of Julian the apostate he destroyed and exterminated. 
3. And forthwith he opened the churches of Constantinople and 
closed the temples. And he restored to the Christians the Christian 
cities which Julian the apostate had taken from them, and he 
appointed Christian (governors) in all the cities, and he destroyed 
all the temples to their foundations, and the worshippers of idols 
became few. 4. And he interdicted also the religion of the Arians 
who are adversaries of Christ ; for he was an unwavering orthodox 
believer and a true worshipper of the Holy Trinity who give life to 
all. 5. And he became glorious as the light of the sun through all 
his actions and his true and upright faith. And he was full of 
virtues and did good unto all men of his time. 6. And he addressed 
also a decree to all the Roman provinces to this effect : 1 1, the 
Godloving Jovian, commander-in-chief, true emperor (and) master 

1 The text is inaccurate. Cf. John Mai. 336 sq. ; Chron. Pasch. 800. 

2 The true account is that Jovian surrendered five Mesopotamian provinces 
with the fortresses of Nisibis and Singara. Even John Mai. 336 sq. concedes 
most of this. 

LXXXI. 15 



of the world, hereby write to all the Christians under my sway. 
7. I am solicitous over you in the Lord and I rejoice with you in 
regard to the holy church which is in the midst of the city, as 
the navel in the midst of the belly. For it has triumphed greatly 
over all who opposed it. 8. Now the anger of the emperor Julian 
arose against it and he closed it; but I give orders to have it 
reopened and restored to a condition of repose in order that there 
may be given to it a pure and holy priesthood who may therein 
offer prayers to heaven — which may God in His mercy vouchsafe 
to receive. 9. And now let us exert ourselves to reopen the church 
and let us perform its offices, and honour its ministers, in order that 
all the people and army of Rome may assemble within it. For it 
was given to them by God, merciful and gracious, in order that 
prayer and supplications might always be offered therein with 
befitting earnestness/ 

10. And Jovian addressed a letter to this effect also to the 
apostolic S. Athanasius, the patriarch of Alexandria, in order to 
restore him to his city in great honour. 11. 'From the emperor 
Jovian to the Godloving S. Athanasius. We admire thee and thy 
wise manner of life and fthy near approaches to the kings f and 
thy faithful virtues and thy noble earnestness % to fulfil the work of 
our Lord Jesus Christ — praise be unto Him. 12. We request thee, 
honoured bishop; for thou hast undergone every labour and hast 
not feared those who persecuted thee nor the tribulations that have 
overtaken thee, but hast accounted wrath and indignation as a 
thing of nought and reckoned them as no better than a worthless 
straw. 13. And thou hast gone in the footsteps of the orthodox 
faith and hast proceeded unto the end, and hast left (the example) 
of thy life to those that come after thee and hast bound them with 
perfect faith and virtuous deeds.f 1 14. Return now to our imperial 
domain and resume thy teaching which is full of salvation. And 
preserve the churches and feed the people of Christ and zealously 
address thy prayers to God on our behalf and on behalf of our 
empire that we may be saved through thy prayers. 15. For we 
think that we shall gain the help of the Most High God through 
the supplications of thy pure and holy tongue ; for it is inspired by 

1 Verses 11-13 are a faulty rendering. Cf. Athanasii Opera; Patrol. Oraec. 
t. xxvi, col. 813. 




LXXXI. 16 

the Holy Spirit. 16. And we have written 1 this letter to thee 
that thou mayst enlighten the people with the light of Christ 
and mayst put an end to idols, the adversaries of God, and likewise 
to the heresy of the A nans who persecuted them [that we may be 
saved by thy prayers]. 

17. And when the apostolic S. Athanasius, the light of the world, 
had read this letter, he convoked all the holy bishops and the 
honoured doctors and wrote two treatises : the first on the Word of 
God, who is one of the Holy Trinity, and the second on the precepts 
of Christ. 18. And he addressed a letter also to S. Basil, who 
constantly thought upon and studied the works of God, and said : 
' The Godloving emperor Jovian accepts absolutely and with joy 
the orthodox faith of the Council of Nicaea : rejoice thou therefore ; 
for he is orthodox and has established the pure faith of the Holy 

19. And the emperor Jovian finished his course in peace and 
integrity, doing that which was well pleasing to God. 20. And 
whilst he was so engaged he set out to go to the city of Byzantium, 
and though attacked by an illness he passed through Cilicia and 
Galatia and came to the city named Didastana, 2 and he went to his 
rest there. 20. For the world was not worthy to receive such an 
emperor, as he was good and pious and merciful and humble, 
Christian and orthodox. 

Chapter LXXXII. 1. And after the death of the Godloving 
Jovian, Valentinian, being the foremost 3 amongst the officers, came 
to mourn with them over the death of the emperor Jovian. 2. And 
whilst they were so mourning and were anxiously deliberating on 
the appointment of their emperor, then Sallust the prefect of the 
praetorians came (forward) and enjoying a very illustrious position 
amongst the officers advised them and said : f It is most suitable 
for us that Valentinian should be made emperor. At an earlier 
date he was a general and was persecuted by Julian the apostate on 
account of his orthodox faith.' 3. And when the officers- and the 
troops had heard the advice of Sallust they appointed him emperor 
and had him proclaimed as follows by the voice of heralds in all the 

1 I have omitted the impossible H before Rrh*?l! 

2 Cf. John Mai. 337. 

3 There is no reason for the insertion made here by Zotenberg either in this 
line or the next. By these insertions a wrong sense is given to the text. 




provinces : ' Valentinian, a just man (and) a Christian, whose words 
are just and whose utterance is true, has become emperor.' 4. And 
when he became emperor, he appointed Sallust vizier (sic) over all 
his officers ; for he was no respecter of persons. And when Sallust 
became vizier and was empowered with authority, he strengthened 

I the cause of justice and right in all the provinces, and was full of 

/ discernment and refused bribes and did not give his confidence 
I rashly. 1 And the emperor was pleased with him because he was 
a doer of the right. 5. And next Valentinian made Valens his 
brother emperor in Constantinople, but he went himself to Rome 

i, and established his authority over all the empire of the west. 

^ 6. And he condemned many magistrates who were guilty of injustice 
and took bribes. 7. And there was an officer of the palace named 

^ Rhodanus who had committed an act of injustice on a widow and 
had taken possession of her property. 8. And she went and told 
\ the emperor, and the emperor commanded (him) to restore all her 

; property. 2 And from that day he was honoured by the army and 
the senate, and by all peoples, 9, For this just and equitable 
emperor hated oppression and judged with the voice of justice and 
practised equity. 10. This great emperor did not spare (even) his 
wife, the empress Marina. Now she had bought a garden from a 
nursery woman (lit. a female planter of plants) and had not paid her 
the price which it was equitably worth, because the valuers had 
valued (it) out of regard to the empress and so had inclined to do 
her a favour. 11. And when the pious Valentinian was apprised of 
what his wife had done, he sent Godfearing men to value that 
garden and he bound them by a solemn oath to value it justly and 
equitably. 12. And when the valuers came to that garden, they 
found that she had been guilty of a grave injustice and had given 
the woman but a small portion of the price. 13. And when the 
emperor heard, he was wroth with the empress* (and) removed her 
from his presence and drove her from the palace and took to wife 
a woman named Justina, with whom he lived all the rest of his 

1 £ Eefused bribes and did not give his confidence rashly.' I have emended 
Wh.h^ii into (Dh.}i7 v i: Zotenberg emends it into (Dh.hF°^J', and renders 
' ne se laissait pas corrompre par des dons'. His translation omits his emenda- 
tion, and also the word ft}l*l*F; 

2 According to John Mai. 839 sq. Valentinian had Khodanus burnt and his 
property given to the widow. Cf. Chron. Pasch. 302. 

G 2 



days. 14. As for his first wife, he drove and exiled her from the 
city, and gave back the garden to the woman who had sold it. 

15. And the emperor Valentinian raised to the imperial throne 
his son Gratian, who was born to him by the wife he had driven 
into exile. 16. And after the emperor Valentinian had accomplished 
many noble deeds, he fell ill and died loyal to the faith of the Holy 
Trinity, in the castle named Watan. 1 17. And after his death 
came his brother Valens, who had formerly been a Christian but 
afterwards had walked in the way of the Arians and had attached 
himself strongly to their abominable faith. 18. And he persecuted 
the orthodox, and their churches were openly given to the impious 
heretics. And he confiscated wrongfully the property of all the 
inhabitants of Byzantium and other cities. 

19. And in the days of this abominable (prince) there was an 
earthquake in the city of Nicaea where the holy council had been 
held. For the sea rose against it and overwhelmed it. 20. And in 
those days also a man named Tatian was appointed prefect of 
Alexandria, which is the chief city of Egypt. And he built, in the 
place called Abrakjun, the two stone gates with enormous labour 
and he made these gates for the passage of the great river, and he 
fortified the country of Egypt. 

21. And in those days there appeared a miracle through the 
intervention of the apostolic S. Athanasius, the father of the faith, 
patriarch of Alexandria. 22. When the sea rose against the city 
of Alexandria and, threatening an inundation, had already advanced 
to a place called Heptastadion, the venerable father accompanied by 
all the priests went forth to the borders of the sea, and holding in 
his hand the book of the holy Law he raised his hand to heaven 
and said : 1 0 Lord, Thou God who liest not, it is Thou that didst 
promise to Noah after the flood and say : " I will not again bring 
a flood of waters upon the earth'".' 23. And after these words of 
the saint the sea returned to its place and the wrath of God was 
appeased. Thus the city was saved through the intercession of the 
apostolic S. Athanasius, the great star. 

Chapteh LXXXIII. 1. Now these are the illustrious emperors, 
the servants of God, who were zealous workers of good — Gratian 
and Theodosius. 2. The one set free the holy believers from bonds 

1 Called Bip-ftrivojv in John Mai. 341, and BtpytTiav in Socrates, Hist. Eccles. 
iv. 31. 




wherewith they had been bound by the emperor Valens, and put 
an end to the banishment of Christians. 3. As for the other he 
loved God ardently and restored to the faithful their churches, and 
destroyed idolatry. 4. And he prohibited also the teaching of the 
wicked Arians and established the pure and spotless faith. 5. And 
Gregory, the Theologian, appeared in the city of Constantinople 
and strengthened the churches. Previously indeed he had been 
obliged to find concealment in flight from house to house and from 
place to place. 6. And (Theodosius) built also a holy church as a 
noble memorial. And he drove from the city Eudoxius, the heretic, 
the blasphemer of the Holy Spirit. And after he had driven this 
miscreant from the city, he sent to Basil, bishop of Caesarea in 
Cappadocia, to Gregory of Nyssa, and to Amphilochius of Iconium, 
wise and godly divines, and he commanded them to construct 
a church in the truth and in the Holy Spirit. 7. And they 
disputed with the heretics and got the better of them and put them 
to shame, and they proclaimed the true orthodox faith in every 
place. 8. And again as regards the history of the Godloving 
emperor Theodosius, while he was on his way to Byzantium to meet 
the blessed emperor Gratian, he saw a vision in his sleep, in which 
Meletius the patriarch of Antioch placed the imperial crown on his 
head by the advice of the leaders. 

9. And there was an Arian livhag outside the city. 1 And when 
Amphilochius came to the imperial court, he found seated on their 
thrones the emperor Theodosius and his two sons Arcadius and 
Honorius. For he had raised them to the imperial throne in his 
lifetime. 10. And when the bishop came before Theodosius and 
his sons, he saluted Theodosius but not his sons. 11. And Theodosius 
was wroth because he had not saluted his sons. And when the 
bishop saw that the emperor was wroth with him, he said unto 
him : 'Reflect, O king, that in like manner there are those who do 
not salute the Son and the Holy Spirit who are consubstantial with 
the Father, namely the blaspheming heretics. (And yet) thou hast 
not driven these from thy empire/ 12. And when the emperor 
heard these words of the bishop, the emperor perceived that the 
bishop was one of the highest types of the faithful, and thereupon 

1 It is not an individual but a community that is hero referred to. The 
matter is referred to in Socrates, Hist. Ecdes. v. 7, whore it is recounted of Demo- 
philus that «£cu -rvov rrvXaiv tjJs woAea's ray ffwayaiyas rod Koittov InoiTjaaTO. 



he held his peace. 13. And forthwith he became zealous for the 
orthodox faith, and he ordained a law in his days that no heretic 
should be permitted to live in any of the Roman cities, nor in the 
cultivated enclosures nor in the fields nor in the villages. 

14. And during the stay of the emperor Theodosius in Asia there 
arose a usurper, named Maximus, of British descent, who slew the 
blessed emperor Gratian through treachery and seized his empire by 
force and made his residence in Home. 15. And Valentinian, -the 
younger brother of Gratian, fled to Thessalonica. And as for 
Maximus the heretic, he despised God ; for he was an Arian. 
16. And next there arose a man named Eugenius, who had previously 
been a teacher of the heathen and had persecuted the worshippers 
of Christ and loved to practise magic and made {sic). And by the 
advice of the officers who agreed with him, he seized the empire of 
Valentinian and slew him by treachery. 17. And when Theodosius 
the emperor heard of these events, he arose and mustered a numerous 
army and marched against them, and put to death both Maximus 
and Eugenius through the might of our Lord Jesus Christ whom 
he served. 18. And he avenged the two emperors Gratian and 
Valentinian and brought back under his own hand the entire empire 
of Rome and established his authority over it. 19. And he gave to 
the orthodox believers all the churches under his dominion, and he 
banished the blaspheming Arians. 20. And he assembled also in 
Constantinople a council of bishops, to the number of one hundred 
and fifty holy fathers. 21. And he drove out infidelity and heresy 
from all the provinces of his empire and he introduced the worship 
of the one God in three Persons, and he strengthened the orthodox 
faith. 22. And the Holy Spirit was (shed) abundantly upon the 
priests, and their hands and their tongues and all their thoughts 
were pure. And peace prevailed in the churches, because the 
bishops had assembled in peace and unity. 23. But afterwards 
when Satan saw (the prosperity of the church), he was jealous and 
began to divide and sunder the limbs of the one complete body, 
that is, the holy Church. 24. For Gregory, the Theologian, having 
come to the council of the chief clergy of the Church, comforted 
and adorned the city of Constantinople by his teaching, 25. And 
Timothy, patriarch of Alexandria, addressed Gregory like an angel 
and admonished him to leave the imperial city of Constantinople and 
return to the city of his bishopric and its ancient church, namely 



Nazianzum (?)/ in order to shepherd and protect it. 26. It was 
unseemly for him to forsake a poor church and occupy a rich one; 
for this was an act of 2 . . . fornication and contrary to the canons 
of the Fathers. 27. But when the bishops of the east and the 
other bishops present heard this address, they differed from him in 
this matter. 28. A tumult, moreover, arose amongst them on this 
question. For the patriarch Timothy took upon himself to nominate 
Maximus to the patriarchate of Constantinople; for he was an 
eminent man and had suffered many hardships from the Arians. 
29. Now there was a feud between the Orientals and the Egyptians. 
And S. Gregory mediated and made peace between them. And 
Maximus who had been nominated to Constantinople without the 
consent of the bishops remained there, but Gregory they banished 
from the imperial city on the advice of all the bishops, and he 
returned to his first church. 30. But the heart of Gregory was 
firm as a stone and was not troubled by the troubles of this world. 
And all the people were grieved on his behalf; for he had saved 
the imperial city of Constantinople from the (spiritual) adulteries 
of the Arians. 31. And they banished Maximus also from 
Constantinople to the convent to which he had formerly been 
appointed, and all the bishops which had been ordained by his hands. 
32. Next they appointed a man named Nectarius 3 by the advice of 
the one hundred and fifty bishops. Now he was a man of good 
birth, of the city of Constantinople. He was also wise and prudent 
I and he led such a good and pure life that all the world admired 
i him for his conduct. And they forcibly appointed him to the 
patriarchate. 33. And he kept up a continuous warfare against 
the faith of the Arians, and he was zealous for the orthodox faith. 
And peace was established in the council and all (the bishops) later 
departed in joy to their cities. 34. But Satan the adversary of 
our race did not suffer Nectarius the patriarch to remain untroubled. 
For when the Godloving emperor Theodosius had set out with 
a numerous army to war against Maximus, the Arian usurper, 
and had reached a place named Milan, within which lay the Arian 
usurper, and had thus come face to face with him but as yet no 
engagement had ensued between them, certain Arians went and 
announced through all the city of Byzantium a lying report to 

1 MSS. Atrasjus of Nisijus. gives no intelligible sense. 

3 Cf. Socrates, Hist. Eccles. v. 8. 



this effect: f The emperor Theodosius has been defeated in battle 
and all his army destroyed/ 35. And by reason of this rumour 
fear and terror fell on all the Christians, and the orthodox out of 
fear inclined to the Arians. And the Arians arose in wrath and 
burnt the mansion of the patriarch Nectarius. 36. And after they 
had wrought these evil deeds, an account thereof was reported to 
the Godloving emperor Theodosius. And forthwith he arose and 
gave battle to Maximus the usurper and slew him. 

37. And in those days the holy patriarch Timothy built a church 
of marvellous workmanship in the city of Alexandria and named 
it after the name of the emperor Theodosius. And he built also 
a second church and named it Arcadia after his son. 38. And there 
was a temple of Serapis 1 in the city, and he converted it into 
a church and named it after the name of his (Theodosius's) younger 
son Honorius. But this church was also named after the names 
of the martyrs Cosmas and Damian. It faced the church of 
S. Peter the patriarch and last of the martyrs. 

39. Throughout the days of the emperor Theodosius the Christians 
enjoyed tranquillity and peace. 40. And Theodosius constructed 
also many buildings in the outskirts of the city of Antioch. And 
he built a new wall from the mountain to the old (lit. 'first') 
tower 2 constructed by the emperor Tiberius. And he built walls 
also round the neighbouring lands and enclosures which had been 
without a wall. 

41. After this there arose many heresies and divisions in the 
city of Thessaloniea owing to the Arians. And a disturbance took 
place between the inhabitants and the officers and the Arians began 
to stone the officers, insulting thereby the emperor. When the 
emperor was informed of what the Arians had done, pretending 
that he was on his way to Rome he marched into Thessaloniea 
with all his officers and soldiers. 42. And using a ruse he sent 
armed men among the population of the city and destroyed the 
Arians. And the number of those that were put to the sword 
was 15,000. 8 43. And the emperor being reprimanded by the 
patriarch Miletius 4 for his great slaughter of the Arians — for he 

1 The text has been restored, i. e. by reading; ClVlCl 

2 Contrast John Mai. 346 /rat iripitXafit to opos to viov tc?xos tevs rov naAaiov 
r«i'xous rov icTiaOtvros vtto Tifitptov, 

3 John Mai. 347 gives 15,000 ; Cedrenus 7,000 or 15,000. 

4 This should be Ambrose. 




had been troubled 011 behalf of the Christians — was full of wrath 
and indignation : but (afterwards) the emperor repented of his 
wrath against the patriarch, and repented and fasted and gave 
alms and shed many tears, praying for mercy and forgiveness of 
the transgression. 

44. And in those clays there were animosities and great trouble 
ij -and destruction in the city of Antioch. 45. And the emperor 
indeed was sore pressed by the war that had been waged in (that) 
province and in every other quarter, and when this pressure upon 
him became severe, he commanded an extraordinary tax to be 
levied in all the provinces of his empire. 46. And they seized and 
illtreated the people. And when the crowds and multitudes that 
were in the city saw their brethren being hanged without mercy or 
pity, the men of the city cast down 1 from the top of the palace the 
bronze fcoffmf 2 which contained the body of the blessed Flacilla, 
the wife of the emperor Theodosius, and they dragged it through 
the streets of the city. 47. And when the emperor heard of this 
outrage, he was wroth exceedingly and removed the officers of the 
city and banished them to Laodicea. 48. And as regards the 
officials of Antioch who had perpetrated this great offence against 
the emperor, he gave orders, in order to punish them, that the city 
of Antioch should be burnt together with everything that was in it. 
49. And those, who were commanded to burn the city, were Caesar 
an officer and Ellebichus a general. 50. And subsequently there 
came from the desert a monk, a saint of God, to the officers who 
were commanded to burn the city, and addressed them as follows : 
51. c "Write to the emperor Theodosius and say to him on my part 
as follows : " Thou art not only an emperor but thou art also a man 
like us, though thou art the chief. And thou art subject to the 
same afflictions as every creature which bears the likeness of God. 
When thou condemnest the likeness of God, thou dost provoke 
to anger the God who created man in His likeness. For thou 
art angry because of a dumb statue of brass: how much more 
therefore will God be angry with thee and thy empire when His 
image endowed with utterance and a soul is in question. 52. For 
it is He and He alone who is Lord and. King over all that has 

1 There is no need for Zotenberg's addition to the text. 

2 The word means 'casket' or ' coffin', but in ver. 62 it means 'statue', as it 
should here. 



given thee power. And as for thy wrath because a fcofnnf 1 of 
bronze has been destroyed, we can make one like unto it, but thou 
canst not make a single hair of the head of a single person whom 
thou dost wish to put to death/'' ' 53. And in those days there 
was a priest named J ohn and surnamed Chrysostom 2 who taught 
in righteousness before he was chosen patriarch. And at that time 
he taught and admonished in every city. And fearing death at 
the hands of the Arians he had fled and left the city deprived of his 
lifegiving doctrine. 54. And when the emperor Theodosius heard 
these words he repented and calmed his anger. And the magis- 
trates of the city, whom he had previously banished, he restored to 
their functions in Antioch, and those who were in prison he set 
free. 55. And the emperor wrote a letter in reply and sent (it) to 
his officers to the following effect: e l have been angry on account 
of my late Godloving wife Flacilla, who has most undeservedly 
suffered outrage at their hands. 56. And I have been desirous 
to punish them. But for the sake of God and His love for man- 
kind, (and) that He may accept me and aid me and give me 
victory over the heretics and barbarians and all those who rise up 
against me, I now accord pardon to them. Let there be peace 
upon the city of Antioch and let them dwell in undisturbed 
tranquillity/ 57. And after the emperor Theodosius had conquered 
the usurpers he resided in the city of Rome, and he put to death 
many heretics. 

58. And in those days the bakers made underground cellars 3 
and secret resorts in the earth, and built likewise structures in 
which they prepared dough : and they perpetrated in them many 
abominable deeds on people (generally) but specially on strangers 
and foreigners and on many who came to them to get food and 
drink and on others with lustful purposes. 59. And the wine 
sellers sent on secretly those who came to them to the bakers who 

1 See note on ver. 46. The true account is given in the extract from Cedrenus 
in the next note. 

2 Cf. Cedrenus, i. 570 sq. tw clvtw fret UXarnhXa fj yanerrj ®to$oa(ov l/coi/xi^, 
evaePfjs ovffa Kai (ptXuiTTCu^os . . . Tovttjs tov avdpidvTa Karia^av ol 'Afnox^ 8id rd im- 
TfdtVTa Srjfioaia vapa tov PacriXeas rfAeTv avrovs. Tore «ai 'Iwavvqsd XpvcroaTOfJ.os, irpea- 
pvrepos wv 'AfT£0X6tar, \6fovs iripl tovtov OavfiaaTOvs e£e9ero, ovs avSpiavras eirejpaipe. 
Tore Kal fj iv ®taaa\ov'ucri a^a-yfj rwv ie' xtA.idScui' TO y \aov bird <dfodoa(ov yivcrai, Kai 
rd napa tov ay'iov 'Afifipoaiov (iriaKonov WledioXavwv ds avTov PaoiXta TrpaxOevra. 

3 On the correct account of two great abuses in Rome and their correction by 
the emperor, see Socrates, Hist. Ecdes. v. 18. 




seized them by force. And these (captives) could not escape, and 
though they cried out, there was none to hear them. 60. Some of 
these were made to turn a mill all their days : others were placed 
in a brothel till they were old and even then not permitted to 

61. Now there was a soldier of the emperor whom they intro- 
duced to the mill-house by a stratagem, and tortured there for a 
long time. And when he was very weary (of it) he made a vigorous 
effort (and) drawing his sword slew many that sought to prevent 
his egress ; those that remained were terrified and let him escape, 
and so he went and told the emperor. 62. And the emperor 
commanded the bakers to be brought and punished them severely 
and destroyed their secret buildings. 63. And he compelled the 
female prostitutes to walk publicly through Rome to the sound of a 
bell that their crimes might be made known to all, and the bakers 
also to be publicly exposed. 1 64. Thus (Theodosius) exterminated 
utterly all this evil. 

65. And (Theodosius) ended his life virtuously and left an 
illustrious memory to his successors and went to his rest in peace. 
He ended his earthly life pure and blameless, and he passed from 
this transitory world to the life eternal. 

Chapter LXXXIV. 1. After the death of the Godloving emperor 
Theodosius, his empire passed into the hands of his two sons 
Arcadius and Honorius who were borne to him by his wife the 
blessed Flacilla. 2. They had been created emperors during his 
(Theodosius's) lifetime : Arcadius he had appointed emperor in 
Constantinople and Honorius emperor in Rome. And they placed 
the body of the emperor Theodosius in the Church of the Holy 
Apostles in Constantinople. 

3. Arcadius and Honorius were very devoted to the Christian 
religion. And the Godloving emperor Honorius fell ill, and when 
his brother Arcadius was apprised (of this) he set out for Rome to 
visit him. 4. Now Honorius was in purity and chastity an ascetic, 
and though living in the imperial palace, he observed the mode 
of life of a hermit. 5. And he pursued a virtuous course marked 
with severe discipline and many a hardship. And he wore a hair 
garment under silk clothing which forms the imperial dress, and he 
made his bed upon the ground, and fasted every day, and prayed, 
1 This is not an accurate account ; see note 3 on p. 90. 



and sang psalms, and to his religious exercises added always virtuous 
deeds, and despising exceedingly the earthly kingdom, he set his 
hopes on the kingdom of heaven, and he was prompt to do that 
which is pleasing to God. 6. And he completed all the good 
measures which had not been carried into effect by his father, and 
he put an end to all the evil practices which were displeasing to 
God. 7. Now it was the custom amongst his contemporaries that 
two men should fight in the arena, and that the victor should slay 
the other, without incurring bloodguiltiness. 8. And in those days 
there came to Rome a monk from the east named Telemachus, 
whose life had been like that of the angels of heaven. 9. And 
the monk finding them practise such abominable and bloody deeds, 
adjured them and solemnly bade them in the name of Jesus Christ 
to make peace and to abandon this satanical act of slaying a 
brother. And when they heard these words, they laid aside their 
weapons and stoned him with stones and shed the blood of the 
man of God, the devoted monk, Telemachus. 10. And when the 
holy emperor Honorius was apprised of this event, he put a stop to 
this custom in the city of Rome and abolished it. And the peace 
of the glorious and Most High God prevailed in the city. 11. And 
he destroyed also the unclean temples and made them edifices 
consecrated to the holy martyrs. 

During the sojourn of the emperor Arcadius in Rome, an officer 1 of 
the army, named Gainas, of barbaric descent, revolted, and gathered 
forces and made war on the emperor. And he mustered a large 
host of barbarians and ho caused great disquiet. 12. But the 
emperor Arcadius went forth hastily from Rome (and) arrived at 
Byzantium, full of zeal for the orthodox faith of his father, and he 
slew this usurper G-ainas the apostate, who was of the abominable 
sect of the Arians. And he abode (thenceforth) in peace. 13. And 
afterwards the Godloving emperor Arcadius fell ill and died in the 
days of the partriarchate of S. John Chrysostom. 14. Now his son 
Theodosius the younger had been proclaimed emperor before the 
death of his father. 

15. And when Theodosius the younger became emperor a serious 
sedition took place in the city of Rome. For the emperor Honorius 

1 Cf. John Mai. 348 TaiVar hrvpavvTjcFtv 6 avyKX-qrucos, QtKcuv QaaiXivoai. In 
Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vi. 6, he is called commander-in-chief : arparijXaTrjs 'P«/miW 
inirucfis T6 Kal vi^iKrjs dvadeiKVVTai. 




had abandoned (the seat of) his empire and withdrawn in indigna- 
tion to the city of Ravenna ; for many of the senators hated the 
emperor Honorius the saint of God because of his good life ; for he 
feared God and fulfilled all His commandments. 1 16. And just 
then a chief of the province of Gaul, named Alaric, set out with a 
numerous force to seize the city of Rome. 17. And when he arrived 
he came to terms with the enemies of the emperor and they 
offered him tribute from the city ; but he refused to receive it and 
marched to the palace and seized all the imperial possessions. 
18. And he carried off the sister of the emperor Honorius, named 
Placidia, who was a virgin. Then this conqueror returned into 
Gaul. 19. And he had a certain official with him, named Con- 
stantius, and he carried off the young girl to her brother the 
emperor Honorius without the knowledge of the conqueror. And 
the emperor honoured him and made him a vizier, and later raised 
him to the imperial throne, and gave him his virgin sister in 
marriage. 20. And subsequently they two, the emperor Honorius 
and Constantius, set out from the city of Ravenna and made them- 
selves masters of Rome, and put to death the men who had 
originated the sedition against their lord, the emperor Honorius, 
and these were four in number. And he confiscated their posses- 
sions and broke the power of that rebel. 21. And he gave his 
(Roman) empire to his sister's husband Constantius, and the God- 
loving emperor Honorius went to Constantinople, where he made 
the younger Theodosius, his nephew, his colleague in the empire. 
22. But after a short time he returned to the city of Rome, for 
he had fallen grievously ill owing to his excessive devotion to the 
religious and ascetic life with fasting and prayer. And his limbs 
swelled and he died, and he departed from this perishable world in 
his virginity and without a son. 23. Now Constantius the emperor 
of Rome had by Placidia, the sister of the emperor Honorius, a son 
whom he named Valentinian. 24. But there arose a usurper named 
John who made himself master of his empire by force. 2 

25. And after the death of Honorius his uncle, Theodosius the 
younger reigned alone in Constantinople. And when he grew up 
to manhood, as he was still unmarried, he was urgently pressed by 
his sisters, Arcadia, Marina, and Pulcheria, to marry and have 
children. 26. But he replied to them: 'I will only marry a girl 
1 Contrast John Mai. 349-50. 2 Cf. John Mai. 350. 



who is a virgin, comely, beautiful, Godloving, and wise.'' 27. And 
after this reply they sought for him in every city of the empire, but 
there was none such among the imperial princesses nor among 
families of noble descent. And they traversed every region (in 
their search). (At last) they found a woman who had come to 
Constantinople, who was very beautiful and surpassed all the 
women of the time. 28. She was at variance with her brothers on 
the question of her father's property, and she had come to complain 
to the emperor of the injustice she had undergone. 

And the girl's name was Athenais f that is, by interpretation f, 1 
Eudocia. 29. Now her father, whose name was Heraclitus, 2 had 
two sons, of whom one was named Valerian and the other Genesius, 3 
and this daughter whom we have mentioned. 30. And their father 
on dying commanded them to give his daughter one hundred 
mifJ/qals* of gold as her portion. But she refused (to accept them), 
for she was displeased, and said : ' Do I not deserve to have an equal 
portion of the inheritance with my brothers?' But they refused, 
and drove her forth from her father's house. 31. Then her mother's 
sister received her and escorted her from the province of Hellas and 
brought her to the city of Awtamon and placed her with her 
father's brother. 5 32. Now there was there a sister of a man 
named Heraclitus 0 a philosopher, who resided in the city of 
Byzantium. And she resorted to an artifice by means of which 
he conducted the girl into the presence of the emperor's sisters. 
33. On learning that the girl was a virgin, they had her brought 
to them in the palace and informed the emperor regarding her. 
And he approached her and looked upon her f openly f 7 and she 
pleased him. And he had her converted to Christianity and she was 
named Eudocia; for previously she had been a pagan of the sect of 

1 A misrendering of f) ml EvSoaia fxtraKX-rjOeiaa. Cf. John Mai. 353. Hence 
render 'who was also called Eudocia'. This latter name she received on 
becoming a Christian (Chron. Pasch. 312). 

2 So also Chron. Pasch. 311. But according to Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 21, 
John Mai. 353, Ccdrcnus i. 590, he was named Leontius. 

3 John Mai. 353 gives Gesius. 

4 An Arabic word. The Greek in John Mai. is vofti'a para, but in Cedrenus 
i. 590 we have xP va ^ 0V vo^laixara. 

5 In John Mai. 354 and Chron. Pasch. 312 there is nothing corresponding 
to the words ' Awtamon . . . father's brother '. 

G Text has the corrupt form Lafrels. In ver. 29 it is also corruptly written 

7 John Mai. has Sta rod /3r)\ov, 'through a curtain'. 

LXXX1V. 43 



the philosophers. 34. (And) he married her according to the law 
of the Christians and celebrated a nuptial feast in her honour and 
also made her empress. And when her brothers heard regarding 
her that she had become the wife of the emperor Theodosius and 
had been proclaimed empress, they were terrified and fled into the 
province of Hellas. 35. She sent a letter to them and had them 
brought from Athens to Constantinople, and she promoted them to 
high positions near the emperor and set Genesius over the province 
of Illyria, and Valerian she set over the army. 36. And later she 
said unto them : f If you had not done me wrong I should not have 
come to the imperial city and become empress, but by the will of 
God I have come hither. I will not do unto you as you have done 
to me.' 37. Thereupon they bowed to the earth and did her 
homage. And subsequently she bare a daughter and named her 
Eudoxia after the name of the mother of Theodosius. 

38. And in the days of this emperor Theodosius dissensions arose 
in the church at Constantinople because of the banishment of the 
blessed patriarch John Chrysostom, who had been banished in 
the days of Arcadius the father of Theodosius because of the empress 
Eudoxia's anger in regard to the vineyard of the widow. 

39. There was likewise a great earthquake in the imperial city. 
And the emperor was profoundly grieved — he and all the senators 
and priests and people together, and for many days they walked 
with bare feet. 

40. And the Isaurians seized the city of Seleucia in Syria in 
a marauding expedition unexpectedly, *and likewise the city of 
Tiberias. 1 And they pillaged all its possessions and they marched 
by the mountain named Amanus and returned to their country 
Isauria. 41. And all the people were ignorant as to the reason for 
which S. John Chrysostom was banished for so long a period till 
the death of the empress Eudoxia. 42. Now at this period there 
was a patriarch in the city of Constantinople, named Attieus, who 
had lived so wisely and after good counsels that he prevailed on the 
emperor Theodosius to write to the holy and wise Cyril, patriarch 
of Alexandria, who had been appointed after Timothy, that the 
name of the holy John Chrysostom should be enrolled in the diptychs 
of the church together with all the patriarchs who had died before. 
43. The holy Cyril accepted this proposal with great joy ; for he 

1 Not found in John Mai. 3G3. 



loved the Godloving, holy, orthodox John Chrysostom, and honoured 
him as a great teacher. 44. And owing to this circumstance there 
was great joy in the churches. And the emperor Theodosius gave 
large sums to the churches and rebuilt in a befitting manner those 
which had been destroyed. 

45. And in those days the orthodox inhabitants of Alexandria 
Avere filled with zeal and they collected a large quantity of wood 
and burned the place of the heathen philosophers. 1 

46. But the emperor Theodosius did not forget nor forsake the 
city of Home, but he sent to it an officer named Aspar, with 
a numerous army in order to war against John the usurper. And 
he warred against John the rebel and overcame him, and saved 
Valentinian, the son of his aunt Placidia, whom she bare to 
Constantius. 47. And he placed him near his person, and married 
him to his daughter whom the empress Eudocia bare him. And 
(Valentinian) begat two daughters by her, and named the one 
Eudoxia and the other Placidia. 

48. And (Theodosius) chose a man from among the philosophers, 
named Cyrus, and appointed him prefect. And he was a wise man 
and of severe integrity; and he was incorruptible and walked in 
integrity and uprightness. 49. Moreover he loved to restore the 
buildings (of the city). The towers 2 which had long been in a 
ruinous condition he rebuilt in a short time, and he was without 
pride and was greatly loved by all the inhabitants of Constantinople. 
50. And on the occasion of a famine, 3 the emperor Theodosius 
saw all the people acclaiming and honouring Cyrus the prefect. 
(And certain people) were jealous of him and accused him to the 
emperor Theodosius, saying : 'It is his intention to rebel and usurp 
thy power.' 51. And the emperor listened to their calumnies and 
had the man arrested, subjected to many punishments, and deprived 
of all his possessions [and had him conducted into the palace]. 4 
It was not on the ground of these calumnies only that he did so, 
but because of the acclamations of the people : f He is a second 

1 This verse would apparently refer to the death of Hypatia recounted in 
Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 15, but that our author treats of this at length in 
lxxxiv. 87 sqq. 

2 Cedrenus i. 599 has t(?xos. 

3 In John Mai., Chron. Pasch., and Cedrenus the event that follows is said to 
have occurred in the circus. 

4 An interpolation. 




emperor like the great Constantine/ 52. And for this reason the 
emperor was wroth against him (and) desired to put him to death. 
53. And when he heard of this purpose (of the emperor) he fled 
into a church, and was there appointed metropolitan of the city of 
Smyrna in the province of Asia, for (there) the people had previously 
put their bishop to death. 54. And when he was ordained 
metropolitan of the city of Smyrna, he made a great and long 
prayer to the God of heaven because He had saved him from the 
death threatened by calumny. 55. And whilst he was so engaged, 
the festival of the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ arrived. 
The people and the priests placed him on the throne as was 
customary for the bishops, and requested him as follows : f Speak 
to us regarding the greatness and the glory and the praise of the 
Omnipotent and regarding His holy Nativity/ 56. And he spoke 
first to them regarding his deliverance from death, and next he 
addressed them as follows : ' Know ye, my brethren, that this 
day is the day of the Nativity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. 57. Let us honour him as is befitting, for it was of his own 
will alone that He was conceived in the womb of the holy Virgin 
Mary ; for He is the primaeval "Word the Creator — praise be unto 
Him — together with His Father (supremely) good and the Holy 
Lifegiving Spirit, Consubstantial Trinity for evermore/ 58. And 
all the inhabitants of the city honoured him and he continued dis- 
charging the ministry and the sacred services without intermission. 
He fulfilled his sacerdotal duty till he died in (all) honour. 

59. And likewise in the days of the emperor Theodosius there 
died Atticus and Sisinnius, patriarchs of Constantinople. And 
after their death they brought from Antioch to Constantinople 
Nestorius, in order to teach there because he represented himself to 
be like the ascetics and those learned in the Scriptures : and they 
ordained him patriarch there, and he became the scourge of the 
Christians in every country. 60. For at once he set himself to 
teach and blaspheme God : and he refused to believe that the holy 
Virgin Mary was the mother of God, but called her the mother of 
Christ, saying that Christ had two natures ; and so there arose many 
dissensions and great tumults in the city of Constantinople on this 
subject. 61. They obliged the emperor Theodosius to summon 
a council of bishops in Ephesus from all the world. And those 
who assembled, being in number two hundred, excommunicated and 




deposed Nestorius and his followers. Now these subsequently returned 
to the holy faith together with John, patriarch of Antioch. 62. They 
agreed with the two hundred bishops and with our holy Cyril, patriarch 
of Alexandria, and they confirmed this faith and rejected Nestorius 
because he taught the same false doctrine as Apollinaris. 63. And 
there remained but a few of those who had created the tumult and 
followed Nestorius, whereas the orthodox believers grew strong and 
multiplied exceedingly during the days of the emperor Theodosius, 
till Archelaus, who was set over the east, joined them and became 
one with us in the right faith. 64. And there remained but a few 
who persisted in the error of Nestorius. And so the churches 
enjoyed tranquillity and peace all the days of the Godloving 
emperor Theodosius. 

65. These are the patriarchs who lived in Constantinople in the 
days of Theodosius, i. e. the wise patriarchs Maximian and Proclus. 
66. The wise Proclus had studied diligently as a child, and when he 
grew up, he was fitted to remain in the city in the devout service of 
God, And he attended continually on the patriarch Atticus and 
wrote down and learnt all the teachings of God. 67. And 
subsequently they ordained him deacon, and when he was older 
they made him a priest. And Sisinnius, who was appointed patriarch 
after Atticus, consecrated him bishop of Cyzicum and gave it this 
great gift ; but the inhabitants of this town refused it ; for they 
were not worthy to receive this chosen vessel of God. 68. And so 
(Proems) remained in solitude in Byzantium, while Nestorius as 
patriarch was disturbing the churches, by creating hatred against 
our Lady the holy Virgin Mary, the mother of God. 69. Now the 
holy Proclus composed a treatise on our Lady, the holy Virgin 
Mary, the mother of God, and read it in the church of Constantinople 
before the people assembled there, and he strongly reproved Nestorius 
in his treatise because his heart was set on destruction. 70. And in 
the beginning of his treatise it was written as follows : ' Let us 
celebrate the festival of the Virgin and proclaim with our tongue 
these words : To-day let us praise Mary the mother of God/ 1 
And when all the people heard these words, they glorified our Lady 
and gave thanks to her, and admired exceedingly. 71. And Proclus 

1 This homily is placed at the beginning of the Acts of the Council of 
Ephesus : XlavQtviKT) iravrj-fvpts arj/Atpov rfjv fXwTTav fjixwv, abtXcpo'i, rrpbs ei(p7]fiiav 
KaXtt (Zotenberg). 

Lxxxrv. 78 



having- thus touched the heart of the emperor Theodosius and of all 
the people, they were eager to raise him to the throne (of the 
patriarchate) in Constantinople after the exile and deposition of 
Nestorius. But certain of the chief people of the city arose and 
said out of envy : ' This man has been bishop of a small city : how 
can he be the shepherd of this great city?'' 72. And for this 
reason they appointed Maximian 1 to the patriarchate of Constanti- 
nople. Now he was a Godfearing priest, but he was not equal to 
Proclus in wisdom and learning. And he occupied the throne of 
the patriarchate for two years and six months, leading a solitary 
life of devotion, and he died in peace. 73. Then the emperor 
Theodosius made Proclus come forward before the interment of 
Maximian, and commanded that he should be raised to the 
(patriarchal) throne of Constantinople. And accordingly Celestine, 
patriarch of Rome, wrote to the patriarch of Alexandria and to other 
bishops regarding Proclus. 74. And they sent him an answer as 
follows : f The canon law of the church does not debar Proclus from 
occupying the patriai'chal throne of Alexandria; for it is by the 
command of God/ 75. And so Proclus occupied (the patriarchal 
throne) with honour and distinction, and guided wisely the interests 
of his flock in the imperial city and strove against those who 
followed the errors of Nestorius. 76. And he wrote a letter and 
sent it to the illustrious f Armeniusf 2 in which he combated 
Theodore of Mopsuestia and the heretic Nestorius and anathematized 
and excommunicated them in his letter. And already in the days 
of the blessed Maximian who went to his rest, the east had been 
cleansed from the pollutions of the heretic Nestorius and peace had 
been established in the Church. 

77. And Proclus also brought back the body of the holy John 
Chrysostom to Constantinople. Five and forty years had passed 
since his banishment to the island named Thrace in the days of the 
Christ-loving emperor Theodosius the elder. 78. And he placed the 
body in the church of the holy Apostles where repose (also) 
the bodies of the holy Fathers the patriarchs who had fulfilled their 
course virtuously and in the orthodox faith in Constantinople. 

1 See Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 35. 

2 In 436 the Armenian bishops consulted Proclus on certain doctrines attri- 
buted to Theodore of Mopsuestia. In the following year Proclus replied in his 
well-known letter nepl Trforecos. 

ii 2 




79. And as for the other bishops who had been wrongfully banished 
with him (S. Chrysostom), whom he 1 could not bring- back in the 
days of the blessed Atticus, the severed members were united 
together, and he made them one, 2 and thus discord disappeared 
from the churches. 3 80. And he composed a treatise worthy of the 
holy John Chrysostom in which he besought God to pardon the sins 
of the parents of the emperor Theodosius the younger — the sin they 
had committed against the holy John Chrysostom. 

81. In the days of this emperor also the barbarians who had 
survived the defeat of John the usurper reunited and proceeded 
to invade the Roman territories. 82. And when the Godloving 
emperor was informed of this event, he meditated, as was his wont, 
and turned his thoughts to our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus 
Christ — praise be unto Him — and he fasted and prayed. 

83. And he was merciful to the poor and compassionate to the 
destitute and he devoted himself to the works which are pleasing 
to God with integrity and that which is beyond (all) these works. 

84. He commanded Proclus and all the priests and monks to pray 
to God on his behalf that victory should be given to him over his 
adversaries and that his efforts should not be exerted in vain. 

85. And God heard his prayer and the barbaric chief named Roilas 
died. Indeed God struck him with a thunderbolt (and) he was 
speedily destroyed, and many of them died by this death which was 
sent from God. And fire likewise came down from heaven and 
destroyed those that remained. 86. And all the peoples of the 
earth recognized by this event that the God of the Christians is 
great, and the righteousness and faith of the Godloving emperor 
Theodosius were made known. 

87. And in those days there appeared in Alexandria a female 
philosopher, a pagan named Hypatia, and she was devoted at 
all times to magic, astrolabes and instruments of music, and she 
beguiled many people through (her) Satanic wiles. 88. And the 
governor of the city honoured her exceedingly; for she had 
beguiled him through her magic. And he ceased attending church 
as had been his custom. fBut he went once under circumstances 

1 So MSS. 

2 Cf. Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 45 ot Si' avrbv x al P'C°l xeV01 T V iKKkr/ala TjvwOrjffav. 
Zotenberg quite mistranslates the text. 

3 The clause 'and thus . . . from the churches' is transposed in the text 
before ' the severed members'. 




of danger, f And he not only did this, but he drew many believers 
to her, and he himself received the unbelievers at his house. 
89. And on a certain day when they were making merry over a 
theatrical exhibition connected with dancers/ the governor of the 
city 2 published (an edict) regarding 3 the public exhibitions in 
;the city of Alexandria : 4 and all the inhabitants of the city had 
assembled there (in the theatre). 90. Now Cyril, who had been 
appointed patriarch after Theophilus, was eager to gain exact 
intelligence regarding this edict. 91. And there was a man named 
Hierax, 6 a Christian possessing understanding and intelligence, 
who used to mock the pagans but was a devoted adherent of the 
illustrious Father the patriarch and was obedient to his monitions. 
He was also well versed in the Christian faith. 92. (Now this 
man attended the theatre to learn the nature of this edict.) But 
when the Jews saw him in the theatre they cried out and said : 
' This man has not come with any good purpose, but only to provoke 
an uproar/ 93. And Orestes the prefect was displeased with the 
children of the holy church, and had Hierax seized and subjected 
to punishment publicly in the theatre, although he was wholly 
guiltless. 94. And Cyril was wroth with the governor of the city 
for so doing, and likewise for his putting to death an illustrious 
monk of the convent of Pernodj 6 named Ammonius, and other 
monks (also). And when the chief magistrate 7 of the city heard 
-this, he sent word to the Jews as follows : ' Cease your hostilities 
against the Christians/ 95. But they refused to hearken to what 
they heard ; for they gloried in the support of the prefect who was 
with them, and so they added outrage to outrage and plotted a 
massacre through a treacherous device. 96. And they posted 
beside them at night in all the streets of the city certain men, 
while others cried out and said : f The church of the apostolic 

1 The text here reads ftCftflVfl; "which I take to be a corrupt transliteration 
of dpxyaTas. Cf. Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 13, where lie speaks of the fondness 
of the Alexandrians -rrfpl toLs opx 7 7 crT< ". 

2 The text adds ' and he '. 

3 I have emended CUlCD; into fl =' regarding '. 

* Cf. Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 13 tov . . . knapxov noKiTt'iav (= 5rj/xoriK{)v 
diaTVTrojaiv) kv rw Qearpq) ttoiovvtos. 

5 Cf. Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 13. 

6 The Coptic word for the desert of Nitria, according to Zotenberg. Cf. 
Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 14. 

7 This is apparently wrong. It should be ' Cyril '. 

102 THE CHRONICLE OF JOHN lxxxiv. 97 

Athanasius is on fire : come to its succour, all ye Christians/ 
97. And the Christians on hearing their cry came forth, quite 
ignorant of the treachery of the Jews. And when the Christians 
came forth, the Jews arose and wickedly massacred the Christians 
and shed the blood of many, guiltless though they were. 98. And 
in the morning, when the surviving Christians heard of the wicked 
deed which the Jews had wrought, they betook themselves to the 
patriarch. And the Christians mustered all together and went and 
marched in wrath to the synagogues of the Jews and took possession 
of them, and purified them and converted them into churches. And 
one of them they named after the name of S. George. 99. And 
as for the Jewish assassins they expelled them from the city, and 
pillaged all their possessions and drove them forth wholly despoiled, 
and Orestes the prefect was unable to render them any help. 100. And 
thereafter a multitude of believers in God arose under the guidance 
of Peter the magistrate — now this Peter was a perfect believer 
in all respects in J esus Christ — and they proceeded to seek for the 
pagan woman w T ho had beguiled the people of the city and the prefect 
through her enchantments. 101. And when they learnt the place 
where she was, they proceeded to her and found her seated on a 
(lofty) chair ; and having made her descend they dragged her along 
till they brought her to the great church, named Caesarion. Now 
this was in the days of the fast. 102. And they tare off her 
clothing and dragged her [till they brought her] through the 
streets of the city till she died. And they carried her to a place 
named Cinaron, and they burned her body with fire. 103. And all 
the people surrounded the patriarch Cyril and named him ' the new 
Theophilus ' ; for he had destroyed the last remains of idolatry in 
the city. 

CiiM'TEit LXXXV. 1. And some time after this event the Jews in 
a place named Kemterja. 1 between Chalcedon and Antioch in Syria 
were amusing themselves after their customary manner in drinking 
and debauchery. 2. And they performed a play in which they 
brought forward one amongst them and named him Christ and 
bowed down to him in mockery. And they blasphemed the cross 
and those who trusted in the Crucified. 3. And when they had 
insolently perpetrated this sacrilege, they took a child and bound 

1 Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 16, reads 'IvjxtOTap , . . ixeragv Xa\ic'i5os koI 




him on the cross and mocked him, and as their feelings grew more 
vehement 1 they put the child to death. And the child died 
courageously. 4. And when the Christians heard of the atrocities 
committed by the Jews, they were exceedingly wroth because of the 
evil deeds and came and attacked them, and many of them died. 

5. And when the emperor Theodosius was told of the atrocities 
committed by the Jews, he commanded the magistrates of the 
province to punish the criminals. 6. And they punished the Jews 
that were in the east and took vengeance on all the mockers who 
had mocked Christ and His faithful ones. 

7. And in those days many of the Jews in Crete believed and 
became Christians in consequence of the greatness of the persecution 
that befell them. 

Chaptee LXXXVI. 1. And there was a Jew named Fiskis 
who in his own person played the role of impostor, saying: 'I am 
Moses the chief of the prophets ; for I have been sent from heaven 
by God. 2. I have come to conduct the Jews who dwell in this 
island through the sea, and I will establish you in the land of 
promise.'' 3. And by these means he led them astray, saying unto 
them : 'I am he that delivered your fathers out of the hand of 
Pharaoh when they were in bondage to the Egyptians/ 4. And he 
spent an entire year in traversing Crete and proclaiming this event 
and leading them astray in all the cities and villages. 5. And he 
prevailed on them to abandon their industries and to despise their 
goods and possessions. And so they dissipated all that they had. 

6. And when the day which he had fixed for leading them out 
drew near, he commanded them to come with their wives and 
children and follow him to the sea-shore, and cast themselves into 
the sea. And many perished, some through the fall and others 
from being engulfed in the depths of the sea. 7. But God who 
loves mankind had compassion on His creatures and saved them lest 
they should all perish by this hard fate. 8. And many Christians 
who were present on the spot at the time in order to see (what 
would happen) saved a large number from being drowned in the 
sea. The rest who had not cast themselves into the sea were saved 
by this means. 9. And when they saw that the false prophet had 
perished, 2 engulfed in the sea, they recognized thereupon that he 

1 I have emended frKll into R"}-0; 

2 According to Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 38, he escaped. 



was an impostor, and forthwith abandoned their erroneous belief. 
10. Through these means many Jews turned to our Lord Jesus 
Christ and received the light of holy life-giving baptism and 
believed in our Lord Jesus Christ. 11. (This event took place) in 
the days of the Godloving emperor Theodosius the younger and in 
those of Atticus, patriarch of the great city of Constantinople. 

Chapter LXXXVII. 1. And during the childhood of the emperor 
Theodosius, when he was learning the holy Scriptures inspired by 
God, he had with him a child named Paulinus, the son of a vizier 
• who learnt with him. and they grew up together. 2. And the 
emperor Theodosius loved him and appointed him an emperor in 
the third degree, a dignity that is called Master (of the imperial 
household). 1 3. And he reclined frequently at table with the 
emperor and empress ; for a strong friendship existed between 
them. 4. And after some time Paulinus fell ill, and when he was 
ill a certain officer highly honoured by the emperor brought 2 him 
an apple that was wholly out of season, and the emperor and all his 
court who saw it admired the appearance of the apple. 5. The 
emperor gave one hundred gold dinars to the man who had brought 
the apple. (And) he sent that apple to his wife. And she indeed 
sent it to Paulinus because of his illness and her affection for him. 
6. Now Paulinus was not aware that the emperor had given it 
to the empress, and so as the emperor came just at that moment to 
pay Paulinus a visit, he saw that apple in his possession and forth- 
with proceeded to the palace and called for the empress, and said 
unto her : ( Where is the apple which I gave thee ? ' 7. And she 
fearing lest the emperor should be offended with her, was not 
willing to avow the truth, and said : ' I have eaten it as I was 
not aware that you would question me regarding it/ And the 
emperor further said unto her : e Hast thou not sent it to some 
one?' And she denied again. 8. Then the emperor ordered the 
apple to be brought, and the empress Eudocia was greatly put to 
shame. And a sense of pain and offence existed between them for 
a long time. 9. And subsequently the empress told the emperor all 
that had happened, and confirmed her statement by a terrible oath, 

1 A^iAhti't corrupt, owing to corrupt transliteration of the Arabic of 
Mayiffrpos. Cf. John Mai. 356 npoijydyfro avrdv payiarpov. 

2 There is no need of the additions made to the text by Zotenberg. The only 
change needed is to read the verb in the singular instead of in the plural. 




and she persuaded the emperor that she had feared aforetime and 
had not told the truth because of the offence (she was likely to 
give) and the fear wherewith she feared him. 

10. Now Paulinus feared greatly and said within himself : ' It 
is better for the ailing man to remain in his ailment; for when he 
recovers from his ailment he conceives evil designs in his heart. 
For he ill-treated Mar Basilius who belonged to the solitaries of 
the desert, who had been rejected by the heretics/ 11. Some days 
later it was told the emperor that Paulinus was forming rebellious 
designs and was revolting against the emperor and preparing a 
revolt. And accordingly he had him executed, as (Paulinus) had 
wished to deal similarly with the Godloving emperor. 12. And the 
empress Eudocia and the emperor Theodosius loved him greatly and 
honoured him exceedingly. 13. But lying historians who are heretics 
and abide not by the truth have recounted and said that Paulinus 
was put to death because of the empress Eudocia. But the empress 
Eudocia was wise and chaste, spotless and perfect in all her conduct. 

14. And the emperor Theodosius sent a letter to the desert of 
Scete in Egypt in order to consult the saints because he had no 
male offspring to succeed him on the throne. 15. And the saints 
wrote as follows : ' When thou quittest this world, the faith of thy 
fathers will be changed ; for God out of love to thee has not given 
thee a male offspring lest it should become wicked.' 16. And the 
emperor Theodosius and his wife were alike pained by this com- 
munication, and they abandoned all conjugal intercourse and lived, 
by mutual consent, in befitting chastity. 17. And after they had 
married their illustrious daughter Eudoxia to Valentinian the 
emperor of the west, as we have already recounted, and they had 
consummated the nuptials in Constantinople, the bridegroom and 
his consort set out for Rome. 

18. Thereupon the empress Eudocia requested the Godloving 
emperor Theodosius to permit her to visit the holy places in 
Jerusalem and to worship there in righteousness. Eor she had 
vowed a vow as follows : ' When I have accomplished the nuptials of 
my daughter I will visit the holy places, and I will pay my vow to 
the Lord in the courts of the house of the Lord before all the 
people in the midst of Jerusalem. 1 And I will pray to God to 

i Ps. cxvi. 18-19. The text differs from the Ethiopic version in respect of 
the verb. 



preserve thy empire for a long period in peace/ 19. The emperor 
having- agreed to this request wrote to the governors of every 
province to make preparations for a fitting reception of the empress. 
20. And he arranged that Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, should 
accompany her to Jerusalem, and bless her and instruct her in the 
doing of good works. 21. Thus all her prayers to God were ac- 
complished for her : and she arrived in Jerusalem, and she restored 
the churches and the courts 1 of the convent of the religious virgins 
and the hospice for pilgi'ims, and she gave them great endowments. 
22. And she rebuilt likewise the walls of Jerusalem which had been 
in ruins from an early period. 2 And she accomplished with vigour 
all her undertakings. Then the empress withdrew from the world 
and lived in solitude. 

23. And the emperor also gave himself to fasting and prayer 
and to the singing of psalms and hymns, and he pursued a virtuous 
course. And his virgin sisters, who were older than he, the blessed 
Arcadia and Marina, had died before the empress quitted the 
palace, and gone to Christ whom they loved. 

24. And during the sojourn of the empress in Jerusalem, the 
holy Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, and John, patriarch of Antioch, 
died. 25. Then the Nestorian heretics reappeared, the twelve 
bishops of the east, who had concealed themselves from the holy 
patriarch Cyril, who denied the Holy Trinity and divided Christ 
into two natures. 26. And also the heretical bishops of Con- 
stantinople and of the other provinces met together apart by 
themselves without the knowledge of any one, and said: 'The 
separation of the emperor and the empress has not been due to 
a desire to serve God, but they have separated through mutual 
hatred because of Paulinus/ 27. It was for this reason that the 
emperor was indignant with the patriarch Flavian and his associates, 
and said unto them : ' The fire (which had been lighted) by the 
Nestorians, and was extinguished, ye have kindled anew/ For 
they had caused many troubles in the churches. 28. But Pulcheria, 
the emperor Theodosius's sister, protected the patriarch Flavian, but 
she was not able to protect him openly because she feared the 
strength of the empire of the emperor Theodosius; for he was 

1 No addition to the text is here necessary. I have omitted CD before 

2 The account is somewhat different in Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 47. 



wroth with those who said, There were two natures in Christ after 
there had been one. But those who devised this evil conception 
laboured in vain. 

29. Now the emperor's sister, Pulcheria, pursuing an evil course, 
besought him to give her a garden. And the emperor accomplished 
the object of her desire. And she wrote a fraudulent document to 
this effect : ' The entire palace, courts, and gardens of the empress 
have been given to me by the emperor/ and she gave it to the 
emperor to sign in his own hand. 30. And when the document 
was read before the entire senate, Pulcheria arose, and taking her 
stand in the midst of the men without shame reproved the emperor 
in insolent terms and said unto him : e Thou hast done with 
negligence the duties of imperial government/ 31. And when he 
took the document and wished to read it and sign it, he saw written 
therein the following words : c The empress Eudocia has become 
my slave/ 32. And when the emperor saw this he was exceedingly 
wroth both because of Pulcheria's insolence and her lack of shame. 
33. And he had her seized and transported to a certain place, and 
he commanded the patriarch to lay his hands upon her and ordain 
her a deaconess. And for this reason there was great enmity and 
hatred between the empress Eudocia and Pulcheria. And so the 
emperor was parted from his sister Pulcheria. 

34. And subsequently the emperor ordered a second council to 
be convoked in Ephesus, and he likewise ordered Dioscorus, the 
patriarch of Alexandria, who was appointed after Cyril, to be 
present. 35. And Flavian, patriarch of Constantinople, and 
Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, and Domnus, patriarch of Antioch, 
and Ibas and John and Theodoret, and f Madjus f , bishops of the 
east, were deposed. 1 And after this event the excellent emperor 
Theodosius fell ill and departed from this life and went to God. 
36. And while the empress Eudocia was living in solitude in the 
holy places of Jerusalem, Pulcheria audaciously promulgated an 
imperial decree without taking the advice of Valentinian the 
emperor of Borne or that of the chief officers and senate, and 
married Marcian, the commander-in-chief of the army, and placed 
the imperial crown on his head and made him emperor. And she 
became his wife and sacrificed her virginity. 37. During his life- 

1 Of. Evagrius i. 10. 



time the emperor had guai-ded her, without any desire on her part, 
lest any stranger should come in to her and then proceed to seize his 
imperial throne. 

38. And on the clay of Marcian's accession there was darkness 
over all the earth from the first hour of the day till the evening. 
And that darkness was like that which had been in the land of 
Egypt in the days of Moses the chief of the prophets. 39. And 
there was great fear and alarm among all the inhabitants of 
Constantinople. They wept and lamented and raised dirges and 
cried aloud exceedingly, and imagined that the end of the world 
was at hand. 40. And the senate, the officers, and the soldiers, 
(even) all the army, small and great, that was in the city was filled 
with agitation and cried aloud, saying: f We have never heard nor 
seen in all the previous reigns of the Roman empire such an event as 
this/ 41. And they murmured very much, but they did not express 
themselves openly. And on the following day the Divine l.ove had 
compassion on mankind, and the sun rose and the light of day 

42. And the emperor Marcian convoked a council of bishops in 
Chalcedon composed of six hundred and f forty-five t bishops. 
43. And they deposed Dioscorus, patriarch of Alexandria, and 
ordained that Flavian, who had been deposed on a former occasion, 
should be mentioned in the diptychs after his death ; for he had 
already died in exile in the days of the blessed emperor Theodosius. 
And so they enrolled his name in the diptychs of the church as an 
orthodox patriarch. 44. And when disturbances arose in Con- 
stantinople and amongst all peoples Marcian fell grievously ill, 
and his illness lasted five months, and his feet mortified and he 
died. And the length of his reign was six years. And Pulcheria 
also had died before Marcian. 

45. And in those days the empress Eudocia went to her rest in 
the holy Jerusalem, full of good works and a pure faith. And she 
refused to communicate with Juvenal, bishop of Jerusalem, and the 
men who had assembled in Chalcedon ; for she knew that they had 
changed the true faith of our holy Fathers and of the orthodox 
emperors ; but she was blessed by priests (and) monks through her 
friendship and communion with Theodosius, 1 patriarch of Alex- 

1 This Theodosius was a fanatical Monophysite monk who had been punished 

Lxxxvur. 7 



andria. 46. And when she had thus accomplished these things, 
she went to her rest, and they placed her body in a tomb which she 
had built in her lifetime, with honour and panegyrics. And she 
went to God the Glorious and Most High. 

Chapter LXXXVIII. 1. And after the death of Marcian, Leo 
the elder became emperor. 1 And in the days of his rule the city of 
Antioch was f polluted f owing to the earthquake that befell it. 
2. And f lightning f 2 rained from heaven on Constantinople 
instead of rain. And it rose high, upon the roofs. And all the 
people were terrified and offered up prayers and supplications 
to God ; for that lightning had been burning fire ; but God 
out of His love for man 3 had extinguished the fire and made it 
f lightning f. 2 

3. And again after this f lightning f 2 fire fell a second time 
from heaven on the city of Constantinople, such as had never fallen 
before. And it extended from sea to sea. 4. And the emperor 
left the palace, fearing lest he should be burned in the conflagra- 
tion, and took up his abode in the church of S. Mamas for six 
months, offering prayers and supplications as had been done in the 
days of Marcian. 

5. And the emperor Leo put a stop to all theatrical exhibitions, 
alike of those that played on the flute and on the lyre, 4 on the holy 
first day of the week in honour of the sabbath. 6. And he likewise 
banished the Arians from every province in his empire, and he 
gave orders to all his subjects not to admit them to the churches. 

7. And also in the days of this emperor an accusation was brought 
against a philosopher named Isocasius, an ex quaestor. 5 He was 
a man of great prudence and a just judge. He was a pagan, and 
helped the people of Cilicia when he was f interpreter f in Antioch. 

in Alexandria for sedition, and had taken forcible possession of the see of 
Jerusalem for twenty months ; see Evagrius ii. 5. 

1 For TiM**! read iVV". and make no further addition. 

2 This should be 'dust'. Cf. John Mai. 372 (Ppfgfv iv KavaTavTivoviroXti 
tcovtav avTi PpoxV*- 

3 Eead 

4 Cf. John Mai. 371 A«cw . . . tfctKevatv . . . 'iva fiTjTf avXos rj KiOapa rj d\\o tl 


5 Cf. John Mai. 369 'laonaffios 6 Koiacrupios. The Arabic translator took the 
last word to mean 'the son of Quaestor', or 'of a quaestor'. See also Chron. 
Pasch. 322. 




And the emperor delivered him into the hands of Pusaeus, the 
prefect, the chief officer, to send him into exile. 8. But he was 
torn from the hands of the prefect and carried naked and with his 
hands bound behind him to the gate named Zeuxippus, where a 
crowd of people was assembled. 9. And the prefect standing on 
the tribunal addressed him thus : ' Canst thou see in what a guise 
thou art in the midst of this assembly ? ' He answered and said 
unto him : ' I see, and I am not surprised ; for being a man I have 
fallen into troubles incident to the body. As I have judged other 
men, so I now judge myself/ 10. And when the people that stood 
by heard this stern reply, they tore him away from the prefect and 
bore him to the church, and, without the exercise of any constraint 
on their part, he expressed his belief in Christ, and said: ( My 
fathers were idolaters but I have now become a Christian/ 11. And 
they instructed him in the Christian faith, and baptized him, and 
he became a Christian. Then he was set free and restored to his 
functions, and he returned to his province beloved by the emperor. 

12. When the emperor Leo heard of the disturbances which had 
taken place in Alexandria formerly in the days of Marcian, and of 
the massacre that had been occasioned by the council of Chalcedon, 
and of the restoration of the true faith in the one nature of Christ, and 
of the slaughter of Proterius, bishop of the Chalcedonians, because 
of it — 13. For this bishop, who had formerly been the ecclesiastical 
procurator in Alexandria, was consecrated bishop by the Chalce- 
donians, when he signed the imperial rescript, but the orthodox 
population rose against him and slew him, and burned his body 1 — 

14. (Now having heard of all these circumstances) the emperor 
Leo appointed (to be patriarch) unto them Timothy, who had been 
assistant to the patriarch Dioscorus. Formerly he had been a strict 
monk belonging to the convent of Qalmon, and he was a priest. 

15. And his appointment was made after the death of Dioscorus, 
who had wrongfully been deposed by the emperor Marcian and his 
Council. 16. But Timothy refused to abide by the Council of the 
Chalcedonians ; for this Council had disturbed the entire world. 

17. And the emperor Leo likewise wrote to all the bishops, 
adjuring them to declare accurately in what way matters had taken 
place in the Council of Chalcedon. 2 18. But as they feared the 
emperor, they concealed (these things) from him, and told him 
1 Cf. Evngrius, II. E. ii. 8. 2 Cf. Evagrius, H. E. ii. 9 sq. 




nothing of what had been done in the Council. 19. But there 
were two bishops who did tell him : one of them named Eustathius 
of Berytus, a man wise and prudent and well versed in the holy- 
Scriptures. And he told the emperor that through fear of Marcian 
they had altered the faith so that all the world was troubled 
(thereby), as well as all the churches. 20. And the second bishop 
was named Amphilochius, of the city of Maflejus. 1 21. But the 
other bishops who were his subjects had not declared openly to the 
emperor regarding the oppression of the emperor Marcian : all 
that had been done at Chalcedon they had done out of fear of the 
imperial authority and power. 

22. And in those days Eutyches [the Nestorian] 2 made himself 
known, who was eager for destruction. lie was ignorant of the 
holy Scriptures, as he had not been eager to study them. 

23. And Timothy the patriarch on his arrival in Alexandria was 
seized and conducted to a place called Gangra, and made to reside 
there. 3 24. And there were alarms and fightings in Alexandria. 
And the governor of the city, who used violence to the holy 
patriarch Timothy, was eaten of worms and died. 25. And the 
inhabitants of the city said to one another : t All this evil that has 
overtaken him is due to the judgement of the Glorious and Most 
High God because of what has been done to the patriarch Timothy, 
the servant of God, in order that all men might learn that God 
dwells amongst His chosen and renders justice to the oppressed. 

26. And after the emperor Leo and the other emperors who 
succeeded him, Basiliscus ascended the imperial throne. And he 
raised his son Marcus to the imperial throne, and appointed him as 
his colleague for a short time. 27. And as his sister Verina was 
on friendly terms with him, she asked f Augustus for the master of 
the offices, and she received the dignity, which was named 
Patriciusf. 4 

1 In Evagrius, H. E. ii. 10, he is said to be of Side. 

2 Eutyches was an opponent of Nestorianism. 

3 Cf. Evagrius, H. E. ii. II. 

* The text is here hopelessly unintelligible. Verina, who was the sister of 
Basiliscus, was carrying on an intrigue with Patricius, the master of the 
imperial household. According to Procopius i. 6 she had taken part in driving 
her son-in-law Zeno into exile in order that she might advance/Patricius to the 
throne. See also John Mai. 378, Chron. Pasch. 325. This Patricius was a son 
of Asper (John Mai. 371). In Cedrenus i. 613 the proper name Patricius is 
taken to mean a dignity. 

112 THE CHRONICLE OE JOHN lxxxviii. 28 

28. And the emperor sent and had fetched from his place of 
exile whither the elder Leo had driven him the holy patriarch 
Timothy. And when he was brought to the city of Constantinople 
with the honour and dignity due to the priesthood, he was welcomed 
by all the court and people. 29. And a letter was dispatched to 
all the provinces and to all the bishops with orders to expel all who 
confessed the faith of the ChalcedoEfcans, (and likewise) to excom- 
municate and reject them. 

30. The holy Timothy and his companions made the following 
prophecy in regard to the emperor Basiliscus : ' From the day thou 
deniest the faith set forth in this writing, thy empire will cease 
to exist and thy days will rapidly draw to a close/ 31. And he 
replied : ' I will never deny this profession of faith : on the con- 
trary, I will assemble a Council in Jerusalem in order that the 
orthodox faith may be established and abide/ 32. And when the 
holy patriarch Timothy heard these words he went to the city of 
Alexandria, taking with him the profession of faith written out in 
the court of the emperor, and he seated himself on its (patriarchal) 
throne. 33. .But the emperor Basiliscus took bribes and broke his 
word, and cast down that which he had previously built up, and 
did not assemble a Council in Jerusalem as he had promised the 
patriarch Timothy. 34. On the contrary, he wrote a second letter 
to this effect : ' Suffer the Chalcedonians to abide in their faith, and 
show them due regard/ And so the prophecy of the illustrious 
father Timothy and of his companions was accomplished. 35. And 
a terrible unlooked-for pestilence visited the city of Constantinople, 
and the bodies of the dead putrified, and there were not people 
enough to bury them. And the city of Gabala in Syria likewise 
was destroyed by an earthquake. 36. Then Zeuo, the emperor of 
Rome, set out and stirred up the province of Isauria, and collected 
a numerous army and marched to Constantinople. And on arriving 
in the city of Antioch, he had the patriarch Peter seized in order that 
the latter might disclose to him all the designs which the emperor 
Basiliscus had designed against him. 37. And when Basiliscus 
heard of the march of Zeno, he sent the generals Armalis and 
Serbatos to war against Zeno, with a numerous army which he 
had had with him in the palace at Byzantium. 38. And when 
these officers came to him, he adjured them by holy baptism not 
to betray him or injure him. 39. But these officers abstained 




from fighting- with the emperor Zeno, and they sent a secret 
message to him to the following effect: ' We will withdraw to 
a certain locality; and do you make yourself master of the entire 
country/ And these officers moreover treacherously tendered the 
following advice to Basiliscus : < Go by a different route and give 
battle to Zeno at the gates of Constantinople/ 40. But the 
moment Zeno drew nigh to the walls all the senators met him, 
and he was greatly pleased by their reception of him. And Zeno's 
mother-in-law, who was named Verina, had her brother Basiliscus 
fseized and thrown into a pitf. 41. And as Basiliscus was sore 
pressed, he and his wife Zenodia 1 and his children fled to the 
baptistery of a church. And all the senators honoured the 
emperor Zeno and proclaimed him their emperor. And he sent 
* to the church and took from him all the insignia of empire, and 
induced him to come out by a treacherous promise, even him and 
his children. 2 42. Thereupon he drove the unfortunate wretches 
from the palace and sent them in exile into the province of 
Cappadocia, to a fortress named Lemnas. And when they were 
brought to the governor of the province, he put them in a tower 
and barred them in, according to the orders of the emperor, and 
mercilessly left them without food and drink till they died, and 
buried them in the same place. 43. And as for the patriarch 
Peter, he was brought in chains and transported to the town of 
Euchaites in Pontus 3 ; for he had enjoyed the friendship of the 
emperor Basiliscus, and had helped him, and placed the imperial 
crown upon his head. It was on these grounds that (Basiliscus) 
had appointed him patriarch. 44. Now this (Peter) had persecuted 
the Nestorians. (And next Stephen was appointed patriarch of 
Antioch, and he belonged to the Nestorians), 4 and for this reason 

1 So Cedrenus i. 616. Text corrupt : = Suvanses. 

2 Accusatives, not nominatives, should here be read. 
8 Cf. John Mai. 380. 

4 I have supplied a clause which the text requires, and which has fallen out 
through homoioteleuton. According to John Mai. 380 sq. and Theophanes this 
was Stephen II, who was appointed patriarch by Zeno in 480, but according to 
other authorities this was Stephen I, who was patriarch 478-80. Zotenberg by 
a strange error supplies a like clause before the preceding sentenc^ : ' (On 
nomma ensuite patriarche dAntioche Etienne), qui proscrivait la' secte de 
Nestorius '. But it was Peter the Fuller (intruding patriarch of Antioch 471- 
488) who persecuted the Nestorians, and not Stephen, who ac,«^rding to iill 
authorities was put to death by a mob of Antioch on the ground that ho was 
a Nestorian. 



all the inhabitants of the city hated him, and the people of Antioch 
and all the priests put him to a violent death in a place called 
Barlaams 1 on the day of the commemoration of the holy ' Forty 
Martyrs \ And after slaying him they cast his body into the 
river named the Orontes. And the emperor Zeno appointed in his 
stead another patriarch named Calandio, and paid him special 

45. And when the emperor returned to his city he distributed 
abundant alms amongst the poor, and he appointed f Armatus in 
his stead in that place commander, him and his fatherf 2 com- 
mander of the guard and his son to be Caesar as he had promised. 
But when this Armatus became master of the power of the empire 
he became very strong and powerful, and none could withstand 
him, and he formed evil designs in his heart. 46. And when 
the emperor was informed of his evil purposes, he sent and had 
him put to death in a gallery of the palace. And when the 
emperor wished to invade Persia, seeing that Basiliscus, the son of 
Armatus, the Caesar, was but a youth, he took from him the 
crown of investiture and gave orders for him to be consecrated 
metropolitan of Cyzicum, and dispersed his property amongst all 
the people. 

47. And seeing these things, Theodoric, one of the consuls who 
was commander of the guard, began to fear lest he should suffer 
at the hands of the emperor Zeno as had Armatus his friend, 3 
and so he led off the soldiers under his command, who were Goths 
from the province of Moesia. 48. Now Theodoric had been reared 
in the capital, and he was acquainted with profane wisdom. And 
he marched against the city of Selymbria and made its inhabitants 
subject to him, and he made himself master of the entire province 
of Thrace. 49. And next he went with a formidable force from 
the city of Sycene, and he lay there a long time, but was not able 
to inflict any injury on Byzantium, or on the emperor Zeno. 

1 This is the Church of S. Barlaam. Of. John Mai. 381. 

2 Text hopelessly corrupt. The text was to the effect that Zeno appointed the 
son of Armatus, the commander of the praetorians, to be Caesar, as he had 
promised. Cf. John Mai. 381 ir/>o«x f 'P' (7 ^ 7 ? na p' olvtov (Ztjvojvos) /card owragas Kal 
Ifivtro Kalaap 6 vlos 'ApfxaTOv tov aTpa.TTjXa.Tov irpaiaivTOv. 

3 The text is corrupt. The word ^^4*5 = 'his friend', I have transposed 
from before 'who was commander of the guard' (= arpaTr/XaTr/s Sjv Trpaiafvrov, 
John Mai. 353). 

lxxxviii.57 BISHOP OF NIKIU 115 

50. Then he marched on Rome, and had the chief of the bar- 
barians, named Odoacer, who bore the title of rex, brought before 
him through the treason of the senators, and he reduced the city 
of Rome and made himself master of it, and put all the barbarians 
to the sword, and resided there forty-seven years as its emperor. 

51. And he refused to appoint a colleague, and made the emperor 
Zeno a friend, 1 and did everything in accordance with the advice 
of the emperor. And he possessed the respect of the magistrates 
and senate. 

52. And there came to Theodoric the wife . . ., 2 and she was of 
patrician rank in Rome, named Juvenalia, and spake unto him 
and said: < Behold it is now three years since I have suffered 
wrong. My suit is with the patrician Firmus, and justice has not 
been done to me/ 53. And he called the judges and said unto 
them : < Behold I give commandment and say unto you that unless 
in two days you bring to a conclusion the suit of this woman with 
her adversaries and render justice to the two parties equitably 
according to law, I will have your heads cut off with the sword.' 

54. And thereupon they departed, and spent two days in bringing 
the suit of this woman to a conclusion equitably. And the woman 
lighted a waxen taper and went in to him (i.e. the king) to thank 
him, and she said unto him : < My suit which lingered so long 
a time has now, thanks to thy orders, been brought to a conclusion.' 

55. Thereupon he had the judges summoned before him, and said 
unto them ; < Ye wicked men, ye have brought to a conclusion in 
two days a suit which ye were not able to conclude in three years.' 
And thereupon he gave orders to have their heads cut off with 
the sword. And great fear fell upon the city, and an end was put 
to all oppression on the part of the Roman officials. 

56. And in those days after the death of Theodoric, Athalaric 3 
came (to the throne), and he was an Arian. 

57. And subsequently the emperor Zeno sent an officer named 

* The text is unintelligible and corrupt. It reads, 'made the city to the 
emperor ZenoJ. As John Mai. 383 has here : K al kftK^rj Ztfiwi . . . r£ PaatKt? 
Kai navra otxa (wparre /card yvdifiijv avrov, I have emended Ct\S\ AU7C.' ( = ' made 
the city ') into L(\ST\ ADCft: ( = < made a friend ')• 

2 Text defective and corrupt. The event is recorded in John Mai. 384 Chron 
Pasch. 327. ' 

3 'A\api X os in John Mai. 385 ; Evagrius, H. E. iii. 27, iv. 19. 

I % 


THE CHRONICLE OF JOHN lxxxviii. 5 s 

Quaestor 1 to Alexandria to bring back to him the patriarch 
Timothy, the man of God. And when the quaestor came to the 
patriarch Timothy, he said unto him : 1 The emperor summons thee/ 
And the patriarch answered and said unto him : ' The emperor will 
not see my face/ And thereupon he fell ill and died, even as he 
had said. 58. And the orthodox arose and appointed Peter, the 
archdeacon, surnamed Mongus, to be patriarch. And the magis- 
trates of the city sought to arrest him, but he escaped out of the 
hands of the soldiers, and made his escape to the house of (one of) 
the faithful, and there were alarms in the city. 59. And the 
jiartisans of Proterius the Chalcedonian on their part elected 
a patriarch, named Ajes, 2 but he died shortly after. 60. And the 
faithful . . . (Then the Chalcedonian s elected a patriarch) named 
John Tabennesiotes. And he likewise got possession of the 
(patriarchal) throne of Ajes by bribing the magistrates. And he 
said : ' I have sworn a solemn oath to the emperor Zeno that I shall 
take no measures regarding the ecclesiastical see (of Alexandria)/ 
61. And when the emperor Zeno heard of this event he was very 
wroth, and he gave orders for his expulsion. And when John 
heard that the emperor had given orders for his expulsion, he took 
to flight and went to Rome. 62. And at that time Acacius, 
patriarch of Constantinople, was on friendly terms with the 
emperor Zeno. And so he prevailed on the emperor that they 
should subscribe the Henoticon, that is to say, the confession of the 
faith of the three Councils Nicaea, Constantinople, and Ephesus, 
and should reject the other Councils. 

63. And for this reason (he had brought back) Peter the 
patriarch, 3 who had previously fled, to Antioch from the city of 
Dmarurja. And Calandio the patriarch of Antioch fled through 
fear of being put to death, as he was a Chalcedonian. For (its 
inhabitants) had previously put to death the patriarch Stephen, his 

1 Probably a transliteration of Koia'itrrojp, the name of an office, which the 
translator took to be a proper name. 

2 On the various names of Timothy, commonly called Salofaciolus, consecrated 
patriarch of Alexandria 460 a.d., see Smith's Diet. Christ. Biog. iv. 1033. 

3 Peter the Fuller was banished by Zeno (Evagrius, if. E. iii. 8) to Petyus. 
On the way thither he escaped his guards and took refuge in the church of 
S. Theodore in Euchaites (Cedrenus i. 618). Thence he returned to Antioch, 
and intrigued against the orthodox prelates, the two(?) Stephens and Calandio. 
Finally, on the deposition of the last, Peter was restored by Zeno in 485 on 
signing the Henoticon. 

lxxxviii.68 BISHOP OF NIKIU 


predecessor. And all the priests and people prayed to the emperor 
on behalf of him 1 (i. e. Peter). And the patriarch Peter accepted 
the Henoticon of the emperor. 64. And in his days there were 
tumults in the city because of the confession of the faith written 
by the emperor — for we anathematize the council of the bishops at 
Chalcedon and their impure creed which states that there are two 
natures in Christ, whereas the letter of Zeno says that there is 
(only) one nature in the Word of God which was made flesh, and 
that the bishops who had been expelled should be remembered (in 
the diptychs). 

65. And the emperor Zeno made a compact with Ulus and came 
to terms with him about the same time that he had received 
Armatus, the father of Caesar, into favour. But subsequently the 
army of Illus waged war on the emperor Zeno. For Illus, seeing" 
that Armatus, though a friend of the emperor Zeno, had been 
executed, fled in fear (of a similar fate) to Isauria. 2 66. Now Illus 
sent the empress Verina, the mother-in-law of the emperor, a message 
to this effect: c Prevail on the emperor in his behalf/ But she 
could not prevail on the emperor. Now the emperor Zeno 
concealed his evil designs from his brother Longinus lest there 
should be a scandal and grounds for disturbances in Byzantium ; 
for she had formerly been an empress. 67. And in this treacherous 
plot the emperor Zeno had arranged with Illus to banish her, and 
transport her to the province of Isauria and to keep her guarded 3 
there. And when she arrived there, Illus came forth and shut her 
up in a fortress, and he appointed a large force to guard her. 
And he took with him Longinus the emperor's brother. 68. But 
when she (Verina) came to know these facts, she sent a message to 
her daughter (Ariadne) the emperor's wife. And her daughter 
requested the emperor to release her from the fortress where they 
had imprisoned her. 4 

1 For I read flXYFs "M: 1 on his behalf of him to'. Otherwise the 
text reads 'on behalf of the emperor Zeno'. 

2 With the confused text of this and the following verses cf. John Mai. 

s I have emended ' have her put to death ' into .E.O'f'fl: 

4 The text = ' to permit her to remain in the fortress of Isauria exactly the 

opposite of what she desired. Hence for WttCl ©fit; $RCl HICbCf ; 

I read kT^frC; oo-ftTH: h(\CV: Cf. John Mai. : iv a attoXvOfi and KaartWiov 

onov TjV d-rroKiKKtifffxivr]. 



And the emperor said unto her : ' I cannot incur the anger of 
Illus the patrician ; hut do thou ask him, and if he approves, I will 
set her free/ 69. And the empress sent to him and besought him 
with tears to set free her mother 1 and to pardon her wrong-doing. 2 
70. But he refused to have compassion on her and said unto her : 
'Do you wish me to set up another emperor against thine own 
husband V And she was very wroth with him, and she went to 
the emperor and said unto him : ' Am I and likewise Illus to live 
(at the same time) in the palace ? ' And the emperor said unto her : 
' Do what you wish ; for I love you more than Illus and many 
men/ 71. And when the empress heard these words of the emperor, 
her heart was strengthened, and she commanded f Adrian f to put 
him to death. And f Adrian f 3 who was chief of the eunuchs sent 
a man, named Scholarius, who being a captain of the guard could 
enter when he wished the palace of the emperor with his men. 

72. And he went in and drew his sword in order to smite him 
(Illus) and cleave his head in a gallery of the palace. And one of 
the officers, seeing this, ran hastily and wrested his sword from him 
after he had cut off the right ear of Illus instead of his head. 

73. And Scholarius 4 the eunuch was put to death, who had smitten 
Illus with the sword. And the followers of Illus transported him 
to his house. 74. And when the emperor Zeno heard of this event, 
he took an oath, saying : c I know nothing of this outrage that the 
eunuch did to Illus/ And when Illus had recovered from his 
wound, he asked permission from the emperor Zeno to go to the 
east for change of air in order to avoid a return of his malady. 
75. And he asked humbly that he would let him go, dissembling his 
treacherous designs. And, unaware of his treachery, (the emperor) 
let him go. And he appointed fin his stead another man named 
Julaljaf with full powers. 5 And Illus wished to take Leontius and 
Pamprepius with him, apparently on the pretext that they would 
negotiate peace between Verina the emperor's mother and the 
emperor Zeno, and that (thus) she might return honourably to him. 

1 Zotenberg omits ' to set free her mother '. 

2 Text corruptly adds ' and to let her remain there 

3 Urbicius was the chief of the eunuchs. 

4 (Txo^aptos = an official of the palace guard. It is not a proper name. 

5 Utterly corrupt. We should read as in John Mai. 388 : 'cnoirjctV afrrbv 
or iiarTjKarrjv 'AvaroKrjs Sous aiirai itaoav t£ovoiav. 

lxxxviii.84 BISHOP OF NIKIU 


76. And the emperor was pleased with this plan, and he sent these 
three persons and likewise (two) illustrious (senators) named Marsos 
and Valjanos, magistrates of Isauria, and many officials and troops. 

77. And when they came to Antioch the Great, Illus stayed a year 
(there), and the inhabitants of that city paid him very high 
honours. 78. Then he marched into Isauria and brought Verina 
down from the fort, and they bound themselves by mutual oaths. 
And in agreement with Pamprepius, who was given to magic and 
the seductions of demons, he prevailed on the officers to create 
Leontius emperor. So they created him emperor in the oratory of 
S. Peter, outside the walls of Tarsus the capital of Cilicia. 79. And 
she (Verina) wrote and dispatched letters to all the cities and 
officials and troops of the east, and to the cities of Egypt, to gain 
their recognition of the imperial authority of Leontius without 
opposition. 80. And the empress Verina, Augusta, wrote likewise 
as follows : ' I make known unto you touching our imperial 
authority, that after the death of the emperor Leo, of happy 
memory, we appointed Trascalissaeus, that is Zeno, emperor, that 
he might be solicitous 1 as regards our commands and duly govern 
the army. 81. But now we have seen that he has abandoned 
integrity, while he is likewise devoid of understanding. 2 Accord- 
ingly we have accounted him as a rebel, a perverse man and a 
usurper. Behold, now, we have appointed another emperor, a Christian 
Godloving man, distinguished for righteousness and uprightness, 
that he may save the country by his virtuous conduct and put an 
end to the war : and may preserve his subjects according to law 
and order. 82. And we have crowned Leontius with the imperial 
crown that he may be emperor over the Koman empire, who will be 
solicitous after every good work,' 83. And when the letter was 
read in the city of Antioch, all the population cried aloud saying : 
'Do unto us the good things, O Lord, which will be good for 
us.' And a letter also was sent to Alexandria. 84. Then Leontius 
came to Antioch and took up his residence in the palace, and he 

1 The text reads "h^ii of which Zotenberg gives the impossible rendering 
' l'ex^cuteur fidele '. I have emended the above into in accordance with 
the fr%tL\ in ver. 82. 

2 This rendering follows the manuscripts, only omitting CO . Otherwise read 
£0je.fc7'fl: HXlftA; hKy°Ci 'and that he is unconscionably insatiable'. 
Zotenberg emends the text differently. 

120 THE CHRONICLE OF JOHN lxxxviii. 85 

appointed Lilianus 1 prefect and judge. 85. And after fifteen days 
■ he inarched to Chalcis, a city of Isauria, in order to attack the 
inhabitants of that city, because they refused to submit to him and 
called him a rebel against the emperor. 86. And for one and a half 
months he waged war on the inhabitants of that city but was not 
able to take it. And when the emperor Zeno heard of what had 
befallen, he sent a Scythian officer named John, a valiant man and 
a warrior, in command of a numerous army to wage war on the 
conspirators. 87. And when Illus who was in Cilicia discovered 
that he was not able to make head against the general John, he 
marched and joined Leontius and Verina, and they arranged to flee 
together and to take refuge in a castle in Isauria, named Papyris. 
88. And Leontius went in precipitate flight from the province of 
the East, and these three personages, Leontius, Illus, and Pamprepius 
accompanied by Verina, withdrew into a castle. And when the 
troops of the emperor 'Zeno : arrived they besieged that castle in 
which they were. And Verina died in the castle. 89. And the 
garrison of the castle, learning that Pamprepius was seeking to join 
the enemy against them, put him to death and cast his body from 
the top of the battlements. 90. And after many toilsome efforts, 
(the besiegers) captured the castle and brought forth the rebels^ 
that is, Leontius who wrought his own destruction and Illus who 
was the cause of all the evil. 91. And they placed them on a 
tribunal m the midst of the assemblage and passed upon them the 
sentence of death, and they cut off their heads with the sword and 
carried them to the emperor Zeno in Constantinople. 

92. And it is told also regarding the emperor Zeno that he was 
with Maurianus the astrologer : now the latter used to announce to 
him (beforehand) all that happened ; for they were friends. 93. And 
(the emperor) asked him saying: 'Who will succeed to the empire 
after me ? 3 And he said unto him : f A Silentiarius will take thine 
empire and likewise thy wife.' And owing to this (prediction) he 
thought (the person meant) was an illustrious man named Pelagius, 
who had become a patrician. 2 94. Now they deposed him unjustly • 
indeed the emperor committed Silentiarius to the charge of six 
trusty men and commanded them to strangle him in the night, 
though he was guiltless. After they had strangled him, they cast 
his body into the sea. 95. And when this wicked murder came to 
1 So Zotenberg restores the faulty name. ? The text adds ' first '. ' 

lxxxix. 8 BISHOP OF NIKIU 


be known, people could not keep silence on the matter — and 
particularly Arcadius, an illustrious officer and a thorough observer 
of justice. And he was one that judged uprightly and hated 
oppression. And he blamed the emperor for the crime that in the 
hardness of his heart he had committed in putting Silentiarius the 
patrician to death. 96. And when Zeno the emperor heard (this) 
he was wroth with Arcadius, and gave orders for him to be put to 
death as he entered the palace. And (the guards) did as the 
emperor commanded, but Arcadius escaped out of their hands, by 
entering a church in order (as he pretended) to make prayer and 
supplication to God. 1 97. And the emperor fell sick of a dysentery 
and died. 

Chapter LXXXIX. 1. And after the death of the Godloving 
emperor Zeno, the Christian and Godfearing emperor Anastasius 
came to the throne. He was one of the emperor's chamberlains, 
and became emperor through the grace of God and. the prayers of 
our Egyptian Fathers. 2. Now the emperor Zeno had banished 
him to the island of S. Irai, situated in the river of Memphis. 
Now the inhabitants of Manuf had treated him with kindly 
affection. 3. And Ammonius, who belonged to the city of Hezena 
in the province of Alexandria, and (the inhabitants of that city) 
became his friends, and honoured him and showed him much 
affection. 4. And one day the inhabitants of Manuf and of 
Hezena agreed together respecting Anastasius, who was in disgrace 
with the emperor Zeno, to ascend the mountain to the convent of 
the God-clothed S. Abba Jeremiah of Alexandria. 5. And there 
lived on their route a man who was endowed with the knowledge 
of all the works of God. And they conversed regarding the holy 
life of the man of God, and desired his blessing. And he prayed 
for them to Christ whom he served. 6. And they proceeded and 
entered into the dwelling of the man of God, the Abba Jeremiah. 
And he blessed them all, but spake no word at all to Anastasius. 
7. And when they came forth Anastasius was very deeply pained, 
and he wept much, saying in his heart : f It is by reason of the 
multitude of my sins that the man of God did not bless me when 
he blessed all the rest/ 8, And the inhabitants of Manuf and 

1 The -words 'and the emperor' precede 'by entering a church ... to God' 
in the previous verse. John Mai. 390, Cedrenus i. 621 support this restoration 
of the order of the text. 

122 THE CHRONICLE OF JOHN lxxxix. 9 

Ammonius of the city of Hezena went to the holy man of God and 
told him of the grievous pain with which Anastasius was afflicted. 

9. And he indeed called him apart, and likewise his trusty friends 
and Ammonius, and said unto him : f Grieve not so as to think and 
say, " It is by reason of my sins that the old man blessed me not" : 
the matter is not so ; on the contrary, as I have seen the hand of 
God upon thee, I have on this ground refrained from blessing thee. 

10. How should I who have been guilty of so many sins be worthy 
to bless him whom God hath blessed and honoured. And he hath 
chosen thee from amongst many thousands to be His anointed ; 
for it is written : " The hand of the Lord God is on the head of 
kings." 11. And He hath set His trust in thee that thou mayest 
become His representative on earth and strengthen His people. 
Only when thou dost recall my words and hast accomplished the 
prophecy, observe this command which I give thee this day, so that 
God may save thee from thine adversaries : " Do no sin of any kind 
and transgress not against the Christian faith of Christ, and reject 
the Chalcedonian faith which hath provoked God to anger." ' 

12. And as for these commands which the Abba Jeremiah gave 
to Anastasius, he indeed received them, (engraving them) on the 
tables of his heart, even as Moses the prophet received the tables 
of the Covenant from God whereon were engraved the command- 
ments of the law. 13. And shortly after Anastasius was recalled 
from the banishment into which the emperor of (this) world had 
driven him by virtue of his power. And subsequently Anastasius 
was appointed emperor. 14. And thereupon he sent to the disciples 
of the holy Abba Jeremiah (and had them fetched). And the 
Abba Warjanos, who was a relative of Abba Jeremiah, accompanied 
them. Now the emperor indeed besought them with many prayers 
to accept money for their food on the way and for the convent ; but 
(they refused) because their father the holy Jeremiah had instructed 
them not to accept anything save incense for the celebration of 
the eucharist or for offering the sacrifice, and a few sacred utensils. 
15. And he sent also to the island where he had formerly been 
in banishment, and he had a great and massive church built (and) 
named S. Irai. Formerly it was but a little church. 16. And he 
sent to it many gold and silver vessels and beautiful vestments. 
And he sent also much gold and silver to his friends in the city 
of Manuf and Hezena. And he conferred magistracies upon 

lxxxix. 2i BISHOP OF NIKIU 123 

them, and some of them he had ordained to the priesthood. 
17. And this Godloving Anastasius sent to the city of Antioch 
and to all the cities, and put a stop to the civil war which the 
people waged on each other, and he made them submit to authority 
as became Christians. And he wrote to all the magistrates that 
were subject to him (bidding them) to execute this decree, and 
they submitted to authority as became Christians. 

18. And subsequently there arose disturbances in (the capital of) 
his dominion through the enmity of Satan. For the people 
demanded tumultuously that certain disorderly and factious persons 
should not be cast into prison ; for the prefect had delivered over 
several of them to be stoned. But the emperor refused to let them 
off, and he was wroth, and gave orders for them to be attacked by 
the cavalry. 1 19. And when these went down to make the attack 
a slave audaciously rose up and approached the emperor's seat, and 
hurled a stone with the intention of killing the emperor. Now 
he stood up in his place, saying in his heart, f No one will 
recognize me 20. But the help of God shielded the emperor, 
and the stone fell inside the enclosure that is within the imperial 
seat and brake, it. And when (the guards) saw that slave who 
cast a stone at the emperor they marked him closely, and ran and 
seized him, and dismembered him limb from limb. 21. And the 
tumult waxed more serious, and they burnt the brazen circuit 2 
where stood the seats of the soldiers and the cavalry and all the 

1 The text misrepresents the facts, which were briefly as follows. On one 
occasion the Green Faction in Constantinople besought the emperor during one 
of the races to set free from bonds certain individuals who had been cast into 
prison for throwing stones during an exhibition in the circus. But the 
emperor refused, and ordered the soldiers to attack the people. Thereupon 
the mob assailed the imperial guards, and a Moor among it hurled a stone at the 
emperor. Cf. Chron. Pasch. 329 'Ittitikov dyoptivov irapeKaXovv ol rov plpovs ruv 
Xlpaaivwv rbv fiaviKta ' kvaardaiov diro\v9ijvat rivas avax^ivras dirb rov inap\ov tt}* 
troXeoJS \i9of36\ovs. Kal ov irapttc\r)9r] dno rov Srjpiov -6 euros ' kvaaraoios, aWa dyava- 
KTTjaas (KfKevatv appta (? dppdrovs Ducange) avrwv l£eA9uv, Kal tyivtro dra£ia 
puydXr], Kal Kari]\9ov ol df/poi Kard rwv (£Kov0irwp<uv Kal t\96vrts enl to ic&Btopuz 
tppitpav XiOovs Kara rov 0aai\iojs ' Avaaraa'iov, kv oh (h Mavpos tppnpiv kiravw rov 
Pao-i\eajs 'Avaaraalov. Kal k£t<pvyev 6 0a<ri\(h rov XiQov . . . Kal 9taadpL(vot ol ff- 
Kovfiirajpes rfju rov avrov Mavpov ro\pav wpprjaav Kar avrov, Kal tKoipav avrov Kara 
pe\os. . . . 6 5% SiJ/ios arevaiOih e/3a\tv rrvp Iv rfj \tyop.4vr) XaA/cj) rod 'Iitttikov' Kal 
6 trepiPoXos okos tKav9rj ecus rov PacrikiKov KaO'iaixaros. Kal 0 orjp.6ffios eppokos ecus 
rov 'E£aiirmov ical «aiy rov (popov Kuvaravrivov okm Kav9els KartjvixOr) . . . Kal 
irokkwv . . . ripiaiprj9(vrciiv yiyovtv ^avxia. See also John Mai. 394 sq. 

2 A misunderstanding of XaA/n} rov 'Ittwikov. See above passage. 



people all the way to the emperor's seat, and the portico of 
Hexahippium which adjoins the seat 1 constructed by the holy 
Constantine. ■ 

22. And after many great efforts they forcibly re-established the 
(imperial) authority over the seditious, and punished many of them 
till peace and tranquillity were restored throughout all the city. 

23. And the inhabitants of Antioch also acted after the same 
manner as those of Constantinople. They set fire to the synagogue 
of the Jews, which is in Daphne, and set up within it the glorious 
cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, and they transformed it (the syna- 
gogue) into a church, dedicated to S. Leontius, and they put many 
of them (the Jews) to death. 24. And when the emperor was 
informed of these events he sent Procopius, count of the east, in 
order to subdue the seditious factions. 25. And when he and 
Menas of Byzantium 2 arrived in Antioch the leaders of the factions 
fled from the city and withdrew into the sacred dwelling of S. John. 
26. And Menas the prefect at the head of a numerous force went 
thither by night. And a great tumult arose, and he slew amongst 
them a man named Eleutherius, whose head was carried to the 
governor Procopius. 27. But the (Green) faction gained the day, 
and burned the place of their assemblage 3 with fire, (and likewise) 
the praetorium. Thereupon there was a terrible strife, and Menas 
the prefect was slain and his body burned with fire. 4 28. And 
Procopius immediately took to flight and went to the confines of 
Constantinople. 5 And when (the emperor) was apprised of the 
flight of the governor Procopius he appointed in his stead a man 
named Irenaeus, and ordered him to proceed to Antioch. 29. And 
when he arrived there he punished many of them, and inspired 
such great fear and terror that all the factions abandoned their 
civil strife, and so he re-established peace among the inhabitants of 
Antioch. 30. And the emperor rebuilt the edifices which had been 
burnt, and he constructed many beautiful streets ; for in his mercy 
and compassion he loved to build edifices. 31. He built many 

1 It is the forum of Constantino that was affected. See above passage. 

2 The text has here fi££av; fl£*}TjP; The first word— a corruption of 
ft£.£(TD' t — ultimately goes back to Mi;ras. In transliterating from the Arabic 
the confusion arose. 

3 This was the Basilica of Rufinus in Antioch. 

* Cf. John Mai. 396 sqq. - 5 John Mai. says Alexandria. 

lxxxix. 38 BISHOP OP NIKIU 


edifices in Egypt, and likewise a fortress on the borders of the Red 
Sea. And he applied himself to completing- all manner of beautiful 
works, that he might remain in tranquillity and peace. 32. And 
for the inhabitants of Doras 1 he had a wall built, and openings 
made in the walls like bridges to prevent the water of the river 
from spreading upon the fields. 

33. And in the reign also of this Godloving emperor impious 
barbarians, who eat human flesh and drank blood, arose in the quarter 
of Arabia, and approaching the borders of the Red Sea they seized 
the monks of Araite, 2 and they put them to the sword or led them 
away captive and plundered their possessions ; for they hated the 
saints, and were themselves like in their devices to the idolaters 
and pagans. And after they had taken a large booty they returned 
to their own country. 34. And when the emperor was informed 
of this event he had strong forts constructed as a defence to the 
dwellings of the monks, and he rendered many good services to 
them and all the monks of the Roman world. 

35. And certain people in the city of Alexandria rose up and 
created a shameful disturbance, and slew the prefect of the city, 
who was named Theodosius, who had been brought up in the house 
of the patriarch of Antioch. And when the emperor was informed 
of this event he was wroth, and punished many of the inhabitants 
of that city. 

36. And the good deeds alone of the emperor are beyond 
numbering ; for he was an orthodox believer and trusted in our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and prohibited the faith of the 
Chalcedonians because the holy Jeremiah,, the servant of God, had 
(so) bidden him. 

37. Now the people of Elwarikon 3 had refused to accept the 
letter of Leo which he dispatched to them from Rome. But when 
the oppression of Marcian and his magistrates became severe they 
began to fear lest they should experience the violence which befell 
Dioscorus the patriarch of Alexandria. 38. And the emperor 
Anastasius, the servant of God, agreed with the terms of the letter 
of the emperor Zeno. And subsequently he gave orders that the 
faith professed by the three Councils, Nicaea, Constantinople, and 

1 Cf. John Mai. 399 irdxiac to Aopds . . . /cat Kiaripvas vSoltwv. See Evagrius, 
H.E. iii.37. 

2 Cf. Evagrius, II. E. iii. 36. * Zotenberg takes this to be Illyria. 



the first at Ephesus, should be established. 39. But Euphemius, 
the patriarch of Constantinople at that period, was a Chalcedonian, 
who divided the one nature of Christ into two distinct natures in 
its manifestations, saying- that it was the Word of God that had 
wrought the miracles, but the weak human nature that had sub- 
mitted to the passion. 40. And he changed likewise the trisagion 
which we recite thus : 'Holy God, holy Strong One, holy Immortal 
One, who hast been crucified for us, have mercy upon us/ But he 
did not recite it as we, but in the following terms : ( Holy God, 
holy Strong One, holy Immortal One, have mercy upon us.' 
41. Indeed he declared, ( I do not recite it as ye do, to prevent the 
application of this formula to the Holy Trinity in three persons. 
Him who was crucified we adore together with the Father and the 
Holy Spirit. Now it was not the Father and the Son and the 
Holy Spirit who suffered. He that became incarnate without 
separating Himself (from the Trinity) and suffered is con substantial 
with the Father and the Holy Spirit, but He did not suffer in His 
divinity. And there is none other than He — God forbid ! 42. Now 
whilst one of the Holy Trinity, He is capable of suffering in the 
body which is united with Him and the reasonable soul which are 
combined in (one) person, but He is not capable of suffering in 
His divinity which is consubstantial with the Father and the Holy 
Spirit, as our holy Fathers have taught us/ 43. The wise Proclus 
joined the Nestorians in saying : ' If Christ was in every respect 
incapable of suffering after His incarnation, He could no more 
suffer in body than could the divinity of the Son.' But in so saying 
he speaks falsely, for the Son of God could not then have suffered 
in reality. 44. These are the pestilent words of those who say 
there are four persons instead of three. 

45. Of a similar character are the declarations of those impostors 
who say regarding the Son that it was another who was crucified ; 
for this wicked opinion was propounded by heretics. 46. And the 
emperor Anastasius deprived Euphemius of his dignities and 
banished him from Constantinople to Euchaites in Pontus. And 
he appointed Macedonius in his stead, who accepted from his hand 
the edict of the emperor Zeno, and refused to accept the Council of 
Chalcedon. 47. And he charmed the heart of the emperor Anasta- 
sius, though concealing the while treacherous devices in his thoughts 
regarding the faith. And (the emperor) obliged him to recite the 

lxxxix. 55 BISHOP OF NIKIU 


trisagion in these terms : f Mayst Thou who wast crucified 1 for us 
have mercy upon us.' And thus he ordained this rule. 

48. Now the orthodox monks of Palestine had abandoned the 
study of the Scriptures, and a schism had arisen amongst them ; 
for they declared that they were unwilling to accept the edict of 
the emperor. And they brought thereby persecution upon them- 
selves at the instigation of a monk named Nephalius, a promoter of 
dissension. 49. The monks of the desert sent certain aged anchor- 
ites to Constantinople, accompanied by Severus the chief of the 
Fathers — a wise man well versed in the Scriptures, and a perfect 
priest — to request the emperor Anastasius to issue orders to the 
monks to live peaceably in their dwellings and cloisters, and to 
pray on his behalf. 50. And when they came to speak to the 
emperor they were recognized by the officers and conducted to 
the patriarch Macedonius, and they conversed with him on the 
subject of the faith. 51. And thereupon he confessed openly what 
was hidden in his heart regarding the perverted faith which he 
followed; for he could not always conceal his views and 
prevent their coming to be known by some one. 52. Now 
there was an Alexandrian, named Doritheus, who possessed 
S. Cyril's treatise on the faith. And he had conversed with Severus 
and had found him imbued with the doctrine of S. Cyril. 53. These 
two admonished Macedonius and the Chalcedonians, who f re- 
membered f two natures to Jesus Christ the Son of God, who is 
one. And it was marvellous in their eyes, and they named this 
book Philalethes. 

54. But Macedonius and his adherents, as well as the partisans of 
the Nestorians, were wroth, and said that after the manner of their 
(tris)agion the angels recite the trisagion. But Severus answered: 
' The angels recite as follows : " Holy God, holy Mighty One, holy 
Immortal One, have mercy upon us." Indeed the angels have no 
necessity to say : " Who was crucified for us " ; for the crucifixion 
of our God was not on behalf of angels, but on behalf of us men 
was our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ crucified. 55. And it was 
for our salvation that He came down from heaven and was in- 
carnate and became man, and was crucified for us in the days 
of Pontius Pilate, and rose from the dead on the third day, as it is 
written in the holy Scriptures which were set in due order by our 
1 For Htrt^A; ( = < He who was crucified ') read Ht (l<Pbi\ll 



holy Fathers of Nicaea and Constantinople and Ephesus, who also 
established a fitting definition of His divinity. 56. It is for this 
reason that we Christians say of necessity : " O Thou who hast 
been crucified for us, have mercy upon us." We believe also that the 
holy, mighty and immortal God was crucified for us. In like 
manner also we truly believe that the holy Virgin Mary brought 
forth very God : and that they were not two different persons, but 
one and the same whom the Virgin bare and the Jews crucified — 
one and the same alike in birth, crucifixion, and resurrection/ 
57. And many similar arguments were addressed to the emperor 
and the magistrates, whereby the opinions of the heretical Nes- 
torians were overthrown from their foundation. 58. And when 
they had by their orthodox arguments reduced Macedonius to 
silence, and his opinions had vanished because of the words of 
truth, he thought out an evil device, and spake to the emperor and 
the magistrates to this effect : ' I too believe the same facts as the 
orientals, and I say in the church: "O Thou that wast crucified 1 
for us, have mercy upon us/'" 59. But in secret he stirred up the 
heretics against the emperor, saying unto them : c They have intro- 
duced novelties into the faith of our Christian Fathers/ Then the 
heretics assembled and proceeded to the court of the emperor in 
order to stir up a tumult with a view to the banishment of Plato, 
who administered all the affairs of his empire : he was very highly 
and universally honoured. 60. And yielding to fear, he took to 
flight and hid himself. And these heretics and the soldiers who 
were with them cried aloud and proclaimed the name of another 
emperor of the Romans. 61. And they proceeded with haste to the 
house of Marinus the Syrian, an illustrious man. 2 And they burnt 
his house and possessions. And they sought to slay him, but they 
could not find him ; for he had fled, and was saved through the 
strong aid of our Lord Jesus Christ. 62. Now the lying patriarch 
Macedonius had calumniated this Godloving man to the people, 
and had said unto them: r It is Mai-inus who turns the heart of 
the emperor from the faith/ 63. And moved with evil zeal they 
sought for him with a view to slaying him, though he was unaware 
of it. And when they had plundered the house of this illustrious 
man and carried out the silver vessels he possessed, they divided 

1 Reading as in ver. 56 HtfrJ'&h; 

2 In John Mai. 407 lie is an ex-prefect. 

Lxxxrx. 70 



them amongst themselves. 64. But indeed the moment the crowds 
entered the house of the magistrate they found (in it) a monk 
of the east, (and) they led him forth and put him to death, believing 
him to be the Godloving Severus. And they took his head and 
carried it about throughout all the city crying aloud these words : 
e This is the enemy of the Holy Trinity/ 65. And they went also 
to the house of Juliana, who belonged to the family of the emperor 
Leo (and proclaimed her husband), who was named Ariobindus, 
(emperor). But when he was apprised of their coming he took to 
flight. 66. But the people kept shamelessly perpetrating these 
excesses. Then the Godloving emperor Anastasius, being guided 
by the true faith of Christ, arose and accompanied by all the 
senators ascended the imperial throne, clothed in the imperial robes. 
And when all the people saw him, they were pained and grieved 
and became repentant, and fearing the emperor they besought him 
to pardon their transgression, confessing their offences. 67. And 
the emperor said to them in a loud voice : ' Be not afraid ; lo ! 
I have pardoned you/ 1 And thereupon all the people dispersed to 
their several dwellings, and tranquillity was restored. But after a 
few days, the same people stirred up fresh disturbances, and so the 
emperor Anastasius mustered a numerous force of soldiers and gave 
orders to them to seize the rioters, and when they were seized and 
brought to the emperor, some had their limbs broken, others were 
executed, and others sent into banishment. 68. And by these 
measures tranquillity was restored, and the fear of the emperor was 
inspired in the hearts of the citizens. It was then also that 
Macedonius was banished, who had brought about the destruction 
of many. He was stripped of his episcopal dignities and reckoned 
as a murderer, and expelled from the congregation (of the faithful). 

69. And the bishops of the east arrived in Byzantium and made 
the following accusations to the emperor Anastasius against Flavian, 
patriarch of Antioch : that he was a Nestorian, though he had 
accepted the Henoticon of the emperor Zeno; that he had again 
joined the Chalcedonians, and accepted the abominable letter of 
Leo, in which were mentioned the two natures and twofold opera- 
tions of Him who is one only and indivisible, Jesus Christ, very 
God. 70. And the Godloving emperor Anastasius, moreover, 

1 Not so in John Mai. 407-8. 



banished him to Petra in Palestine ; for he had cursed the orthodox 
and had embraced the faith of the wicked heretics. 

71. And Vital ian, moreover, who was commander of the troops 
in the province of Thrace, being a man of perverse heart, hated 
Severus the saint of God. Now the emperor Anastasius had 
appointed Severus patriarch of Antioch in the room of the heretic 
Flavian, whom he had banished, when the orthodox bishops of the 
east testified in the favour of the former. 

72. And Vitalian, whom we have just mentioned, raised a revolt 
against the emperor Anastasius, and seized Thrace and Scythia 1 
and Mysia, and mustered a numerous army. 73. And the emperor 
sent against him a general named Hypatius. And when they 
fought together, he was vanquished by Vitalian and taken prisoner. 
And on the payment of a large ransom he was set free. 74. But 
immediately on his return to the emperor, the latter removed him 
from his command, and appointed in his room another general, 
named Cyril, of the province of Illyria. 75. And he also gave 
battle to Vitalian, and there was great slaughter on both sides. 
Cyril the general retired into the city named Odyssus, and stayed 
there while Vitalian withdrew into the province of Bulgaria. 
76. And he gave large sums of money to the guards who kept the 
gates of Odyssus, and then, marching by night, he put Cyril the 
general to death and captured the city. 77. And he attacked also 
the province of Thrace, and plundered all its wealth, and likewise 
the cities of Europe, and Sycae, and the region over against Con- 
stantinople and Sosthenium, and he established himself in the 
church of the holy Archangel Michael, devising by what means he 
could make himself master of the empire of Byzantium. 

78. And the emperor Anastasius sent to the philosopher Proclus 
in order that he might render help to Marinus. 79. And the 
emperor informed him regarding the rebel Vitalian and the audacity 
he had shown. But Marinus encouraged the emperor, saying : 
' I will overcome this rebel by the might of God ; only give orders 
that I may be accompanied by soldiers and the philosopher Proclus. 
Procure for me also unpurged sulphur resembling powdered anti- 
mony/ 80. And the emperor gave him the sulphur. And Marinus 

1 As Zotenberg shows, the Mldsfi"! is a transliteration of the Arabic words for 
' Curds i. e. ' Scythians '. 

lxxxix. 88 BISHOP OF NIKIU 131 

ground it into a fhard powder f, 1 and said publicly: 'If you cast 
(this) on a house or on a ship, it will take fire when the sun rises 
and melt it like wax.' 81. And Marinus took with him many 
ships, and he mustered all the soldiers he could find in Constanti- 
nople, and he proceeded to wage war against Vitalian as the 
emperor had commanded. 82. And when the rebel saw Marinus 
he took all the ships he could find and manned them with a large 
force of Scythian and Gothic archers, and sailed in the direction of 
Byzantium, believing that he should get the better of his opponents. 
88. But Marinus and his companions, through the mighty help of 
God got the better of this enemy, and the design of this shameless 
rebel failed of accomplishment, and thereupon Vitalian, the cause of 
civil strife, took to flight. 

84. And Marinus gave the unpurged sulphur to the sailors, and 
commanded them to cast it on the ships of the rebel foe in order 
that they might be burnj, And when the fleets of Marinus and of 
this rebel encountered each other, they (the sailors) cast the sulphur- 
into the ships of Vitalian about the third hour of the day and 
immediately the ships burst into flames and sank in the depths 

85. And when Vitalian saw this he was stupefied, and his 
remaining forces turned back and fled. And the general Marinus 
put all the rebels he could find to the sword, and pursued them till 
they came to the church of S. Mamas. And as night was approach- 
mg Marinus encamped there and guarded the route 86 But 
Vitalian after his defeat marched throughout the night and fled 
with his followers in fear and terror to a place named Anchialus. 
And he traversed that night a space of sixty miles, as he feared 
lest Marinus should pursue him and make him a prisoner On the 
morrow every one forsook him and left him alone. 

87. And the emperor Anastasius distributed many alms amongst 
the poor and destitute in the district of Sosthenium. And he set 
out from the imperial city and stayed in the church of S Michael 
praying and giving thanks to God for all the benefits He had 
bestowed upon him and for the victory which He had given him 
over his adversaries, and displaying an irreproachable (and) orthodox 
faith 88. Next the emperor Anastasius ordered that a large sum 
of gold should be given to the philosopher Proclus. But he refused 

,r^trt! Uld be P ° Wder '- Cf ' J ° hn Mal " 403 **> rp^u oW *s i* 

- k2 



to take the money and, saluting the emperor, he requested him 
(to let him go back to Athens), saying : f Whoever loves money is 
not worthy to be a philosopher, and the contempt of money likewise 
in those that cultivate philosophy is honourable.' And the emperor 
let him go, and held him in high honour. 

89. And all the orthodox believers who had accepted the Henoticon 
of the righteous emperor Zeno were highly esteemed by the emperor. 
And at that time appeared from the city of Nikius 1 John priest and 
monk ; for the patriarch had refused to accept him. 90. Now 
the priest John 2 was wise and Godloving and well versed in the 
Scriptures, and he lived in the convent of Far. 91. And the 
inhabitants of the city of Sa and those of the city of Akeia came to 
be at variance with each other. Thereupon the bishops of the two 
cities arose and went to the emperor Anastasius, and besought him 
to ordain for them suitable canons, to hold a Council, and expel the 
Chalcedonians and blot out their remembrance from the church 
and that of all bishops who agreed with the abominable Leo who 
proclaimed the two natures, 

92. But the emperor in his goodness did not force them con- 
trary to their inclinations, but (suffered) each (to) act according 
to his own inclination. And the emperor Anastasius paid great 
honour to those who agreed with him in the orthodox faith and 
distributed numerous alms and virtuously completed his work. 

93. And subsequently the emperor fell ill. Now he was an old 
man, and at the age of ninety years he went to his rest in great 
honour, as saith the Scriptures : ' All the glory of man is but as 
grass : as soon as the sun ariseth, the grass withereth, the flower 
thereof fadeth, the beauty of the appearance thereof perisheth, but 
the word of the Lord abideth for ever/ 3 

ChapterXC. 1. And after the blessed Godloving orthodox emperor 
Anastasius went to his rest, Justin the terrible, the consort of the 
empress Euphemia, ascended the throne, and was crowned with the 
imperial crown in pursuance of the decision of the trusty councillors 
of the emperor. 2. Some say regarding him that he was f chief 
over the seventh assemblage in Byzantium f. 4 But all the officers 

1 Nakius on B. 

2 John Niciota, Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria 507-517. 

3 1 Pet. i. 24. 

4 Hopelessly corrupt. John Mai. 410 has Koprjs i^KovfiirSpaiv = ' Count of the 
imperial guard '. So also Cliron. Pasch. 330. , 

XC. 10 



did not approve of him ; for he was unlettered, but he was a soldier 
and a valiant man. 3. Now there was a man named Amantius whom 
the officers wished to make emperor over them after the emperor 
Anastasius, and the councillors had given large sums of money to 
Justin to distribute among the civilians and the soldiers, in order that 
they might proclaim his name and spread abroad the rumour that 
God had named him emperor. But these refused to do so. And 
so the councillors were thereupon obliged to make Justin emperor. 1 

4. And when Justin became emperor he put to death all the 
eunuchs, however guiltless they were, because they had not approved 
of his elevation to the throne ; for he thought they would plot evil 
against him. 

5. And in the beginning of the reign of Justin there rose in the 
east a fearful and terrible comet. 2 And for this reason the emperor 
Justin sent and recalled Vitalian who had been the enemy of the 
emperor Anastasius, and appointed him a master of the forces. 3 
6. And he changed the orthodox faith of the emperor Anastasius, 
and the Henoticon of the emperor Zeno was rejected : communion 
with the Chalcedonians was restored, and the letter of Leo was 
accepted and enrolled amongst the writings of the Eastern Church. 

7. In the first year of his reign the great Severus, the patriarch 
of the great city of Antioch, f appeared f. When he heard of the 
change of faith and the return of Vitalian and his reception at 
the court of the emperor Justin, he became afraid and fled into 
Egypt and abandoned his (patriarchal) throne. 8. Now Vitalian 
hated him and wished to cut out his tongue because he had written 
(and delivered) in the church long and short homilies, full of 
knowledge and invective directed against the femperorf 4 Leo 
because of his corrupt faith. 9. And Paul was appointed patriarch 
of Antioch in the room of Severus, and this Paul was in communion 
with the Chalcedonians. And a schism then arose and none 
associated with him save the magistrates of the emperor only. 
10. The people turned away from him because of his being a 

1 This account is incorrect. According to John Mai. 410 sq., Chron. Pasch. 
331, Amantius gave large sums of money to Justin to distribute in order to 
secure the elevation of Theocritus, a Count of the palace guard, to the imperial 

2 Here the text reads fn>ft°Y}; = k6/iijs, corrupt for Ko^rirrji (Zotenberg), 

3 John Mai. 411 aTpaTrj\6.T7]v vpaiaivrov. 

4 This should be the patriarch Leo referred to in ver. 6. 



xc. II 

Nestorian and refused the sacerdotal benediction and baptism save 
at the hands of the priests ordained in secret by the great Severus. 
11. Now he who wished to cut out the tongue of the great Severus 
soon died of a violent death. Now Vitalian's death was brought 
about by his plotting, after his appointment by the emperor Justin, 
to raise a revolt (against him) as he had done against the emperor 
before him. 12. And thereupon (Justin) gave orders for his 
execution. For God punished him speedily, even as Severus had 
prophesied regarding him that he should die a violent death. 

13. And the patriarch Severus (composed) a treatise full of 
wisdom and the fear of God, and sent it to the patrician Godloving 
Caesaria; for she was a chosen vessel, of the imperial family of 
Rome, and she was strong in the orthodox faith in which she had 
been instructed by the holy patriarch Severus. And this teaching 
prevails to the present day among the Egyptian monks. 14. And 
subsequently Paul the Chalcedonian, of Antioch, died, who had been 
appointed after Severus, and another was appointed in his room, 
named Euphrasius, of Jerusalem. This man hated the Christians 
attached to the teaching of Severus. And many of the orthodox 
were put to death on account of the faith which he taught. 
15. And he stirred up civil war throughout all the Roman empire, 
and there was much shedding of blood. And in the city of Antioch 
there were great tumults during five years. And no one could 
speak owing to fear of the emperor. 

16. And there arose many men belonging to the people who in 
Constantinople *and the cities of Hellas 1 loudly accused the patrician 
Justinian his brother's son. Now Justinian helped the Blue Faction 
to commit murder and pillage among the various nations. 17. And 
(the emperor) appointed a prefect named Theodotus, (formerly 
count) of the east to punish all who had been guilty of crime, and 
he made him swear that he would show no partiality. 18. And 
beginning with Constantinople he punished many guilty persons, 
and subsequently had Theodosius arrested and put to death. And 
he was very rich. And next he had Justinian the patrician arrested, 
and wished to put him to death. But when he fell ill, he let him 
go. 19. And the emperor on hearing these things was wroth with 
the prefect and stripped him of his dignities and sent him in exile 
from Constantinople into the east. And fearing lest he should be 
1 These words occur after 'patrician' in the text. 

xc. 27 



put to death there, he went to the holy places of Jerusalem and 
lived there in seclusion. 

20. And subsequently all the soldiers and people assembled 
together in Byzantium and disowned their allegiance to the emperor. 
And they besought God saying: 'Give us a good emperor like 
Anastasius or else remove the emperor Justin whom Thou hast 
given us/ 21. And there arose a man amongst them named Qamos, 
who said unto them : ' Thus saith the Lord : see, I love you : 
wherefore do ye supplicate Me. Behold him whom I have given 
unto you — I will give you no other ;— for if he did according to 
that which is written, supplications would arise amongst the 
adversaries of the emperor. For it is owing to the sins of this city 
that I have appointed this emperor who is a hater of the virtuous.' 
Thus saith the Lord : ' I will give you rulers according to your 
own hearts/ 22. And the emperor was grieved when he heard 
these words. However, he sought to gain the affection of the 
people, as he feared lest the wise should admonish him according to 
the laws of this world. 23. And so on his own initiative he chose 
and appointed in the room of Theodotus and Theodore prefects of 
the imperial city : and the names of those who were appointed 
were Theodore and Ephraim of Amida. These, indeed, by great 
efforts and severity, put an end to civil war amongst the citizens, 
made feuds to cease, and established peace. 

24. But these means were not yet sufficient to turn away the 
wrath of God from the earth owing to the declension of the 
emperor. For there came an earthquake from God and fire fell 
from heaven on the city of Antioch, extending from the church of 
S. Stephen to the house of the chief of the army, in breadth and 
length, and as far as the bath called Tainadonhus and the bath of 
the Syrian nation. 25. And about the same time also fires burst 
out in the countries of the east and along all the routes for six 
months, and no one could pass in this direction or that. And there 
were conflagrations in the city and many souls perished in the 
flames, and the fire descended from above the houses and they were 
destroyed to their foundations. 26. And likewise in the days of that 
emperor, the great city of Antioch in Syria was sorely afflicted and 
was devastated six times. The people who remained wasted away 
in their houses and became as soulless bodies. 27. Burning coals of 
fire like thunderbolts fell from the air and set fire to everything 



xc. 28 

they touched, and the city was overthrown to its foundations. 
28. And the fire pursued those who wished to flee, whilst those who 
remained in the houses were consumed by the fire. And the beauty 
of the city of Antioch was destroyed, and none could escape the 
fire. No more did the houses on the heights 1 escape this visitation. 
And many edifice' sacred to the martyrs were devastated, and some 
of them were cloven in twain from the top to the bottom, and the 
great church which had been built in the days of the emperor 
Con stan tine was destroyed. 29. And weeping and lamentation 
were multiplied throughout the city, and the number of men, 
women, young people and babes that died was 250,000 souls. 

30. And when the festival of the Ascension of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ arrived, many people assembled in the church 
called Karadaum, in order to make intercession because of this 
terrible event. 31. And many who had survived the visitation 
went out to bury their dead, and others drew forth (from the debris) 
certain women with their babes which had escaped. 2 32. Moreover, 
the unfortunate Euphrasius, who had been unfitted for the 
patriarchate, perished in the fire. And they appointed by lot as his 
successor a man named (Ephraim), of Amida in Mesopotamia, 
And he also was a Chalcedonian, and persecuted the orthodox as 
his predecessors had done. 33. And the cities of Seleucia and 
Daphne and all the towns within a radius of twenty miles (were 
destroyed). And all who saw (these things) said: f All these 
calamities have taken place because the orthodox faith has been 
forsaken, and also because of the unjust expulsion of the patriarch 
Severus, and the evil deeds perpetrated by the emperor J ustin and 
his abandonment of the faith of the Godloving emperors that 
preceded him. These are the causes alike of this affliction and this 
tribulation/ 34. And when the emperor Justin heard these things, 
(he put off) his imperial crown and garments and wept and 
lamented, and ceased to visit the theatre. And under the pressure 
of strong necessity he went from the imperial com*t to the church 

1 John Mai. 419 contradicts this. 

2 This translation accepts Zotenberg's emendation of the text save that it 
inserts CD before fHfyaV; Without it the text is untranslateable. Zoten- 
berg's translation of his emended text is impossible. The original sense of this 
passage is no doubt that in John Mai. 421 : woAAat 51 ytwrjaaaai tls rty yijv k&toj 
vnd t& x^ ) t laTa av7j\6ov avv ftjmots a0\af}us Kal efaoav fifrd twv TfxOivTW i£ avraiv.. 

XC. 41 



on the fifth day of the Easter festival, walking on the ground with 
bare feet. And all the people and the Senate wept and lamented 
with abundant tears. And he gave much money in order to 
rebuild the churches and towns which had been destroyed : no 
emperor before him gave in the same measure. 

35. And in his reign the Lazaeans, who had been under the sway 
of the Persians, and had embraced the cult of their idols, came to him 
and became Christians. 36. It was on the occasion of the death 
of the king of the Persians that they received grace from heaven, 
that is, faith in the Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ. 37. And 
thereupon they came to the city of Constantinople to the emperor 
Justin, saying: f We wish thee to make us Christians like thy- 
self, and we shall then be subjects of the Roman empire/ And 
he received them gladly, and had them baptized in the name of 
the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, the con substantial 
Trinity. 38. And he honoured their chief exceedingly, and clothed 
him after his baptism with a robe of honour, and rendered to him 
imperial honours, and gave him for his spouse the daughter of 
a great official, who was named Ionios, 1 and he sent him back to 
his own country with great honours. 39. And when Cabades, the 
king of the Persians, heard these things he was greatly grieved, 
and sent ambassadors to the emperor Justin with the following 
message : ' Heretofore there have been friendship and peace between 
us : but behold now thou hast created enmity and hast freceivedf 2 
the king of the Lazaeans, who from the earliest times has been 
subject to our sway, and not to that of Rome/ 40. And when 
the emperor Justin heard this message, he wrote a reply in the 
following terms : ' We have not taken from thee any of thy 
subjects; but when a man named Tzathius came to us, humbly 
begging us to deliver him from the error wherein he walked, 
namely, the errors of demons and of pagans, and from impure 
sacrifices, and besought us that he might be made a Christian, how 
could I forbid one who desired to return to the true God, the 
Creator of all things ? 41. And when he became a Christian, and 
was deemed worthy to receive the holy mysteries, we permitted him 

1 Chron. Pasch, 332 "Ovivos ; John Mai. 413 No/xoy. 

2 Corrupt. J ohn Mai. and the Chron. Pasch. have Trpoe X cipto-cu. In the latter, 
some sentences earlier, this Cabades is stated to have been TTpoxapio-dels koI 
ar«p6(h PaaiXevs Aa&i/ by J ustin. Hence we should have here ' given investiture 
to or the like. 



XC. 4? 

to return to his own country.' And for this reason there was 
enmity between the Romans and the Persians. 

42. And the emperor Justin (requested) Ziligdes, king of the 
Huns, to be his ally in the war, and he gave him numerous presents, 
and made him swear a solemn oath that he would deal truly and 
fairly with him. 43. But Ziligdes proved false to his oath, and 
set out to join Cabades, king- of Persia, with 20,000 soldiers, 
and formed an alliance with him, and joined him. But the 
Christians had the help of God, who always wars against their 
enemies. 44. Eor when the Persians went forth to give battle the 
emperor Justin sent the following message to the king of Persia : 
c Behold, it is fitting that we should be brothers in friendship, and 
not be mocked by our enemies. And behold we wish to inform 
thee that Ziligdes the Hun has received large sums from us with 
a view to helping us in the time of war, and behold now he has 
gone to thee with treacherous intent, and in the time of war he will 
come to our side and slay the Persians. And now, as thou sayest, 
let there be no enmity between us, but peace/ 45. And when 
Cabades, king of Persia, heard this, he asked Ziligdes and said unto, 
him : ' Is it true that thou hast received moneys from the Romans 
to help them against the Persians?' And he answered, f Yes\ 
And Cabades was enraged, and immediately commanded his head 
to be cut off ; for he thought that he had done this with 
treacherous intent. 46. And he sent soldiers to fight against the 
20,000 troops who had come with him, and he put them to the 
sword, and only a few escaped, who returned in great shame to 
their own country. And from that day friendship prevailed 
between Cabades, king of Persia, and Justin, the emperor of Rome. 

47. But the reign of Justin did not last long after the conclusion 
of this friendship, and in the ninth year of his reign he fell into 
a grievous illness, for he had a wound in his head, 1 which had been 
struck by an arrow in battle. The wound reopened, and remained 
incurable for a long time. 48. And during his illness he appointed 
his brother's son emperor, and placed upon him the imperial crown, 
and put all the affairs of the empire in his hands. And thereupon 
he died. 

49. And Justinian, after he had taken the empire into his 
hands, resided in Constantinople with his wife Theodora. And he 
1 According to other chroniclers the wound was in his foot. ^ 

XC. 56 



practised every virtue, and all shameless persons concealed them- 
selves from his notice. 50. And he built churches everywhere, and 
hospices for strangers, and asylums for old men, and hospitals for 
the sick, and orphanages, and many other like establishments. 
51. And he restored many cities which had been destroyed, and 
gave large sums of money to the people. None of the emperors 
that preceded him had done as he did. 

52. And Cabades, king of Persia, wished to make war upon (the 
king of) the Lazaeans, because he had given aid to Rome, and had 
become a Christian, and had embraced their faith. And (the 
latter) wrote to the emperor Justinian (requesting him) to give him 
aid because of his faith in Christ. And he sent thereupon to 
him numerous forces under three commanders, whose names were 
Belisarius, 1 Cerycus, and Irenaeus, in order to help him. 53. But 
when they engaged in battle many of the Romans (fell) ; 2 for 
(the generals) were at variance with each other. And when the 
emperor heard (this news) he was very wroth, and sent Peter to be 
commander with a large force of archers. And this Peter placed 
himself at the head of the Roman generals, 3 and, forming a junction 
with the Lazaeans, they attacked the Persians, and put a great 
number of the Persians to the sword on that occasion. 

54. And the emperor Justinian loved God with all his heart and 
mind. Now there was a magician named Masides, who resided in 
the city of Byzantium, and there dwelt with him a band of demons, 
who served him. And all the faithful shunned him, and had no 
intercourse at all with him. And this magician commanded the 
demons to inflict evil plagues on men. 55. And those who lived 
without using remedies for the soul and became remiss, attending 
' the theatre and the races, and particularly certain nobles in the 
city, i.e. Addaeus and Aetherius, patricians, held this enemy of 
God in high honour. 56. And these same patricians spoke of this 
magician to the emperor, and said unto him : ' This man has caused 
the destruction of the Persians, and will give victory to the Romans. 
And he will be serviceable to the Roman empire by his practices, 

1 So Chron. Pasch. 335. But John Mai. 427 gives Gilderichus. 

2 Cf. Chron. Pasch. 335 noWol tTreaav rov 'Poj/xcuaiy arparov. Here John Mai. 
427 has tvtaov If afAtportpoiv ttoWo'i. 

3 This is quite wrong. Peter removed these generals from their commands. 
Cf. Chron. Pasch. atroKivfjoavTos avrovs. 



XC. 57 

and he will see to the administration of the nations, and cause the 
taxes to be collected excellently, and he will send demons against 
the Persians, and make their stout warriors weak through manifold 
plagues separate and distinct, and he will make them (the Romans) 
victors without a battle/ 57. But being firm of purpose he mocked 
the words of these servants of demons, and yet he wished to become 
acquainted with their impure devices. And so Masides carried out 
his evil practices as these patricians had told him. 58. And when 
the emperor became acquainted (with these practices) he mocked 
them (the patricians) and said unto them : f I do not desire the 
magic and sorcery which thou dost practise, thinking that thou 
canst benefit the state. 59. Am I, Justinian, a Christian emperor, 
to conquer by the help of demons ? Not so, my help cometh from 
God and my Lord J esus Christ, the Creator of the heavens and the 
earth/ And accordingly he drove away this magician and his 
assistants, for his hope was always in God. 

60. And some time later the emperor received the victory from 
God, and he commanded that the magician should be burnt. 

61. And the Persians, renewing hostilities against Rome, re- 
quested the Huns to send 20,000 warriors to fight against Rome. 
Now there was there a certain valiant woman amongst the f outerf 1 
Huns, named queen Boa, in the language of the barbarians. 
62. And this woman, who was a widow, was wise. And she had 
two young sons, and thousands of Hunnish warriors were under 
her sway. And she exercised a vigorous rule since the death of her 
husband, who was named Balach. 2 63. And this woman arose and 
went to the Christian emperor Justinian, and brought him a great 
quantity of gold and silver and precious stones. 3 And the emperor 
commanded her to attack the two chiefs who wished to make an 
alliance with the Persians and to fight against the Romans. And 
these are their names, Astera and Aglanos.* 64. And when this 
woman had overtaken these chiefs, who were making terms with 
the Persians, she gave them battle and defeated them, and slew 
Aglands and his followers on the field of battle. 65. And Astera 

1 John Mai. 430 has here priyiffffa tie raw SaPdpoav Ovvvwv. 

2 John Mai. has BA.dx- 

3 It was Justinian made these presents to the queen of the Huns. Cf. John 
Mai. 431. 

4 In John Mai. 431 these are named T6pay£ and TKu/x. 

XC. 71 



she took alive, and seized him, and sent him in chains to Constan- 
tinople. And they hanged him on a tree, and fixed him (thereto) 
with nails. 

66. And subsequently there came a man of the Huns named 
Jardks 1 to the emperor Justinian, and he was baptized and became 
a Christian. And the emperor Justinian was his sponsor at the 
baptism, and he gave him abundant honours, and sent him back 
to his own country. Now this man became a vassal of the Roman 
empire. 67. And when he returned home he told his brother 
regarding the gifts which the emperor had given him. And he 
also became a Christian. This Jaroks took all the idols which the 
Huns worshipped and brake them in pieces, and took the silver 
wherewith they were covered and burnt them with fire. And all 
the people of the country of the Huns who were barbarians were 
wroth, and they rose against him and slew him. 68. And when 
the emperor Justinian heard of this, he arose and went to war 
against them, and he sent many ships by the sea of Pontus and 
many warriors of the Scythians and Goths. And he set Tulilan, 2 
a valiant general, over the ships. 69. But as for the cavalry he 
dispatched them by land, and there was a numerous army with 
Baduarius as commander. And when the inhabitants of the 
country of the Huns heard (of these forces) they took to flight, 
and concealed themselves. And the emperor seized their country 
and made peace with them anew. 

70. And in those days there reigned in the country of the Huns 
a man named Grepes (text — Akraids), 3 and he went to the emperor 
Justinian and became a Christian, he and all his kindred and 
officers. And the emperor gave him large sums of money, and sent 
him back to his own country with honour as a vassal of the Roman 

71. And in the days of the emperor Justinian the Indians were 
at war with the Ethiopians. And the name of the king of the 
Indians was Endas. He worshipped the star called Saturn. Now 
the country of the Ethiopians was not far distant from Egypt : it 
comprised three Indian states and four Abyssinian states, and they 
were situated on the border of the Sea [of Salt] towards the east. 

1 John Mai. 431 calls him Tpdid, and Cedrenus TopSas. 

2 In John Mai. 432 he is named 'John the ex-consul'. 

3 See John Mai. 427. In Cedrenus i. 643 rpirrjs. 


72. Now the Christian merchants who travelled through the country 
of the star-worshippers and through the Homeritae, 1 whom we have 
mentioned and previously described, had to submit to seven trials. 
Damnus, 2 the king of the Homeritae, 1 used to slay the Christian 
merchants who came to him, and to take their goods, saying : < The 
Romans used to oppress and slay the Jews, and on this account 
I also will slay all the Christians I find.' 73. And for this reason 
commerce ceased and came to an end in the interior of India. 
74. And when the king of Nubia heard these tidings, he sent to 
the king of the Homeritae 1 the following message: 'Thou hast 
done an evil deed in that thou hast slain Christian merchants and 
inflicted injuries on my kingdom and on the kingdoms of other 
(kings) who live near at hand and far off from me/ 75. And when 
(Damnus) heard these words he went forth to fight. And when 
they encountered each other the king of Nubia 3 opened his mouth 
and said : < If God give me the victory over this Jewish Damnus 
I shall become a Christian.' 76. And then he gave battle to this 
Jew, and conquered him and slew him, and made himself master 
of his kingdom and of his cities. And at that time he sent 
messengers to Alexandria fin reference to the Jews and the pagansf 
requesting the Roman governors to send from the empire of Rome 
a bishop to baptize and instruct in the holy Christian mysteries all 
the inhabitants of Nubia and the survivors of the Jews. 77. And 
when the emperor Justinian was apprised of these facts, he' gave 
orders that they should do for him all he requested, and should 
send to him some priests and a bishop ffrom amongst the clergy 
of the holy patriarch Johnf. 4 He was a chaste and pious man. 
78. Such was the origin of the conversion of the Ethiopians in the 
days of the emperor Justinian. 

79. In his days also the king of Hedjaz, named Alamundar, arose 
and invaded Persia and Syria, and committed great depredations 

1 Our text reads « peoples ' simply, but the error may have arisen, as Zotenberg 
points out, through the confusion of^l and f\. Cf. John Mai. 483, Cedrenus 

• In John Mai. Aleves, in Cedrenus i. 656 Aa^W Jewish proselytes held 
A^Xll HimyanteSin and were conquered by the 

3 This should be 'of Axum'(?) ; c f. John Mai. 433. 
{^^l^Q)^ 0 ^ 910 ' C= M ** mU) ° f CWh ° f S - J ° hn in A1 exandria 

XC. 86 



as far as Antioch, and put many people to the sword, and burned 
the city named Chalcis and other cities in the province of Sirmium 
and Cynegia. 80. Thereupon the army of the east went forth to 
meet them, but they did not await the attack, but seizing much 
booty retired into their own country. 

81. In the days also of the emperor Justinian there was a great 
earthquake in the land of Egypt, and many cities and villages were 
swallowed in the abyss. And those who lived in the country 
made prayers and many intercessions with tears, being grieved on 
account of the destruction that had been wrought. 82. And after 
a year the wrath (of heaven) ceased and the earthquakes which 
had prevailed in every place were stayed. And the Egyptians 
celebrate the memorial of this day every year on the 17th of 
Teqemt. 1 83. And the remembrance of this calamity has been 
preserved for us by our fathers, the divinely-influenced Egyptian 
monks. For these earthquakes were due to the change in the 
orthodox faith brought about by the emperor Justinian, who had 
hardened his heart more than his father's brother, who had 
preceded him. 

84. And this Justinian commanded the Orientals to inscribe the 
names of the (bishops of the) Council of Chalcedon on the diptychs 
of the church, although they had sent the patriarch Severus into 
exile — a custom which had hitherto not existed and which is not 
mentioned in the Apostolic Canons nor in the Councils of the 
Fathers who came later : none of the Councils should be mentioned 
in public worship. 85. Now it was this emperor Justinian alone 
who established this custom throughout every province of his 
empire, and had the names of the (bishops of the) Council of 
Chalcedon inscribed. And Anthimus, patriarch of Constanti- 
nople, and Acacius who had been patriarch in the days of the 
emperor Zeno, and Peter, patriarch of Alexandria, were excom- 
municated. 86. And he caused their names to be removed from 
the diptychs, and abolished the Henoticon of the emperor Zeno : 
he proscribed the name of the patriarch Abba Severus throughout 
all the province of Antioch and the adjoining districts, enjoining 
that it should not be mentioned in the diptychs of the church, but 

1 Zotenberg points out that no such event is mentioned in the Egyptian 
Calendars, but that on this day the memory of the patriarch Dioscorus II was 
celebrated in the Monophysite Church. 



xc. 87 

cursed ; and he caused the inhabitants of Alexandria to thirst after 
the waters of the doctrine of Dioscorus, who was succeeded by the 
patriarch Timothy. 87. Now the emperor Justinian had given the 
patriarchal chair to the Chaleedonians, but as the empress Theodora, 
his wife, besought him on behalf of Timothy, patriarch of 
Alexandria, he permitted him on her account. Now she called him 
' spiritual father \ 

88. And in the days of this father, the emperor Justinian sent 
numerous forces to Alexandria, and these encompassed the city and 
wished to shed much blood. But Timothy the patriarch sent many 
anchorites and ascetics to the emperor to intercede on behalf of the 
church, and avert a massacre in the city and the shedding of 
innocent blood, and to get permission (for its people) to abide by 
the faith of its fathers. 89. And when the emperor heard these 
petitions, he granted them on the intercession of the empress 
Theodora, who was near (?) to him, and he sent orders to the army 
to return to the province of Africa. 90. And the patriarch Timothy 
continued to reside in his palace, true to the orthodox faith. And 
again subsequently the emperor sent to Alexandria a chief eunuch, 
named Calotychius. In that year the Roman empire had reached 
its 1287th year. 

And the city continued tranquil for a short period. And the 
illustrious father Timothy died full of honour. 

Chapter XCI. 1. And likewise in the days of this patriarch 
Timothy there took place in the city of Alexandria an event, great 
and very terrible and strange exceedingly. 2. Now there was a 
house in the eastern quarter of the city, in a place called Arutiju, 
to the right of the church of the holy Athanasius. And in this 
house there dwelt a Jew, named Aubaruns, and he had a chest 
in which were the mandil and towel of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
wherewith He girded Himself when He washed the feet of His 
disciples. 3. His kindred gave it (the chest) to this Jew. He 
indeed did not open it; for though he often wished to open it 
he could not. For when he touched it, (fire) descended threatening 
to consume him who wished to open it. 4. And he heard the 
voices of angels singing the praises of Him who was crucified 
on the cross, the Lord, the King of Glory. 5. And as this Jew 
was terrified, he, his mother, and wife, and children went to the 
patriarch Timothy and told him (regarding it). And forthwith he 

xcn -? BISHOP OF NIKIU 145 

proceeded with crosses, and gospels, censers and lighted waxen 
candles, and he came to the place in which the chest was. 6. And 
forthwith the lid of the coffer opened, and he took with great 
veneration the notable mandil and towel and conveyed them to 
the patriarchal palace, and placed them in the Church of the 
Tabenniosites, in a holy place. 7. And an angel descended from 
heaven and closed until this day the lid of the brazen coffer wherein 
the mandil and towel had been. 8. And all the inhabitants of 
Alexandria were indignant, and went to the Persians (?) and 
besought them to open the lid of the coffer, but they could not 
9. That Jew indeed and all his household became Christians then as 
was befitting. 

Chapter XCII. 1. And after the death of the venerable father 
Iimothy, the deacon Theodosius, who had been (his) secretary 
was appointed in his stead. Whilst he was going to occupv his 
pontifical chair, an Ethiopian wished to kill him. He fled" and 
came to the city K6niis and lived there in solitude. 2. Then the 
foolish populace seized Gainas and made him patriarch in the room 
of Theodosius, thus transgressing the holy canons. 3. And there 
was strife in the city ; some said : < We are Theodosians ' ; and others 
said: f We are Gainites \ even unto this da Y . 4. And whpn the 
emperor heard of these events— now there was in the city a prefect 
named Dioscorus, and Aristomachus, moreover, was commander of 
the troops-the emperor Justinian ordered the military commander 
to proceed to Alexandria and bring back the (holy) father Theo- 
dosius from his exile. 5. And (Aristomachus) established him in 
his (patriarchal) chair and sent Gainas into exile . . } And when 
he had taken possession of the Church he gave it to Paul the 
Chalcedonian, who had been a monk among the Tabenniosites, and 
he made him patriarch. 6. And joining the Chalcedonian faith he 
furnished letters in his own hand (to this effect) and sent (them) to 
all the churches. And forthwith there arose an uproar amono- the 
Alexandrians, and they fought with one another; for there was 
none who supported Paul, as he was an apostate and a Nestorian 
7 And it was not only Alexandria, but every city that disapproved 
of him • for he was a persecutor, and loved to shed blood And 
the emperor Justinian deposed this Paul from his office, as he was 
found committing the abominable crime of sodomy with a deacon 
1 There appears to be a lacuna in the text. 



XCII. 8 

in a bath, and he appointed in his room a monk, named Zoilus 
of the city of Aksenja. And him also the inhabitants of the 
city refused to receive. 8. And Zoilus, seeing that the inhabitants 
of the city were hostile to him, sent a letter to the emperor 
Justinian, resigning the patriarchal dignity. 9. Then the emperor 
appointed a reader, named Apollinaris, of the convent of Salama, 
in the city of Alexandria. And he was of gentle disposition, and 
a member of the Theodosian party. 10. And they persuaded him 
to be patriarch in the place of Zoilus, and they promised him great 
gifts with a view to his re-establishing the faith of the Church. 
And Ga'inas died in exile before Theodosius. 

11. And the emperor Theodosius assembled a great number of 
bishops from every country, and Vigilius, patriarch of Rome. 
And after painful exertions many accepted the orthodox faith, but 
others followed the wicked Nestorian and Chalcedonian creed, 
and of Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia. 12. And (the Council) 
anathematized the blasphemer Nestorius, who spoke of the two 
natures. Now Theodoret 1 had opposed the words and teaching of 
our holy father Cyril. 13. And when the Nestorians had grown 
strong through the help of the new Marcian, i. e. Justinian, John 
of the city of Antioch (?) 2 helped our holy father Cyril. 14. And 
the emperor Justinian believed in the Chalcedonian creed which 
says Christ had two natures in one person — while they preach 
Him, as they say, according to Theodoret the Nestorian, who 
contended against J ohn of the city of Antioch 3 in the Council of 
Chalcedon. 15. And Asturaljus the prefect wrote a letter establish- 
ing the one nature of Christ, the Word who became incarnate 
through union with the flesh, and submitted to the passion, and 
wrought true miracles : 16. And (showing) that the holy Virgin 
Mary bare God, Him who was crucified, one of the Holy Trinity, 
the Lord of glory. And this is the pure faith and the holy 
orthodox teaching. 17. And they wrongfully put to death the 
holy Dioscorus, the patriarch of Alexandria. 18. And Justinian 
believed in the Chalcedonian creed, and accepted the letter of Leo 
which declared that Christ had two natures, distinct in all His 

1 Bishop of Cyrrhus. 

2 Zotenberg does not attempt to translate verses 12-17, on the ground that the 
text is too corrupt to admit of translation. I render the text as it stands, 
saving for one or two changes. 3 Text reads Akaws. 

xciii.7 BISHOP OF NIKIU 147 

actions, as the two Nestorian bishops, i.e. Theodoret, bishop of 
Cyrrhus, and Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia taught. 

19. And after the visitations which God had made to fall on the 
country, Justinian made peace with the Persians and conquered 
the Vandals, 20. And these great victories have been carefully 
recorded by Agathias, one of the renowned scholars 1 of the city of 
Constantinople, and likewise by a learned man named Procopius 
the patrician. He was a- man of intelligence and a prefect, 
v whose work is well known. 21. It was he (Justinian) that took all 
the imperial edicts of his predecessors, and duly arranged and 
re-edited them, and set them in the place of judgement, which went 
back to the ancient Romans, and they had left them as a memorial 
to those that came after. 

Chapter XCIII. 1. There was a man named Romulus who had 
founded the great city of Rome ; and likewise another who came 
after him named Noma, who adorned the city of Rome with 
institutions and laws, and subsequently established three orders 
in the empire. 2. And so also subsequently did the great Caesar 
and Augustus also after him. And it was through these that the 
virtues of the Romans were shown forth, and these institutions are 
maintained among- them until this dav. 3 AnrI suhspmiPTiflv 
came the empress Theodora, the consort of the emperor Justinian, 
who put an end to the prostitution of women, and gave orders for 
their expulsion from every place. 2 

4. And there was a Samaritan brigand chief who assembled all 
the Samaritans, and raised a great war, and assumed the royal 
crown in the city of Nablus, and said : 'I am king/ 5. And he 
seduced many of his people by his lying statement when he 
declared:' 'God hath sent me to re-establish the Samaritan kingdom'; 
just as (Je)roboam the son of Nebat who, reigning after the wise 
Solomon the son of David, seduced the people of Israel and made 
them serve idols. 

6. And whilst he was at Nablus there were three horsemen who 
were leading in a race, a Christian, a Jew, and a Samaritan. And 
the Christian conquered in the race, and immediately dismounted 
and bowed his head to receive the prize. 7. And he asked saying : 
'What is he who was first in the race?' And they replied : f A 

1 I have here followed Zotenberg in rendering OD-frCT-T 0 '. as = o X o\a(mic6s. 

2 John Mai. 441 sq. 

L 2 




Christian.' And thereupon they cut off his head with the sword. 
8. And for this reason they named their troops troops of the 
Philistines. And troops from Phoenicia, Canaan, and Arabia, and 
many other Christian forces, mustered and made war on that 
wretched Samaritan and slew him and his companions and his 
officers. 9. And they cut off his head and sent it to Constantinople 
to the emperor Justinian, in order to strengthen his empire. 
And (the emperor) thereupon distributed alms to the poor and 

Chapter XCIV. 1. And there was discussion as to the body of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and much controversy in the city of Constanti- 
nople as to its being corruptible or incorruptible. 2. And they 
were agitated 1 in the city of Alexandria regarding this controversy 
which had arisen between the two factions, the Theodosians and 
the Gai'nians. 3. And the emperor Justinian sent to Eutychius 
the patriarch of the city of Constantinople at that time and asked 
him regarding this matter. He agreed on doctrinal views with 
Sever us and Theodosius. 4. Accordingly, he answered and said 
unto him : f The body of our Lord which submitted to suffering on 
behalf of our salvation is living, imperishable, incorruptible, and 
unchangeable. We believe that He suffered voluntarily. And 
after the resurrection He was incorruptible and unchangeable in 
all aspects and ways.' 5. But the emperor did not accept this 
pronouncement. Now the true solution of this question is to be 
found in the letter sent by the holy Cyril to Successus. 2 6. But 
the emperor inclined to the views of J ulian, a bishop of the Gai'nian 
party who had the same doctrine ; for they said : ' He was a man 
like us, and the holy Scriptures say : " Christ suffered for us in the 
body." ' 7. And the emperor Justinian was wroth with the patri- 
arch Eutychius because he had not sent him a reply such as he 
desired, but a pronouncement like that of Severus and Anthimus ; 
( These (he said) had deceived the inhabitants of Constantinople, 
and this (Eutychius) likewise had deceived them.' 8. And there- 
upon he sent a letter to Agathon the prefect of Alexandria, with 
orders to appoint Apollinaris, count of the Monastery of Banton, 3 to 
be patriarch of the Chalcedonians in the city of Alexandria and the 

1 I have here emended ?0fl>*^«; = ' turned about ' went round into 
^^UO'lK 3 Bishop of Diocaesarea in Isauria about 431. 

3 i. e. the Monastery of Ennaton (see Butler, op. cit. 51). 

XCIV. 15 



other cities of Egypt. 9. But the inhabitants of this city were 
strongly attached to the incorruptibility dogma, and followed the 
teaching of our fathers, written in books, which declares : ' The 
holy body of our Lord was incorruptible before the resurrection, 
and He submitted to suffering of His own will unto death, but 
since the resurrection it has become immortal and impassible/ 
Such was the declaration of Gregory the theologian. 10. Where- 
fore it behoves us, touching the proposition of the incorruptibility, 
to set aside the salutary suffering which He endured in the body <if 
His own free will and power, and accomplished on behalf of our 

11. And the emperor Justinian deposed and exiled Eutychius the 

patriarch of Constantinople, and appointed John of the city of 

f J Mans f, 1 who promised to give the emperor an autograph letter 

signifying his agreement with him in the faith, and likewise to 

write a synodal letter., 12. But when he received the (patriarchal) 

dignity, he set at naught the command of the emperor and refused 

to write as he had promised him. He had indeed been formerly 

a layman, and was unacquainted with the Scriptures, and had 

no thorough knowledge of the holy faith; but when he became 

a nriest he studied'lv 2 f.hp Tml-ir S!«r-infnrp« an A 
r &1 j — c — .^u^w, ana. 

acquainted himself with the pains and troubles which our holy 

fathers sustained on behalf of Christ, and he learnt the orthodox 

doctrine, and forsook the perverse doctrine of the emperor. 13. Now 

it was this John the patriarch that wrote the Mystagogia, which 

set forth the one nature of Christ, the Word of God, which became 

flesh. And its testimony agrees with the testimony of the apostolic 

Athanasius who said : < There is one hypostasis, divine and human/ 

14. And a man, named Menas, who had previously been patriarch 

of Constantinople, wrote to Vigilius, patriarch of the city of Rome, 

to the following effect : ' There is only one will and one volition in 

our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. And we believe in God in 

perfect fear of heart, instructed as we are in the teaching of our 

fathers.' And all this discourse was in the hands of John, patriarch 

of Constantinople. 15. And so the emperor wished to depose John, 

1 According to Evagrius, E. E. iv. 38, John was a native of Soremis, in the 
district of Cynegica, belonging to Antioch. 

2 There is no need to emend the verb as Zotenberg does, but only to insert 
the negation before it and read h/t^CO: 



XCIV. 1 6 

but, being troubled regarding this matter, because of Eutychius 
whom he had already driven forth without recourse to canonical 
judgement, he feared the outbreak of a tumult. Now while matters 
were in this train, the emperor Justinian died in an advanced old 
age in the thirty-ninth year of the reign. His consort, the empress 
Theodora, had died before him. 

16. And the Romans deposed all the bishops. And subsequently 
the Romans abandoned their ancient institutions because of the 
heathen 1 who dwelt among them. Now the heathen concerted 
together and put the Romans to the sword at midday and seized 
the cities and a multitude of captives. 

17. And the Samaritans dwelling in Palestine took up arms and 
rebelled. And the emperor Justinian [before he died] sent against 
them a monk of high rank named Photion and a numerous army 
under him. And he fought against them and conquered them, and 
put many of them to torture, and others he drove into exile, and he 
inspired them with a great fear, 

18. And in those days there was a pestilence in all places, and 
a great famine, And when the emperor saw that all the nations 
were troubled when he published his edict on the faith in all the 
province of Alexandria, and stirred up a severe persecution in 
the land of Egypt, his mind was affected through the greatness of 
his grief, and he kept traversing the apartments of the palace in 
mental bewilderment. 19. And he longed for death but failed to 
find it ; for God was wroth against him. And when he betrayed 
his madness before all the people they took from him the imperial 
crown, and placed it on Tiberius and made him emperor in his 
stead. And our Lord Jesus Christ gave power and strength to the 
latter. Now this Tiberius was a young man, very fair to look 
upon, virtuous, generous, and resolute. 20. And when he became 
emperor he put a stop to the persecution, and showed (due) honour 
to the priests and monks. And so they accused him of being 
a Nestorian ; but their accusation was false. On the contrary, he 
was a very good man and never failed to show favour to the 
orthodox, and to those who believed in the one nature of Christ, 
perfect God and man of one essence, the Word that became flesh. 

1 The text may refer to the capture of Rome by the Goths and its recovery 
by Belisarius (John Mai. 480), its subsequent capture by the Goths and its 
recovery by Narses (op. cit. 483-5). 

XCV. 3 



Let us worship and give praise to Him who gives help and power 
to kings. 21. Now this emperor never permitted any persecution 
throughout his reign. And he presented many gifts to all his 
subjects, and he built many edifices in honour of the martyrs and 
houses in which 'the monks could pursue their religious exercises, 
and f pulpits t and convents for the virgins. 22. And he presented 
many alms to the poor and destitute. And God caused peace to 
prevail throughout his days as a recompense for his good deeds, 
and preserved the imperial city through special mercies. 

23. And John patriarch of Constantinople died in his reign at 
the close of a very prosperous career. And the emperor brought 
Eutychius back from exile and restored him to his (patriarchal) 
throne in the place of John who had died. 24. And Apollinaris 
bishop of the Chalcedonians died in Alexandria, and a man, named 
John, an ex-military man, was appointed in his stead, And he had 
a goodly presence and forced none to forsake his faith. But he 
glorified God in His Church in the midst of all the assembled people, 
and they gave thanks to the emperor for the noble acts he had done. 

25. And Christ was with him (the emperor), and he conquered 
the Persians and the nations by force of arms, and he made peace 
with all the nations subject to him. And he died in peace in the 
third year of his reign. It was owing to the sins of men that his 
days were so few; for they were not worthy of such a Godloving 
emperor, and so they lost this gracious and good man. 26, Before 
he died he gave orders that his son-in-law, named Germanus, 
should be raised to the imperial throne. Now he had formerly been 
patrician. But owing to his humility of heart he refused to be 
emperor. Thereupon Maurice, who was of the province of Cappadocia, 
was made emperor. 

Chapter XCV, 1. Now Maurice who became emperor in succession 
to the Godloving Tiberius was very avaricious. He had previously 
been in command in the province of the east, and had subsequently 
married f the daughter of Domentiolus i, 1 named Constantina, and 
made her his wife. 2. And straightway he gave orders to the city 
of Constantinople that all the cavalry should muster and proceed 
with Commentiolus ? to the province of the east. 3 3. And he sent 
also to Aristomachus in the province of Egypt. Now he was a 

1 The early part of this chapter is full of errors. 

2 Text reads Domentiolus. 3 So restored by Zotenberg. 



XCV. 4 

citizen of Nikiu, a son of the prefect Theodosius. And lie was 
a proud and powerful man, and his father before he died had 
admonished him, saying : ' Be content with what thou hast and do 
not desire a different career: but be content with that which befits 
thee that thy soul may have peace ; for thou hast wealth in 
abundance, sufficient for thee/ 4. But when the child grew up he 
sought after the (great) things of this world, and arrayed a 
numerous force with f rustic f arms which attended upon him, and 
so forgot the advice of his father. 5. Moreover he built vessels by 
means of which he could visit all the cities of Egypt with pleasure 
and delight. And so he became proud and forced 1 all the military 
officers to be subject to the emperor ; for he had received the 
command in the reign of the emperor Tiberius. 6. And by reason 
of this command he became more and more presumptuous, and 
made all the troops submit to his orders, and led a fearless life. 
And he posted cavalry in the city of Nikiu without any authorization 
of the emperor. 7. And all the troops under his command were 
without means, and he seized all the houses of those who were 
richer than he, and he esteemed them of no account. And 
when men of high or low degree came to him from the emperor, he 
let them remain at the door and did not admit them for a longtime. 

8. And when the emperor Tiberius was informed, before he died, 
of the actions of Aristomachus, he sent to the city of Alexandria 
an officer named Andrew 2 to effect his arrest by wise measures, 
avoiding the shedding of blood, and to bring him back alive to him. 

9. And the emperor Tiberius likewise sent orders to all the forces 
in Egypt to render him assistance in the war against the barbarians. 
And when the message of the emperor reached Aristomachus, he 
proceeded to the city of Alexandria with only a few attendants; 
for he was not aware of the treacherous device they had prepared 
against him. 10. And when the patriarch and Andrew saw him, 
they were delighted, and got ready a light ship on the sea close 
at hand to the Church of St. Mark the Evangelist. Then they 
celebrated divine service on the 30th of Mijazja, 3 the festival of 
St. Mark the Evangelist. 11. And at the close of the divine 
service, Andrew went forth accompanied by Aristomachus and 

3 So by a slight transposition of the text. 

2 Cf. Evagrius, H. E. vi. 10. 

3 Third Abyssinian month, beginning on April 8 according to the Gregorian 

XCV. 1 8 



walked towards the seashore. And thereupon Andrew made a 
signal to his attendants and to the soldiers to seize Aristomachus 
and to cast him into the vessel. And immediately they seized him, 
and, bearing him on their shoulders, cast him into the vessel, 
without his being aware (of the reason), and loosing thence they set 
sail to go to the emperor. 12. And when the gracious emperor saw 
him, he said : ' This face is not the face of a criminal : let us do 
him no injury of any kind/ And he gave orders for him to be 
kept in the city of Byzantium till he had examined into his conduct. 
And after a few days, rinding no fault in him, he restored him to 
his command, and sent him back to the city of Alexandria. And 
he was beloved by all the people. 13. And he vanquished the 
barbarians in the province of Nubia and Africa, who are named 
Mauritanians, and others named Marikos. He destroyed them and 
laid waste their country, and took their possessions as a booty 
and brought them all in chains by the river Gihon into the land of 
Egypt; for the engagement had taken place on the banks of the 
river. 14. Now the chroniclers have recounted the victory he won. 
And there he reflected after this manner: 'Some envious person 
will go to the emperor and slander me, but 1 will forestall him and 
send a message to the emperor/ And forthwith he sent the follow- 
ing message: 'May I come to have interview with thee?' And 
the emperor Maurice replied : e Yes.' 15. And he arose at once 
with haste, and went to the emperor, and brought him many gifts. 
And the latter accepted all that he presented, and thereupon 
appointed him prefect of the imperial city. And the empress 
Constantina appointed him controller of all her house and loaded 
him with honours, until he was second only in rank to the emperor, 
and he became a very great personage in the city of Byzantium. 
16. And he constructed aqueducts throughout all the city, for its 
inhabitants complained greatly of the want of water. And he had 
a reservoir of bronze made for them by a clever engineer, such as 
had never been made previously. And so the water flowed into the 
reservoir of bronze which had been appointed. 17. And the city 
was thus delivered from disquiet through the abundant supply of 
water; and when a fire broke out in the city, they went to the 
reservoir and extinguished the fire. 18. And all the people loved 
and respected him. And he was fond of constructing public works, 
and his deeds were noble. And then there arose against him 



XCV. 19 

certain envious persons who were foolish and aimed at delivering" 
him. over to death through their devices. And whilst they were 
engaged in such designs a prefect who knew astrology came 
forward, and likewise another person named Leon, the logothete, 
and, observing a star which had appeared in the heaven, they said 
that this star which had appeared portended the assassination of the 
emperor. 19. And they went and made this announcement to 
the empress Constantina and said unto her : ' Learn what thou 
shouldst do and take measures that thou and thy children may 
escape destruction ; for this star which has appeared is a presage 
of a revolt against the emperor/ 20. And they brought many 
accusations against Aristomachus, and they bound her by an oath 
not to tell the emperor. And she went at once and told the 
emperor. And he imagined that Aristomachus intended to slay 
him and take his wife. And. the emperor became hostile forthwith 
to Aristomachus, and he robbed him of every hope, and exposed 
him to numerous humiliations, and sent him in exile to the island 
of Gaul where he had to remain till he died. 

21. Now the emperor Maurice welcomed many false, turbulent 
persons, owing to his greed for money. And he sold all the grain 
of Egypt and converted it into gold, and likewise the grain for 
Byzantium he sold for gold. 22. And every one hated him and 
said : f How is it that the city of Constantinople puts up with such 
a wicked emperor ? And how is it that five sons and two daughters 
have been born to one who has wrought such wickedness to the end 
of his reign ? 3 

23. And Hormisdas, named Chosroes, the king of Persia at that 
epoch, was the son of the great Cabades. It is said that his father 
had been a Christian, and believed in Christ our true God, but that 
through fear of the Persians had concealed his true faith. 24. But 
in his latter days he had gone into a bath with faithful attendants, 
and after he had been exhorted and admonished by a Christian 
bishop regarding the faith he was to believe in secret, he renounced 
Satan whom he had worshipped and was baptized in a font belong- 
ing to the bath in the name of the Holy Trinity. 25. And when 
he was baptized he gave orders for the destruction of the font in 
which he had been baptized. Then he took his son Hormisdas and 
made him king in his stead. 26. This unhappy man was addicted 
to the worship of demons ; moreover he compelled the Christians to ; 




worship fire and the sun. And the horses also that pastured on 
grass were objects of his worship. 

Chapter XCVI. 1. And there was once a noble woman who was 
a Nestorian and she was called in the Persian language Golanduch. 1 
And as she journeyed by sea, she was seized by the Persians and 
cast into prison. 2. And they put a chain 2 upon her neck after 
the manner of the Assyrians, and when a prisoner died, the (jailers) 
showed the king the chain still locked upon his neck. 3. Now while 
she was so situated an angel appeared to her and addressed her, and 
seized the chain that was upon her neck, and removed it without 
unlocking it, and placed it with the jailers in order that they 
might suffer no injury at the hands of their judges. 4. And she 
heard a mighty voice which said unto her : ' It is for the sake of 
the orthodox faith of our Lord Jesus Christ that thou hast been 
delivered/ And she arose and fled and she came to the territory of 
Borne, and abode in the city of Hierapolis on the river Euphrates. 
5. And she went and recounted to- the metropolitan Domitian all 
that had befallen her. Now he was the son (of the paternal uncle) 3 
of the emperor Maurice, and he went and told the emperor regarding 
this woman whom we have already mentioned. 6. And he gave 
orders that they should conduct her to h 1TO- and hfi n Pf\ nn 
her to forsake the Nestorian faith and become a believer in the 
orthodox Christian faith. And she believed as he told her. 

7. And our Lord Jesus Christ, though long-suffering and 
beneficent, did not remain indifferent and unmoved regarding the 
persecution which was brought upon His saints by Hormisdas the 
king of Persia. 8. And God was roused to anger against him and 
his house was destroyed from the top to the bottom, and the king's 
son, the new Chosroes, 4 arose and slew him. 

9. And at the time of the emperor's death there were grave 
dissensions amongst the troops, and two parties were formed. And 
when the younger 5 Chosroes saw what had befallen, he took to 
flight and reached the Roman territory. And having made himself 
known to the Roman officials, he sent ambassadors to the emperor 
Maurice with the request that he should be permitted to remain 
under the Roman sway, and that he should make war on the 

1 Cf. Evagrius, H. E. vi. 20. « The word here is purely Amharic 

_ 3 So restored by Zotenberg. See Evagrius, II. E. vi. 16-18. 
4 Text restored by Zotenberg. 5 Text has < elder '. 




Persians and seize their kingdom, and make it (part of) the Roman 
empire. 10. And the emperor Maurice betook himself to John, 
patriarch of the city of Constantinople, in order to deliberate with 
him. And this John was an ascetic and eat no (animal ?) food 
whatever, and drank no wine, but supported himself sufficiently on 
the produce of the field and on green vegetables. 11. And there 
came together to him all the magistrates and officers in order to 
deliberate with him regarding Chosroes, king of Persia, who had 
come to them. 12. And John cried aloud to them all and said unto 
them : 'This man who has murdered his father cannot benefit the 
empire. Nay it is Christ, our true God, who will war on our behalf 
at all times against all the nations that attack us. And as for this 
man who has not been faithful to his father, how will he be faithful 
to the Roman empire/ 13. But the emperor Maurice did not 
accept the advice of the patriarch wherewith he advised him, and 
likewise his officers, and he wrote forthwith to Domitian, (the son 
of) his father's brother, who was bishop of Melitene, and to Narses, 
commander of the forces in the east, and commanded him to take 
all the Roman troops and set out and establish Chosroes, king of 
Persia, and to annihilate all his adversaries. 14. And he gave them 
the royal insignia and magnificent garments befitting his rank. 
Now this Chosroes used to go to Golanduch to ask her if he should 
become king of Persia or not. And she said unto him : 1 Thou 
shalt conquer and shalt certainly become king of the Persians and 
the Magi ; but the Roman empire has been given to the emperor 

15. And Narses did as he had commanded, and he conducted the 
accursed Chosroes back to the Persians, and he made war upon them, 
and conquered them, and delivered the kingdom of the Magi into 
the hand of this wretch. 16. And when he was established on the 
throne he proved ungrateful to the Romans, who had been his 
benefactors, and devised evil against the Romans. 17. And all the 
magicians assembled by night in his house in order to prepare 
poison to put in the food of the Roman troops and in the food of 
their horses, with a view to destroying them all together with their 
commander Narses. 18. But our Lord Jesus Christ inspired the 
hearts of the members of the court with pity, and they went and 
disclosed the matter to Narses the Roman commander. When he 
was acquainted with this plot he gave orders to all the troops, and 

xcvu. 7 



said unto them : < When they offer you food do not eat it, but give 
it to the dogs, and as for the fodder give it to other animals/ 
19. And when the dogs had eaten they burst asunder in the midst, 
and the cattle died. And when Narses saw this he was very wroth 
against Chosroes, and arose forthwith and marched and brought 
back the Roman forces to their rulers (?). And all the Romans 
hated the emperor Maurice because of the calamities which had 
befallen in his days. 

Chapter XCVII. 1. There were three brothers in a city, in the 
north of Egypt, named Aikelah, i. e. Zawja. And the names of 
the three brothers were Abaskiron, Menas, and Jacob. 2. Now 
this Abaskiron was the eldest, and he was a Nasfiha. 1 And he had 
a son named Isaac. 3. Now John the prefect of the city of 
Alexandria had made them governors over many cities in Egypt. 
Their own city Aikelah was near the city of Alexandria. 4. And 
these four men were in the enjoyment of great wealth, but not 
being able to bear (it) they attacked the Blue Faction, and sacked 
the two cities of Bena and Busir, without the permission of the 
governor of the province. Now the latter was a good, excellent, 
and chaste man. 5. And these four men whom we have already 
mentioned, shed much blood, and burnt, flip 

' y Jjuon coma, uiJLC 

public bath. And the governor of the city of Busir fled by night; 
for the inhabitants of the city of Aikelah wished to kill him! 
6. And he succeeded in making his escape from them, and pro- 
ceeded to the city of Byzantium to the emperor Maurice, sheddino- 
many tears, and he informed him of the death which the four men 
had prepared for him. And a second dispatch came to the emperor 
from the governor of the city of Alexandria announcing these 
events. 7. And when the emperor Maurice was apprised of these 
things, he was very , wroth, and gave orders to John the prefect of 
the city of Alexandria to remove them from (their) office. Now 
these men mustered a large force of daring men provided with 
horses and swords and weapons of war, and they seized a large 
number of ships, in which grain was carried to the city of 
Alexandria, and there arose a great famine in the city. And (its 
inhabitants) suffered greatly and sought to kill the prefect John. 
But the faithful who loved Christ fought on his behalf because of 
his good conduct. 

1 An Arabic word meaning ' scribe '. 




8. And the inhabitants of the city wrote a letter and sent it to 
the emperor informing him regarding the troubles of the city. 
And the emperor removed the prefect John, and appointed in his 
stead Paul of the city of Alexandria. And the inhabitants of the 
city escorted John as he departed with every mark of honour. 
And he went and had an interview with the emperor and informed 
him regarding the deeds of violence wrought by the inhabitants of 
the city of Aikelah, and he stayed for a short time with the 
emperor. 9. And the latter, however, appointed him and gave him 
full authority over the city of Aikelah. And when the inhabitants 
of the city of Aikelah heard what had befallen, and likewise of the 
return of John to the city of Alexandria, they stirred up disquiet 
and strife throughout all the land of Egypt alike on sea and land. 
10. And they sent one of their number, the daring Isaac with his 
freebooters, and these went down to the sea, and seized a large 
number of ships which were on the sea and they broke (?) them up. 
And they proceeded to Cyprus and captured much booty. 

11. And many people, that is, Tananikun, and Lakurin, and 
Elmatridin Elmasr, and the Blue and Green Factions, 1 and the 
enemy of God from Busir— all these mustered in the city of 
Aikelah, and took counsel with Eulogius, Chalcedonian patriarch 
in the city of Alexandria, and with Ailas the deacon, and Minas 
the assistant, and Ptolemy the commander of the barbarians, but 
the inhabitants of the city of Aikelah were not aware of this'pro- 
cedure. 12. They wanted to appoint a prefect in the room of John; 
for they said : < Tbis John has no respect of persons, and he hates 
injustice and he will (not) treat us as we wish. 13. Now the 
inhabitants of Aikelah went on committing transgression after 
transgression, and they seized the grain-laden ships, and they got 
hold of the imperial taxes and forced the prefect of the city to send 
forward the taxes to them. 

14. Now John quitted with honour the imperial presence and 
came to the city of Alexandria, and the (insurgent) chief of the 
city of Aikelah heard of the arrival of John. And John mustered 
the forces of Alexandria, Egypt, and Nubia in order to attack the 
inhabitants of the city of Aikelah. 15. And forthwith there came 
a general named Theodore, who had been with Aristomachus. Now 
this Theodore was a son of the commander Zechariah. And he 
1 The text as Zotenberg suggests = -npaaoovTvs, a corruption of itpamvoi. . 

XCVII. 24 



sent a secret letter to John, (requesting him) to send him trained 
troops who could shoot with the bow (lit. the arrow) and to release 
from prison two men, namely (the one), Cosmas the son of Samuel, 
and the other Banon the son of Ammon. 16. And he commanded 
Cosmas to proceed by land route and Banon by sea. Now this 
Zechariah — a man of illustrious rank — was the lieutenant 1 of John 
in the city of Busir. 17. And (John) found (on his arrival) that 
much devastation had been wrought in the city of Alexandria. 
And he had a large number of the daring ones seized and punished, 
and he captured a great number of ships, and inspired a great fear 
in them (the rebels) on his arrival in the city of Alexandria. 
18. And subsequently he had many great works constructed in the 
sea at the cost of great exertions. And he did not return to 
the city of Byzantium till he died. 2 

19. And when the general Theodore and his men came up they 
burned the camp of the rebels, and they all advanced as far as 
Alexandria, (even) the (full-grown) men, the youths who shot with 
the bow, and some stone-slingers. 20. And he took with him the 
five men whom he had released from prison, namely, Cosmas, the 
son of Samuel, Banon, the son of Ammon, and their companions, 
in order to show the Egyptians those whom he had released from 
imprisonment. 21. And when they came to the border of the river, 
they marshalled the sturdy soldiers in boats and the cavalry on the 
land. And the general passed over to the eastern bank of the river 
with all his soldiers. 22. But Cosmas and Banon remained on the 
western bank of the river with a numerous force. And they cried 
aloud to the conspirators on the eastern bank of the river and said 
unto them : ' Observe all ye people who have joined with those 
rebels : do not war against the general ; for the Roman empire is 
neither enfeebled nor subdued ; but through our compassion 
towards you we have borne with you until now.' 23. And there- 
upon the people who had assembled along with those rebels broke 
off from them and crossed the river and joined the Roman troops. 
24. And they began an attack on the inhabitants of Aikelah, and 
they vanquished them. And the latter fled by night and gained a 
small city named Abusan, and not being able to remain there they 

1 An Arabic word >_aj13 (Zotenberg), which may mean ' lieutenant ' or 
' vicar '. 

2 This sentence precedes the former in the text. 



passed on to the great city (of Alexandria). 25. And the Roman 
troops pursued them thither and captured the four men, Abaskiron, 
Menas, Jacob, and Isaac, and put the four on a camel, and had 
them conducted throughout all the city of Alexandria in the sight 
of all men. 26. And next they cast them into prison with their 
hands and feet loaded with chains. 27. And after a long interval 
Constantine the patrician who had been appointed governor of the 
city of Alexandria came and examined the case of the prisoners. 
28. And when he became acquainted with the charges against them, 
he had three of the brothers executed; but as for Isaac he had 
him thrown into chains and transported for life to the island of 
Atrdku. 29. And as for their accomplices, some were condemned 
to corporal punishment, others had their goods confiscated. And 
the cities of Aikelah and Abusan were burnt with fire. And great 
fear prevailed over all the land of Egypt, and its inhabitants dwelt 
in the enjoyment of tranquillity and peace. 

30. And about this time also there arose a rebel named Azarias 
in the province of Akhmim, who mustered a large force of Ethiopic 
slaves and brigands and seized the imperial taxes without the 
knowledge of the officers of the province. 31. But when the 
inhabitants saw the warlike measures of these slaves and barbarians 
they feared them, and sent a. dispatch to the emperor with informa- 
tion (on the matter). 32. And the emperor sent a distinguished 
commander with a numerous force of Egyptians and Nubians to 
attack Azarias. But before the attack was made, he fell into a 
panic and fled, and gained the summit of an arid mountain which 
resembled a citadel. 33. And the troops beleaguered that mountain 
for a long time until the water and food of the rebels failed. 
Thereupon the rebel Azarias died and likewise his followers through 
hunger and thirst. Now they had already abandoned their horses. 

34. And in the reign of this emperor also, when the governor 
and commander in Alexandria was one named Menas, the son of 
Main, there appeared (two) creatures in human form, one resembling 
a man and the other a woman. 35. And all who travelled by river, 
when they stopped near the bank, saw them clearly and wondered 
greatly at the spectacle. And Menas likewise saw them and all 
the officers and notables of the city. 36. And all who saw them 
spake to them and said: 'We adjure you in the name of the God 
who created you, show yourselves to us again/ And when they 




heard the adjuration, they showed their face and hands and breasts. 
And all who saw them, said : 4 This is the work of demons who 
dwell in the waters".' 37. But others said : ' This river is of two 
sexes, for there have appeared in it creatures such as have never 
been seen before.' Others said: 'This is an evil thing- for our 
country/ Others said: < The apparition of these creatures is a 
happy omen.' All these were false, and their statements were 
without truth. 

Chapteh XCVIII. 1. And there was likewise in the reign of the 
emperor Maurice, a man named Paulinus in the city of Byzantium, 
a worshipper of impure demons, who falsely said : ' The emperor 
Maurice overlooks these practices/ And God punished this magician 
and he lost his reason. 2. And he had a silver bowl which contained 
the blood of impure sacrifices to demons. And he carried this cup 
and sold it to a silversmith. And after the (silversmith had 
bought this bowl, the abbot of a monastery saw it, and being 
greatly pleased with it bought the bowl and conveyed it to his 
monastery. 3. And he placed it full of water away from the altar, 
and gave orders to the brethren and said unto them : < Each time ye 
take of the holy mysteries drink of the water in the bowl in order 
to cool the oblation which is for the body and blood of Christ our 
God.' 4. But the great King of Glory, our Lord Jesus Christ, 
did not approve that the vessels of demons should be mingled with 
the vessels of the holy altar of our God which are without blood, 
as the apostles say. And thereupon that water became blood! 

5. And when the brethren partook of the holy mysteries, they went 
forth from the sanctuary to take of that water for cooling according 
to the custom. And when they saw this miracle that had been 
wrought in the silver bowl, they together with their Superior were 
seized with fear, and fell a-weeping. And they resorted to self- 
examination but could find no evil that they had committed. 

6. And thereupon they arose and took the silver bowl, filled as it 
was with blood, and brought it to John, patriarch of Constantinople, 
and they informed him of all that had befallen. 7. And John sent 
unto the man who had sold it and said unto him : < Whence have 
you obtained this bowl, and from whom have you bought it ? ' 
And the man said : < I bought it from Paulinus/ 8. And there- 
upon the patriarch and the priesthood and the faithful of the 
Christian Church recognized that the matter was from God. And 




(the patriarch) wished to make known the apostasy and the infamy 
of the magician Paulinus : and forthwith with godly zeal they 
arose and fetched Paulinus to the palace of the emperor Maurice. 
9. And the chief officer interrogated him in the presence of all the 
magistrates and senators regarding this matter, and he confessed in 
the presence of all, saying: 'I was accustomed to place in this 
bowl the blood of the sacrifices which I offered to demons/ 10. And 
they all passed judgement upon him that he should be burnt alive. 
And they proclaimed aloud regarding him by the voice of a herald 
three distinct proclamations. The first in these terms : ' Where- 
fore should Paulinus be saved, the enemy of God who to his own 
destruction prays to Apollo ? ' The next as follows : ' Thou hast 
lusted after a strange sin : and he has laboured much in that which 
benefits not his own soul.' And the third proclamation : e Paulinus 
has sought of himself his own destruction. He has become the 
enemy of the Holy Trinity, and has not kept faithful to the true 
orthodox faith/ But those who followed him in his evil practices 
sought to save him. 

11. And when the patriarch John was apprised of this movement, 
he went to the court and put off his priestly robe. Meanwhile all 
the people cried aloud and said : ' May the orthodox faith spread 
and prosper." 12. And the patriarch said: 'If Paulinus the 
magician is not committed to the flames this very hour, I will 
resign my throne and close all the churches. And I will not permit 
any one to partake of the holy mysteries, until Christ has punished 
those who blaspheme His name.' 13. And the emperor feared that 
a tumult might be occasioned thereby. And so the patriarch did 
not return to his palace till he had burnt Paulinus alive. Now the 
emperor used to follow heathen practices ; but when the emperor 
heard that he was censured (for so doing) he was very deeply 

Chapter XCIX. 1. And at the outset of his reign he had ordained 
a law that they should inscribe at the beginning of all their writings 
the formula : c In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ our God and 
Saviour/ He wished to profess his faith in Jesus Christ the 
Saviour of all the world. 2. And thereupon Domitian, the son of 
the emperor's brother, gave orders that force should be used to 
compel the Jews and Samaritans to be baptized and become 
Christians. But these proved false Christians. And likewise he 

CIT. 2 



forced heretics to be enrolled in the orders of the Church ; for he 
was a true Chalcedonian. 

Chapter C. 1. And likewise in the reign of the emperor Maurice 
there came a flood in the night on the east of the city of Esna, 
which is the capital of Rif, while the inhabitants were asleep, and 
it destroyed many houses together with their inhabitants, and it 
carried them off and submerged them in the river. 2. And great 
havoc was wrought in the city and in (its) inhabitants. And 
likewise in the city of Tarsus in Cilicia the same befell; for the 
river, named Euphrates, which flows near it, rose at midnight and 
submerged one division of the city, named Antinoaea, and destroyed 
many buildings. 3. And a stone tablet was found in the river 
with the inscription : ' This river will destroy many of the 
buildings of the city/ 

Chapter CI. 1. And likewise in the reign of this Maurice, the city 
of Antioch was troubled by a great earthquake and laid low. Now 
it had been laid low seven times. • 2. And many roads (?) in the 
east were destroyed, and islands, and an innumerable multitude of 
men through the earthquake. 3. And likewise at that time the 
sun was eclipsed at the fifth hour of the day, and the light of the 
stars appealed. And there was a widespread alarm, and men . 
thought that the end of the world was at hand. And all men 
wept and implored and prayed Christ our God to have mercy and 
compassion upon them. 4. Thereupon the light reappeared and the 
sun rose out of the darkness, and those who had come together said : 
' This event is one that has taken place at the end of the cycle 
of 532 years.' 5. And they set- themselves to calculate, and dis- 
covered, as they said, that it was the end of the twelfth cycle. 
But holy and righteous persons said : c This chastisement has 
befallen the earth owing to the heresy of the emperor Maurice. 

Chapter CII. 1. Now a certain event took place relating to a 
magistrate named Eutocius, 1 who had been deputed to a barbarous 
country. Now he possessed a silk embroidered (lit. sewn) garment, 
namely, a tunic, and he gave orders to his steward to fetch it to 
him. 2. And when he brought it to him, he found that the rats 
had eaten and destroyed it. And he was wroth with the steward, 
and cast him into a pit which was full of rats, and he closed the 
pit's mouth for many days, and (the rats) eat him and he died. 

1 So restored by Zotenberg. . ... ' 

M 2, 



CII. 3 

3. And after many days he sought him, and found him dead and 
putrid. And he repented having killed the man for the sake of 
a garment. He practised good works, and gave much money to 
the poor, with much weeping addressing his prayers unto our Lady 
the holy Virgin Mary. 4. And likewise he went to holy places 
and visited the saints who abode there, confessing to them his sin, 
in order that he might hear the words of consolation. And these 
spoke to him in hostile terms in order to make him abandon the 
salvation of his soul. 5. And next he went to the convent of Sinai, 
and (there the monks) said unto him : 1 There is no forgiveness ' — 
therein they were deceived — ' there is no forgiveness after baptism ' ; 
and they robbed him of (all) hope. 6. Now they remembered not 
the word which was written regarding David; for when he had 
slain Uriah, (God) afterwards accepted his repentance, and restored 
him again to his first state. 7. And the restoration of Manasseh 
was brought about through repentance, after he had sacrificed to 
demons and slain Isaiah the prophet, and wrought countless evils. 
Yea, when he repented, God accepted him. 8. And this unfor- 
tunate man, when all hope was cut off, 1 went up a lofty acclivity 
and cast himself down and so died a violent death. 

9. And shortly after, the Thracians rebelled and rose up against 
the emperor Maurice, and (their) four commanders set out against 
him. And when Maurice heard this news he began to distribute 
money among the inhabitants of Constantinople. Now they had 
been wont to call Maurice a heathen and a magician, and a person 
undeserving of the imperial throne. 10. And when the soldiers 
heard of these movements they took measures to wrest concessions 
from him touching their wage 2 and food, that is, the pay of the 
officers and chiefs. 11. But subsequently changing their plans 
they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Phocas, and marked him out 
as emperor. Now he was one of the four commanders of Thrace. 
12. And the inhabitants of Constantinople were all of one mind, 
and cried out saying : ' Let us have a Christian emperor in this 
city.'' And when Maurice heard that the inhabitants of the city 
wished to seize him, he went into the palace, and brought forth all 
(his) wealth, and placed it in a ship, and likewise his children and 
his wife, (and) they made for Bithynia. 

Chapter CIII. 1. And Maurice wrought a noble deed during his 

* Reading cn>i"4«: for awfk 2 An Arabic word. 

cm. it 



reign, and put a stop to the iniquities that had been practised by 
his imperial predecessors. 2. A certain captain of a ship set sail 
from Alexandria, having taken on board a considerable cargo of 
grain belonging to the emperor. But the ship was wrecked and 
the grain lost in the sea. And the governor of the province had 
him arrested and severely beaten, but no money was found upon 
him. 3. But the emperor Maurice gave orders for the captain of 
the vessel to be released, and thereupon published a decree, enacting 
that the captain of a vessel should not be subjected to punishment 
and made to render compensation when his ship was wrecked, but 
that the loss should be put down to the imperial revenue. 

4. And after the flight of the emperor Maurice all the population 
came together to the patriarch, and by general consent they placed 
the imperial crown on Phocas in the church of S. John the Baptist. 

5. And (Phocas) proceeded to the palace, and got ready his 
generals and officers and chariots, and sent them in pursuit of 
Maurice. 6. And whilst Maurice was proceeding by ship a strong 
wind rose against him and overturned the ship, and so he betook 
himself alone with his children to a small island near Chalcedonia. 

7. And when the soldiers had learnt where he was, they proceeded 
to him according to the commands of Phocas, and put him to death 
with his five children in the twentv-second vear of his rfiio-n. 

8. And they stripped the empress Constantina and her two 
daughters and the wife of her son Theodosius of their imperial 
robes, and clothed them in servants' apparel, and placed them in 
a convent for virgins. 

9. And when Phocas was firmly established in the empire, he sent 
ambassadors to Chosroes, king of Persia ; but Chosroes refused to 
receive the ambassadors. Moreover, he was very wroth on account 
of the death of Maurice. 

10. And certain persons accused f Alexander-)-, 1 who was one of 
the rulers — a discreet man and beloved by all the inhabitants of 
Constantinople, and they said to Phocas : f This Alexander is desirous 
of slaying thee and becoming emperor in thy stead.' Now this 
f Alexander! had married a daughter of Maurice. 2 11. And there- 

1 The Ethiopic is corrupt. Alexander occurs in the text, but seems quite 
■wrong. On the probable events referred to see Chron. Pasch. 380 ; Bury, Later 
Roman Empire, ii. 86-92. 

2 Here we have a confused account of Germanus, the father-in-law of Theo- 
dosius, son of Maurice (?). 


upon Phocas had f Alexanderf and Kudis (= Elpidius?) and other 
officers thrown into chains and sent to the city of Alexandria to be 
imprisoned there. 12. Shortly after, Phocas sent orders to Justin 
the governor of Alexandria to execute f Alexanderf and his 

Chapter CIV. 1. Owing to the great quantity of blood shed by 
Phocas great terror prevailed among all the officers (clergy ?) of the 
province of the east. 1 2. Now at that epoch no province was 
allowed to appoint a patriarch or any other ecclesiastical dignitary 
without his (the emperor's) authorization. 3. And the Orientals 2 
assembled in the great city of Antioch. When the troops heard of 
these doings they were all enraged, and set out on horseback 
and made preparation for fighting, and they slew many people in 
the church (and continued the slaughter) till they had filled all the 
edifices with blood. 4. And this frightful massacre extended to 
Palestine and Egypt. 

Chapter CV. 1. And there was a man named Theophilus, of the 
city of Merada in Egypt, the governor of five cities in the reign of 
Phocas. And the officers of the city and a large body of men 
revolted against him. (And) they attacked Theophilus and put 
him and his followers to the sword. 2. And they took the five 
cities by storm, i.e. Kerteba, San, Basta, Balqa, and Sanhur. And 
David and Abunaki, the envoys of the patriarch, informed Phocas 
(of these events). 3. And when Phocas heard, he was very wroth 
and sent a very malignantly-tempered general, named Bonosus, 
from the province of the east. 3 And he was like a fierce hyena. 
And he gave him full authority over the officers (?) 4 of the city of 
Antioch, that he might do unto them as they had done. 4. And 
when he came to Cilicia, he mustered a large body of men and 
marched against the officers (?) of the city of Antioch, and reduced 
them to submission, and by reason of the greatness of their fear 
of him they became like women before him. 5. And he punished 
them without mercy. Some of them he strangled, and others he 

1 Text is a transliteration of dvaroXrjs (Zotenberg). 

2 Not so according to other chroniclers ; it was the Jews caused these tumults. 
Cf. Cedrenus i. 712. 

3 Bonosus is called Ko^y 'AfaToA??? in Cedrenus i. 712. According to Cedrenus, 
in this passage the leaders of this tumult in Antioch were Jews, who attacked 
the Christians. 

* This and the following verses are full of confusions. 

CVII. 5 



burnt, and others he drowned, and others he gave to wild beasts. 
And those who belonged to the factions he delivered to the sword. 
6. And all with whom he wished to deal mercifully he sent into 
perpetual banishment. Upon the monks and convents of the nuns 
he perpetrated barbarities. 

Chapter CVI. 1. And the following incident is an illustration of 
the conduct of the insensate Phocas. 2. He sent orders to the 
province of Cappadocia that there should be brought to him the 
wife of Heraclius the elder, who was the mother of the general 
Theodore, and the wife of Heraclius the younger, together with 
her daughter Fabia, a virgin. 1 3. And he had them placed in 
the house of f Theodoref 2 (and treated) with distinction. Now 
fTheodoref was of the family of the emperor J ustinian. 4. And 
Phocas sought to dishonour Fabia. But she, using the stratagems 
of a woman, said : 'I am in the menstrual period ' ; and she 
showed him a cloth saturated with blood. And for this reason he 
let her go. 5. By the advice of Akrasis and Fibamon, interpreters 
of dreams, this statement was made unto him. 3 6. And when the 
elder Heraclius heard of these matters he thanked Akrasis, and 
let off Theodore, and took no action against him or his people. 

Chapter CVII. 1. And they came to the city of Constantinople 
and informed Phocas of all that had been done. 2. At the same 
period came Heraclius, who distributed large sums of money among 
the barbarians of Tripolis and Pentapolis, and thereby prevailed on 
them to help him in the war. 3. Next he summoned the captain 
of his forces, named Bonakis, 4 with 3,000 men, and a large number 
of barbarians, and dispatched them to Pentapolis to wait for him 
there. 4. And he sent likewise Nicetas, the son of Gregory, with 
large subsidies to the prefect Leontius, who had been appointed to 
the province of Mareotis by Phocas, urging him to send salutations 
to Phocas and write to him in these terms : 1 My Lord'. 5. Now 
Tenkera and Theodore the son of Menas, who had been governor 
of Alexandria in the reign of Maurice, had made a secret compact 
with Heraclius whereby they promised to give him the empire of 
Constantinople, and to slay Phocas, and compel the thousands (of 
troops) in Constantinople to submit to him. 

1 See note 4 on previous page. 

2 This seems corrupt for Theodora the wife of Justinian, who founded a con- 
vent for penitents. 

8 In the text this sentence precedes ver. 4. * The text reads Konakis. 



cvn. 6 

6. And this was done without the cognizance of Theodore the 
Chalcedonian patriarch of Alexandria, who had been appointed by 
Phocas. 7. But John the governor of the city was acquainted 
with his plot ; for he was prefect of the palace and military com- 
mander in Alexandria. And Theodore also who was set over the 
grain supply (was acquainted with it). 8. These three wrote a 
letter to Phocas and informed him of all that had happened. But 
Phocas despised Heraclius. 9. Nevertheless he sent large sums of 
money to the fApulonf 1 of the city of Manuf through the 
agency of the governor of the city of Constantinople, and he sent 
- the latter to Egypt with a large military force ; having first bound 
him by many an oath to defend his empire with fidelity, and to war 
against Heraclius in Egypt; and (he sent also) to Ptolemy the 
fApulonf of the city of Athrib, the governor of that city. 

10. And next he sent orders to Qusum to leave the city of 
Antioch and repair to Alexandria. Now he had previously sent 
Bonosus by sea, with lions and panthers 2 and other wild beasts to 
be conducted to the city of Alexandria. 11. Now the emperors 
had heretofore destroyed them, but he re-established this custom. 
And he sent likewise instruments of torture of many kinds, chains 
and bonds, and much money and glorious garments, 

12. And Bonakis, 3 the chief (captain) of Heraclius, (set out) 
and he saw Nicetas in Pentapolis as Heraclius had commanded. 
And he indeed had received troops from Leontius, who had been 
sent to the province of the Mareotis, and he had proceeded towards 
Nubia in Africa (?). 13. Now the prefect Leontius had come to 
terms with them. And when they had met the garrison of the 
city of Kabsen, they entered but did no violence to the garrison. 
And they set free all the prisoners that they might join them in 
the war. 14. And before they entered, they had prevailed on the 
inhabitants of the city to precede them (and) stir up a tumult on 
the river, named Pidrakon, that is, the Dragon, which flows close 
to the great city of Alexandria on the west. 15. And when they 
had entered, they found the f Balalunf , 4 the governor of Alexandria, 
with a large force of Egyptians arrayed with weapons of war. And 

1 This word is variously spelt in our text. I retain this spelling. 

2 An Amharic word. 

* I have followed Zotenberg in reading Bonakis here. The text has ' John \ 

* Called Apuldn in ver. 9. 


CVII. 24 



they said to him : f Hearken to our words and flee from us and 
preserve thy dignity, and remain neutral till thou seestthe side which 
is victorious ; and no calamity shall befall thee, and subsequently 
thou shalt become the Administrator of Egypt; for behold the 
days of Phocas are at an end/ 16. But he refused to comply with 
this proposal and said: 'We will fight for the emperor unto death/ 
And when they engaged they slew this misguided man, and cut off 
his head, and suspending it on a lance they carried it into the city. 

17. And not only none could withstand them, but many joined 
their ranks. And the prefect of the palace and Theodore who was 
set over the corn supply withdrew into the church of S. Theodore 
on the east of the city. And Theodore the Chalcedonian patriarch 
withdrew into the church of the holy Athanasius on the sea coast. 

18. (And they did so) not only through fear of the soldiers (or f war'), 
but also of the inhabitants of the city ; for they had kept under 
guard Menas the coadjutor, the son of Theodore the vicar, 1 that is 
the Adagshan, 2 in order to deliver him up to Bonosus when he 
arrived. V 

19. And when the clergy (?) and the people of the city assembled 
they were of one accord in their hatred of Bonosus, 3 who had already 
sent the wild beasts and the instruments of torture. 20. And they 
took the imperial taxes out of the hands of those who guarded 
them, and openly rebelled against Phocas, and received Heraclius 
with great honour, and took possession of the governor's palace 
and established themselves therein. 21. And they suspended the 
head of the Apulon on the gate for all that went in and out to see. 
And they seized upon all the wealth consisting of gold and silver and 
glorious garments which (Phocas) had sent to the Apulon. 22. And 
he sent for his own troops and soldiers, and he sent likewise to 
Pharos, and had the soldiers who were in the fleet arrested and 
kept under a close guard. 

23. And information was subsequently brought to Bonosus in the 
city of Caesarea in Palestine that (the rebels) had captured the city 
of Alexandria and slain the Apulon, and that the inhabitants of 
that city hated him and were attached to Heraclius. 24. Now 
previously to the arrival of Bonosus in Egypt, Bonakis met with 

1 See note on xcvii. 16. 2 A corruption of a Coptic word. 

3 The text = Phons, which generally = Bonosus. According to 10-11 it was 
the emperor who sent them by means of Bonosus. 



CVII. 25 

no reverse, but gained the mastery over all the prefects in Egypt. 
25. And the Blues confiscated all the property of Aristomachus, the 
friend of the emperor, and the property of all the notables in the 
city of Manuf, and reduced them to such a degree of destitution 
that they were unable to pay taxes. 

26. And all the people rejoiced because of the revolt against 
Phocas. And all the inhabitants of Nakius and the bishop Theodore 
and all the cities of Egypt joined the revolt. But Paul the prefect 
of the city of Samnud alone did not join it. He was one of the 
prefects appointed by Phocas, and he was beloved by all the 
inhabitants of the city. 

27. But the military commander they named Liwnakis, by this 
name (mc), as he was a perverse and foolish man and ' a dog's head \ 
fAnd subsequently also Cosmas the son of Samuel, the friend of 
Paul, who was likewise one of their number, but who, being weak, 
was borne by two men f 1 — as for this man indeed whom they had 
released from prison, he was high spirited, and likewise those who 
were with him, 2 and he stirred up all the officers and made them 
submit to him. 28. And Paul was the first to resist and refuse 
to join the party of Heraclius, but he vacillated in his plans. 
29. Indeed, all the province of Egypt was divided on the ground 
of the murder of the Aisaililun. And Marcian, the prefect of the 
city of Athrib (likewise refused) ; for he was a friend of theirs. 

30. And Bonosus proceeded from the house of Ptolemais (?), and 
he sent his ships to the city of Athrib. And Christodora the sister 
of Aisallun practised a system of espionage on those who threw off 
their allegiance to the emperor Phocas, and she refused to hearken 
to the message of Heraclius. 31. And all the troops of Egypt and 
of the east were expecting succour from the forces that were coming 
by land and sea. Now these were coming in ships by the two 
branches of the river, and they were to land as we have before 
said. 32. But the forces which came on horseback from the east 
were on the look out for Plato and Theodore. Now these were in 
the neighbourhood of the city of Athrib and were alarmed at 
their arrival. 33. But before Paul and Cosmas the son of Samuel 
had 3 the bishop Theodore and Menas, the scribe of the city 

1 The text is very confused. I have given so far as possible the general sense. 

2 The text needs no emendation here such as Zotenberg suggests. 

3 There seems to be a lacuna in the text here. 

CVII. 41 



of Nakius, sent a message to Mareian the prefect and to the lady 
Christodora, the sister of AisaiMn, requesting 1 them to cast down 
the insignia 1 of Phocas and to submit to Heraclius. 34. But these 
refused ; for they had heard news of Bonosus to the effect that he 
had arrived at the city of Bikiiran. And when the party of Plato 
heard this news, they sent a dispatch to Bonakis in Alexandria to 
this effect : f Hasten hither with thy forces ; for Bonosus has arrived 
in the city of Farma,/ 35. And when Bonakis had reached Nakius, 
Bonosus likewise had already arrived at the city of Athrib, where he 
found Mareian' s troops ready for war. Christodora also, the sister of 
Aillus (sic), and the troops of Cosmas the son of Samuel (were 
already there) by land. 36. And he marched to the small branch of 
the river which proceeds from the main branch, and met with the 
prefect Paul and his troops. 37. Then Bonakis came to attack 
Bonosus, and they engaged on the east of the city of Manuf. 
And in the engagement the forces of Cosmas the son of Samuel 
prevailed and drove those of Bonakis into the river, and they took 
Bonakis prisoner and slew him. 38. And Leontius the general 
and Kiidis they put to the sword, and they surrounded 2 a large 
body of troops, and took them prisoners and threw them into 
chains. And when Plato and Theodore saw that Bonakis and 
his men had been slain, they fled to a convent and concealed 

39. Then Theodore the bishop of Nakius and Menas the scribe 
took the Gospels and proceeded to meet Bonosus, thinking that he 
would have mercy upon them. And when Bonosus saw 3 Theodore 
the bishop, he took him with him to the city of Nakius, but he 
cast Menas into prison. 40. But Christodora and Mareian, the 
prefect of Athrib, informed him that it was the bishop that had 
the insignia of Phocas thrown down from the gate of the city. 
And when Bonosus saw the insignia of Phocas cast down upon the 
ground, he gave orders for the beheading of the bishop. 41. But 
as for Menas, he had him severely scourged, and required from him 
the payment of 3,000 gold dinars, and then he let him go. But 
owing to the excessive scourging, he was attacked by a fever and 

1 An Arabic word, as Zotenberg points out. 

2 I have emended 'JTJPOi*: into Ql^SPOV', Zotenberg emends into 

hK'f'f9 , O v 'i which is alike unsatisfactory in form and in meaning. 

3 I have emended the pronominal suffix. 



CVII. 42 

died shortly afterwards. (He was so dealt with) at the instigation 
of Cosmas the son of Samuel. 

42. And the three chief men of Manuf, Isidore, John, and 
J ulian, and those who had concealed themselves in the convent of 
Atris, that is, Plato the friend of the emperor and Theodore the 
lieutenant, were delivered up to Bonosus by the monks. 43. And 
he had them arrested and thrown into chains and conducted to the 
city of Nakius, where he gave orders for them to be scourged and 
then beheaded in the place where the bishop had been put to death. 
44. And he held an inquiry likewise regarding the troops who had 
fought under Bonakis. And such as had been soldiers of Maurice 
he sent into exile, but those who had been in the service of Phocas 
he called to account and put to death. 45. And the rest of the 
troops, seeing these things, fled and betook themselves to the city 
of Alexandria. And all the notables in Egypt mustered round 
Nicetas, the general of Heraclius, and assisted him because they 
detested Bonosus, and they informed Nicetas of all that he had 
done. 46. And Nicetas got together a numerous army of regulars, 
barbarians, citizens of Alexandria, the Green Faction, 1 sailors, 
archers, and a large supply of military stores. And they prepared 
to fight Bonosus in the environs of the city. 47. And Bonosus 
thus reflected : ' By what means can I get possession of the city 
and deal with Nicetas as I did with Bonakis/ 48. And he 
sent Paul of the city of Samnud with his ships into the canal of 
Alexandria in order to co-operate with him. But Paul 2 was not 
able to approach the environs of the city ; for they hurled stones 
at him, and the ships took to flight. 49. And Bonosus likewise 
came with his troops and took up a position at Miphamonis, i.e. 
the new Shabra. Next he marched with all his forces to the city 
of Demqaruni, and was purposing to make a breach in the city on 
Sunday. Now these events took place in the seventh year of the 
reign of Phocas. 

Chapter CVIII. 1. And there was a holy aged man, named 
Theophilus the confessor, who lived on the top of a pillar, near the 
banks of the river, and he was endowed with the spirit of prophecy. 
This old man lived thirty years on the top of the pillar. 2. Now 
Nicetas used to visit him frequently. And Theodore the general 
and Menas the coadjutor, and Theodosius, who were agents of 

1 So Zotenberg. 2 The text wrongly reads Bonosus here. 

CVIII. 13 



Nicetas, informed liim of the virtues of this holy man. 3. And 
Nicetas went to him and besought him and said : ' Who will be 
victor in this war ? ' — for he feared lest evil should overtake him as 
it had done Bonakis. 4. And the holy man said to Nicetas : 
Thou shalt conquer Bonosus and overthrow the empire of Phocas, 
and Heraclius will become emperor this year.' 5. And Nicetas 
was guided by the prophecy of the aged man of God and said to 
the inhabitants of Alexandria : ( Fight no longer from the top of 
the wall but open the gate of 6n and meet Bonosus in close 
encounter.'' 6. And they hearkened to the words of Nicetas and 
put the troops in array and placed the catapults and engines for 
hurling stones near the gate. 7. And when a captain of Bonosus's 
troops advanced, a man smote him before he drew near to the gate, 
with a huge "stone, and crushed in his jaw, and he fell from his 
horse and died forthwith. And another likewise was crushed. And 
when the battle pressed sore upon them they began to flee. 8. And 
Nicetas opened the second gate, which was close to the church of 
S. Mark the Evangelist, and he issued forth with his barbarian 
auxiliaries, and they went in pursuit of the fleeing troops and they 
put some of them to the sword. 9. And the inhabitants of 
Alexandria smote them with stones and pursued them and struck 
them with arrows and wounded them with grievous wounds. And 
some that sought to hide themselves from the violence of the battle 
fell into the canal and perished there. 10. And to the north of the 
city there were the qasabfars, 1 that is, a plantation of roses and a 
hedge of thorns surrounding the plantation. And these stopped 
the fugitives. 11. And on the south side of the city also the 
fugitives were checked by a canal. And those who were pursued 
attacked each other, failing in the stress of danger to recognize 
their comrades. 12. Bonosus escaped with a few soldiers and took 
refuge in the city of Kariun. And Marcian the prefect of Athrib 
and the general Leontius, and Valens, and many men of dis- 
tinguished names, were slain in the battle. 13. And when Nicetas 
saw that this victory was his through the prayers of the saints, and 
that the strength of the army of Bonosus was broken and that its 
numbers had become few, he sent Ptolemy, Eusebius, and other 
notables of the party of Heraclius to the river in order to fetch him 

* 1 As Zotenberg points out, this is the transliteration of two Arabic words, the 
first of which is translated by the Amharic word that follows. 


all the wealth they could find, and collect for him many soldiers 
from all the cities of Egypt. 14. And the membei-s of the Blue 
Faction, great and small, and the officers, protected and helped 
Nicetas in the city of Alexandria. 15. And when Paul and his 
companions were apprised of these events they remained secretly 
on board their ships and intended to desert Bonosus and go over to 
Nicetas. And the affairs of Bonosus grew (daily) worse, while 
those of Nicetas daily advanced in strength. 

Chapter CIX. 1. And after his escape Bonosus stayed a few days 
in Nakius, and likewise his remaining troops. And he provided 
them with ships, and they destroyed many of the inhabitants of 
Alexandria. 2. And they proceeded towards Mareotis, and entered 
the canal of the Dragon which lies to the west of the city, and 
intended to harass the Alexandrians. But this unhappy man 
knew not that it is God who is strongest in warring. 3. And 
when Nicetas was apprised of this he had the qantara, that is, 
the bridge of Dafashir, cut away. Now it is near the church of 

5. Minas of the city of Mareotis. 4. And when Bonosus heard of 
this event, he was very grieved and purposed to slay Niketas by a 
treacherous device ; for he said : ' If Nicetas dies, the army will be 
dispersed.' 5. And he had a soldier brought to him, and he per- 
suaded him to go to Nicetas, boldly facing death, and he said unto 
him : 1 Take thee a small sword, and put it in thy bosom, pretending 
that I have sent thee unto him, and that thou art to intercede on 
my behalf. And when thou comest near him smite him with this 
sword in his heart, that he may die. And if thou art able to escape, 
well and good; but if thou diest on behalf of this nation I will 
take thy children and conduct them into the imperial palace, and 
I will give them money sufficient for all the days of their life.'' 

6. But one of his suite, named John, having heard this abominable 
project, sent and informed Nicetas. And this soldier rose there- 
upon, and took an imperial sword, and placed it in his bosom, and 
betook himself to Nicetas. 7. And when (the latter) saw him, he 
ordered his troops to surround him, and when they had stripped 
him, they found the sword in his bosom. And thereupon they 
beheaded him with the sword. 

8. And Bonosus proceeded to the city of Dafashir and put many 
men to the sword. And when Nicetas was apprised of this event 
he pursued him with all haste. And when he came up to him, 

G1X. 18 



Bonosus crossed the river and betook himself to the city of Nakius'. 
9. And after he crossed the river, Nicetas abandoned the pursuit 
and marched to the city (?) of Mareotis, and left considerable forces 
there to guard the route. And he marched likewise to the city of 
the upper 1 Manuf. 10. And when he drew near the city, the party 
of Bonosus who were there took to flight, and he captured the city, 
and Abrais and his people were taken prisoners, and (the troops of 
Nicetas) burnt their houses and likewise the way (?) of the city. 
11. And Nicetas directed a combined and powerful attack on the 
city of Maniif and compelled it to open its gates. Then all the 
cities of Egypt sent in their submission to him. 12. Next he 
crossed the river in pursuit of Bonosus, (who was) in the city of 
Nakius. And when Bonosus was apprised thereof he rose in the 
night and quitted the province of Egypt and betook himself to 
Palestine. 13. And he was driven also from this country by the 
people because of the abominable murders he had perpetrated among 
them formerly. And he went from thence to the city of Byzan- 
tium, and there met with Phocas, his friend, the assassin. 

14. And all the land of Egypt fell under the power of Niketas, 

from the great city of Alexandria to the village of Theophilus the 

Stylite, who had predicted the accession of Heraclius to the imperial 
•f iiroiic* 

15. And Nicetas, moreover, had Paul of the city of Samnud and 
Cosmas the son of Samuel arrested. He pardoned them and in- 
flicted no punishment upon them, but sent them to Alexandria 
to be kept in custody there till the death of Bonosus. 16. And 
taking advantage of the war between Bonosus and Nicetas, the 
artisan guilds 2 of Egypt arose (and) perpetrated outrages on ' the 
Blues', and gave themselves shamelessly to pillage and murder. 
17. And when Nicetas was apprised of these facts he had them 
arrested, and reproved them, and said unto them : ' Do no outrage 
henceforth to any one/ And he established peace amongst them. 
And he named prefects in all the cities and repressed plundering 
and violence, and he lightened their taxes for three years. And 
the Egyptians were very much attached to him. 

18. And in regard to Rome it is recounted that the kings 
of (this) epoch had by means of the barbarians and the nations 

1 So Zotenberg, who takes "iCTh^l: as the faulty transliteration of an Arabic 
word. 2 i. e. ' the Greens '. 



cix. 19 

and the Illyrians devastated Christian cities and carried off their 
inhabitants captive, and that no city escaped save Thessalonica 
only ; for its walls were strong, and through the help of God the 
nations were unable to get possession of it. But all the province 
was devastated and depopulated. 19. Then the armies of the east 1 
arose against Rome, and they took the Egyptians prisoners, who 
were there, and who had fled from Egypt from fear of Bonosus. 
These were Sergins the Apostate and Cosmas who had delivered up 
his city. 20. Now these had denied the Christian faith and had 
abandoned holy baptism, and had followed in the paths of the 
pagans and idolaters. 

21, And (the Persians) made themselves masters of the river 
Euphrates and of all the cities of Antioch, and they plundered 
them and left not a soldier surviving at that epoch. 22. And like- 
wise the inhabitants of the district of Tripolis in Africa brought 
blood-eating barbarians (into the country) out of affection to 
Heraclius. 23. For they detested Phocas, and they attacked the 
general Mardius and sought to slay him, and likewise two other 
generals named Ecclesiariiis and Isidore. 24. And when these 
barbarians arrived they made war on the province of Africa, and 
proceeded to join Heraclius the elder. And the great prefect of 
the district of Tripolis, named Kisil, went to Nicetas with large 
supplies in order to help him against Bonosus. 

25. And Heraclius the elder sent his son Heraclius the younger 
to the city of Byzantium with ships and a large force of barbarians 
in order to attack Phocas. And when he touched at the islands 
and the various stations on the sea coast, many people, notably 
those of the Green Faction, went on board with him. 26. And 
Theodore the Illustrious, together with a large number of wise 
senators, deserted Phocas and submitted to Heraclius. 27. And 
seeing this the civilians and the soldiers who were with him fol- 
lowed his example and submitted to Heraclius and Cappadocian. 
And all the people assailed Phocas with angry invectives, and 
none stayed them. And all these matters fell out in the city of 
Constantinople. 28. And when Phocas was apprised of these facts, 
and had learnt that everybody had made his submission to 
Heraclius, he sent the imperial chariots to Bonosus in order that 
he might march against him (Heraclius). 29. And other prefects 
1 Zotenberg emends the text and reads ' west '. 

ex. 7 



of the emperor got ready the Alexandrian ships in which corn had 
been brought from the land of Egypt to Constantinople. For 
Phocas had had these seized because of the revolt of the inhabitants 
of Alexandria. 

Chapter CX. 1. And when at the suggestion of Nicetas, the 
patrician, the people accepted Heraclius as their emperor, the people 
of Africa lauded Heraclius in these terms : 1 The emperor Heraclius 
will be like Augustus/ And all the people of Alexandria also and 
of the camp 1 spake in the same fashion. 2. And thereupon they 
began an engagement on the seashore, and the men of the chariots 
slew Bonosus. And they all with one voice in the Greek language 
cried aloud in praise of Heraclius the younger, the son of Heraclius 
the elder, and abused Phocas and Bonosus. 3. And, hearing these 
demonstrations, the Green Faction and the inhabitants of the city 
of Byzantium, who were on the sea, assembled their ships and 
pursued the ' Blues.' Now these latter were disquieted because of 
the accusation made against them, and subsequently took refuge in 
the church of S. Sophia. 4. And all the officers and senators had 
taken up a position near the palace, and they were lying in wait for 
Phocas. But when Phocas and Leontius the chamberlain became 
aware that they sought with evil intent to slay them as they had 
slain the denraved Bonosus. twn nrnsA and spi^rl all f.V>p mnnpv 
that was in the imperial treasury which had been amassed by 
Maurice, and likewise that which had been amassed by (Phocas) 
himself from the Roman nobles whom he had put to death, and 
whose property he had confiscated, and likewise the money of 
Bonosus, and they cast it into the waves of the sea, and so 
thoroughly impoverished the Roman empire. 5. And thereupon 
the senators and the officers and soldiers went in and seized Phocas, 
and took the imperial crown from his head, and (they seized) 
Leontius the chamberlain likewise, and conducted them in chains 
to Heraclius to the church of S. Thomas the Apostle, and they 
put both of them to death in his presence. 6. And they cut off 
the privy parts of Phocas, and tore off his skin right down to 
his legs because of the dishonour and shame he had brought on the 
wife of (Photius) because she was consecrated to the service of 
God, for he had taken her by force and violated her, although she 
was of an illustrious family. 7. And next they took the bodies of 
1 So manuscripts. Zotenberg emends and renders ' au chateau '. 



Phocas and Leontius and Bonosus and they conveyed them to 
the city of Constantinople, and they burnt them with fire, and 
scattered the ashes of their bodies to the winds; for they were 
detested by all men. 8. And thus the vision was accomplished 
which Benjamin of the city of Antinoe had received from God, 
and the inhabitants of Byzantium did not slight a detail in it. 
9. On the contrary, they conducted Heraclius against his will to 
the church of S. Thomas the Apostle and placed the imperial crown 
on his head. When he had completed his prayers, he went and 
entered into the palace, and all the fwisef congratulated him. 

10. And after his accession to the imperial throne Heraclius 
wrote a letter to Heraclius, his father, to inform him of all that 
had happened, and likewise of his accession to the imperial throne. 
11. Now Heraclius, his father, had seized the city of Carthage, the 
imperial capital of Africa, and he was much concerned for his son 
who had gone to Byzantium. But when he heard this news, he 
rejoiced (thereat). 12. Now great uncertainty prevailed in the 
churches because of the long duration of the war, and every one 
was full of apprehension over the victory which had been won 
over Bonakis, and the disquietude which had been occasioned in 
regard to his (Heraclius's) son. 

13. And subsequently Heraclius fell ill and quitted this world, 
while he was at his post in his government. God alone knows 
whom He appoints, and unto God be glory for ever. 

Chapter CXI. 1. Now Theodore was commander-in-chief in 
Egypt. And when the messengers of Theodosius the prefect of 
Arcadia informed him regarding the death of John, 1 general of 
the local levies, he thereupon turned with all the Egyptian troops 
and his auxiliary forces and marched to Lokjon, which is an island. 
2. Moreover he feared lest, owing to the dissensions prevailing 
amongst the inhabitants of that district, the Moslem should come 
and seize the coast of Lokjon and dislodge the communities of the 
servants of God who were subjects of the Roman emperor. 3. And 
his lamentations were more grievous than the lamentations of David 
over Saul when he said : 1 How are the mighty fallen, and the 
weapons of war perished !' 2 Eor not only had John the general of 

1 John, Duke of Barca, who had been sent against the Moslem that had 
invaded Egypt (so Zotenberg, comparing Nicephorus, Brev. Hist., p. 17). See, 
however, Butler's Arab Conquest of Egypt, p. 222 n. 2 2 Sam. i. 27. 

CXI. 13 



the forces perished, but likewise John the general, who was of. the 
city of Maros, had been slain in battle and fifty horsemen with 

4. I will acquaint you briefly with what befell the former in- 
habitants of Fajum. 

5. John and his troops, the warriors whom we have just 
mentioned, had been appointed by the Romans to guard the district. 
Now these posted other guards near the rock of the city of Lahun 
in order to keep guard continually, and to give information to the 
chief of the forces of the movements of their enemies. 6. And 
subsequently they got ready some horsemen and a body of soldiers 
and archers, and these marched out to fight the Moslem, purposing 
to prevent the advance of the Moslem. 7. And subsequently the 
Moslem directed their march to the desert and seized a large 
number of sheep and goats from the high grounds without the 
cognizance of the Egyptians. 8. And when they reached the city 

■ of Bahnasa, all the troops on the banks of the river came (to the 
succour) with John, but were unable on that occasion to reach 

9. And the general Theodosius, hearing of the arrival of the 
Ishmaelites, proceeded from place to place in order to see what was 
likely to befall from these enemies. 10. And these Ishmaelites 
came and slew without mercy the commander of the troops and all 
his companions. And forthwith they compelled the city to open 
its gates, and they put to the sword all that surrendered, and they 
spared none, whether old men, babe, or woman. 11. And they 
proceeded against the general John. And he 1 took all the horses : 
and they hid themselves in the enclosures and plantations lest 
their enemies should discover them. Then they arose by night and 
marched to the great river of Egypt, to Abuit, in order to secure 
their safety. Now this matter was from God. 

12. And the chief of the faction who was with Jeremiah 
informed the Moslem troops of the Roman soldiers who were hidden. 
And so these took them prisoners and put them to death. 13. And 
tidings of these events were brought to the general Theodosius, and 
to Anastasius, who were then twelve miles distant from Nakius. 
And they betook themselves immediately to the citadel of Babylon, 
and they remained there, sending the general Leontius to the city 
1 So manuscripts. 
N 2 



CXI. 14 

of Abuit. 14. Now he was obese in person, quite without energy 
and unacquainted with warlike affairs. And when he arrived he 
found the Egyptian troops and Theodore fighting with the Moslem 
and making sorties every day from the city of Fajum in order to 
(re)take the city. 1 And taking half the troops he returned to 
Babylon in order to acquaint the governors (with the state of 
affairs), and the other half of the troops remained with Theodore. 

15. And Theodore sought with great diligence for the body of 
John, who had been drowned in the river. And with much 
lamentation he had the body drawn forth in a net, and placed in 
a bier and sent to the governors, who also (in turn) sent it to 

16. And such (of the Romans) as were in Egypt sought refuge 
in the citadel of Babylon. And they were also awaiting the arrival 
of the general Theodore in order to join with him in attacking the 
Ishmaelites before the rise of the river and the time of sowing, 
when they could not make war lest their sowings should be destroyed 
(and) they should die of famine together with their children and 

Chapter CXII. 1. Moreover, there prevailed great indignation 
between Theodore the general and the governors owing to the 
charges brought by the emperor. 2. And both 2 Theodosius and 
Anastasius went forth to the city of On, on horseback, together 
with a large body of foot soldiers, in order to attack e Amr the son 
of Al-As. 3 Now the Moslem had not as yet come to know the 
city of Misr. 4 3. And paying no attention to the fortified cities 
they came to a place named Tendunias, 6 and embarked on the river. 
4. And 'Ami* showed great vigilance and strenuous thought in his 
attempts to capture the city of Misr. But he was troubled because 
of his separation from (a part of) the Moslem troops, who being 
divided into two corps on the east of the river were marching 
towards a city named 'Ain Shams, i. e. On, which was situated on 
high ground. 5. And 'Amr the son of Al-As sent a letter to Omar 
the son of Al-Khattab in the province of Palestine to this effect: 

1 i. e. Bahnasa(?). 

2 I have emended Ytt^O^i (= 'all') into Xi&tfav, •= 'both'. 

3 On 'Amr's parentage see Gibbon, v. 444 (ed. Bury). 

4 This was the fortress, otherwise called Babylon. 

s Identified by Butler (Arab Con-quest of Egypt, p. 217 n.) with Umm Dunain. 




' If thou dost not send Moslem reinforcements, I shall not be able 
to take Misr/ 6. And he sent him 4,000 Moslem warriors. And 
their general's name was "Walwarja. He was of barbarian descent. 
7. And he divided his troops into three corps. One corps he placed 
near Tendunias, the second to the north of Babylon in Egypt; 
and he made his preparations with the third corps near the city 
of On. 8. And he gave the following orders: ' Be on the watch, 
so that when the Roman troops come out to attack us, you may 
rise up in their rear, whilst we shall be on their front, and so having 
got them between us, we shall put them to the sword.' 9. And 
thus when the Roman troops, unaware (of this design), set out 
from the fortress to attack the Moslem, these Moslem thereupon 
fell upon their rear, as they had arranged, and a fierce engagement 
ensued. And when the Moslem came in great numbers against 
them, the Roman troops fled and betook themselves to the ships. 
10. And the Moslem army took possession of the city of Tendunias; 
for its garrison had been destroyed, and there survived only 300 
soldiers. And these fled and withdrew into the fortress and closed 
the gates. But when they saw the great slaughter that had taken 
place, they were seized with panic and fled by ship to Nakius in 
great grief and sorrow. 11. And when Domentianus of the city of 

1? '. , A . — 1, ~ ~ «,1 ^ -P i 1 a ^ i\ Aimn f ho cai. nnf \\\r tiirmVif. txt 1 fVi ni i f . mfnrmiTirp 

the inhabitants of (A)buit that he was fleeing to escape the Moslem, 
and they proceeded to Nakius by ship. 12. And when the Moslem 
learnt that Domentianus had fled, they marched joyously and seized 
the city of Fajum and (A)buit, and they shed much blood there. 

Chapter CXIII. 1. And after the capture of Fajum with all its 
territory by the Moslem, "Amr sent Abakiri 1 of the city of Dalas 
requesting him to bring the ships of Rif in order to transport to 
the east bank of the river the Ishmaelites who were upon the west. 

2. And he mustered all his troops about him in order to carry on a 
vigorous warfare. And he sent orders to the prefect George to 
construct for him a bridge on the river of the city Qaljub with 
a view to the capture of all the cities of Misr, and likewise of 
Athrib and Kuerdis. And people began to help the Moslem. 

3. And (the Moslem) captured the cities of Athrib and Manuf, 
and all their territories. And he had moreover a great bridge 

1 Butler (Arab Conquest of Egypt, p. 235 n.) has shown that Abakiri is the same 
as Apa Cyrus, pagaroh of Heracleopolis Magna. 



constructed over the river near Babylon in Egypt to prevent the 
passage of ships to Nakius, Alexandria, and upper Egypt, and to 
make it possible for horses to cross from the western to the 
eastern bank of the river. And so they effected the submission of 
all the province of Misr. 4. But 'Amr was not satisfied with what 
he had already done, and so he had the Roman magistrates arrested, 
and their hands and feet confined in iron and wooden bonds. And 
he forcibly despoiled (them) of much of (their) possession, and he 
doubled the taxes on the peasants and forced them to carry fodder 
for their horses, and he perpetrated innumerable acts of violence. 
5. And such of the governors as were in the city of Nakius fled and 
betook themselves to the city of Alexandria, leaving Domentianus 
with a few troops to guard the city. And they sent orders also to 
Dares the chief officer in the city of Samnud to guard the two 
rivers. 6. Then a panic fell on all the cities of Egypt, and all 
their inhabitants took to flight, and made their way to Alexandria, 
abandoning all their possessions and wealth and cattle. 

Chaptee CXIV. 1 . And when those Moslem, accompanied by the 
Egyptians who had apostatized from the Christian faith and 
embraced the faith of the beast, had come up, the Moslem took 
as a booty all the possessions of the Christians who had fled, and 
they designated the servants of Christ enemies of God. 2. And 
r Amr left a large body of his men "{"inj" * the citadel of Babylon in 
Egypt, and marched in person towards the two rivers in the 
direction of the east against the general Theodore. 3. But the 
latter dispatched Jeqbari and Satfari to seize the city of Samnftd 
(and) fight with the Moslem. And when they came to the body of 
local levies, 2 they all refused to war against the Moslem. And they 
indeed gave battle and put to the sword many of the Moslem (and 
of those) who were with them. 4. And the Moslem were not able 
to inflict any injury on the cities which lay on the two rivers; 
because the water served as a rampart, and the horses could not 
enter them because of the deep water which surrounded them. 
5. And so leaving them they marched towards the province of Rif 
and arrived at the city of Busir. And they fortified this city and 
likewise the approaches which they had previously seized. 

1 See Butler, p. 268 n. 

1 The Ethiopic word here bears sometimes, as in this passage, the meaning 
militia, turba militaris, as in Dillmann's Lex. 

CXV. 6 



6. And in those days the general Theodore went to Kaladji, and 
besought him saying : ' Come back to us, come back to the side of 
Rome/ And Kaladji, fearing lest they should put to death his 
mother and wife, (who) were concealed in Alexandria, gave Theodore 
a great sum of money. 7. And the general Theodore prevailed on 
Kaladji, and the latter arose in the night, while the Moslem were 
asleep, and marching on foot with his men he came to the general 
Theodore. 8. And thence he proceeded to the city of Nakius and 
formed a junction with Domentianus in order to war against the 

9. And subsequently Sabendis devised an excellent plan and so 
escaped out of the hands of the Moslem by night. And he betook 
himself to Damietta to the prefect John. 10. And he indeed sent 
him to Alexandria with a letter . . . confessing his fault to the 
governors with many tears in these words : ' I have done this deed 
because of the blow and the ignominy which John inflicted upon 
me without showing any consideration for (my) old age. For this 
reason I joined the Moslem. Heretofore I was a zealous servant of 
the Romans/ 

Chapter CXV. 1. And *Amr the chief of the Moslem spent 
twelve months 1 in warring against the Christians of Northern 
Egypt, but failed nevertheless in reducing their cities. 2. And in 
the fifteenth year of the cycle, during the summer, he marched 
on the cities of Saka, and Tuku-Damsis, 2 being impatient to subdue 
the Egyptians before the rise of the river. But he was unable to 
do them any hurt. 3. And in the city of Damietta they also 
refused to admit him, and he sought to burn their crops. 4. And 
he began to march back to the troops that were in the fortress 
of Babylon in Egypt. And he gave them all the f booty which lie 
had taken from the city of Alexandria. 5. And he destroyed the 
houses of the Alexandrians who had fled f, and he took their wood 
and iron and gave orders for the construction of a road from the 
fortress of Babylon to the city of the two rivers, in order that they 
might burn that city with fire. 6. And the inhabitants of that 
city on hearing of this project took to flight with their possessions, 

1 So emended by Butler (p. 298 n.). Text = 1 years '. 

* So restored by Zotenberg. See Butler (p. 297, n. 2), who takes this word to 
be a compression of two distinct words, Tukh (Mazid) and (Mit) Damsis, which 
lies about nine miles due east of Tukh Mazid in the Delta. 



cxv. 7 

and abandoned their city, and the Moslem burned that city with 
lire. But the inhabitants of that city came by night and ex- 
tinguished the fire. 7. And the Moslem marched against other 
cities to war against them, and they despoiled the Egyptians of 
their possessions and dealt cruelly with them. 8. But the generals 
Theodore and Domentianus were unable to do any injury to the 
inhabitants of the city on account of the Moslem who were amongst 

9. And 'Amr left lower 1 Egypt and proceeded to war against 
Rif. He sent a few Moslem against the city of Antinoe. And 
when the Moslem saw the weakness of the Romans and the hostility 
of the people to the emperor Heraclius, because of persecution 
wherewith he had visited all the land of Egypt in regard to the 
orthodox faith, at the instigation of Cyrus the Chalcedonian 
patriarch, they became bolder and stronger in the war. 10. And 
the inhabitants of the city (Antinoe) sought to concert measures 
with J ohn their prefect with a view to attacking the Moslem ; but 
he refused, and arose with haste with his troops, and, having 
collected all the imposts of the city, betook himself to Alexandria ; 
for he knew that he could not resist the Moslem, and (he feared) 
lest he should meet with the same fate as the garrison of Fajum. 
11. Indeed, all the inhabitants of the province submitted to the 
Moslem, and paid them tribute. And they put to the sword all 
the Roman soldiers whom they encountered. And the Roman 
soldiers were in a fortress, and the Moslem besieged them, and 
captured their catapults, and demolished their towers, and dislodged 
them from the fortress. 12. And they strengthened the fortress of 
Babylon, and they captured the city of Nakius and made them- 
selves strong there. 

Chapter CXVI. 1. And Heraclius was grieved by the death of 

John the chief of the local levies, and of John the general who had 

been slain by the Moslem, as well as by the defeat of the Romans 

that were in the province of Egypt. 2. And in accordance with 

the decree of God who takes away the souls of rulers, 2 and of men 

of war as well as of kings, Heraclius fell ill with fever, and died 

in the thirty-first year of his reign in the month Yakatit 3 of the 

1 The text is a transliteration of an Arabic word (Zotenberg). 
1 ' The souls of rulers ' — so the manuscripts. 

3 Sixth Abyssinian month, beginning on Feb. 7 according to the Gregorian 

CXVI. 8 



Egyptians, that is, February of the Roman months, in the four- 
teenth year of the lunar cycle, the 357th year of Diocletian. 3. And 
some said : ' The death of Heraclius is due to his stamping the gold 
coinage with the figures of the three emperors — that is, his own 
and of his two sons on the right hand and on the left — and so no 
room was found for inscribing the name of the Roman empire/ And 
after the death of Heraclius they obliterated those three figures. 

4. And when Heraclius the elder died, Pyrrhus, 1 the patriarch of 
Constantinople, passed over Martina (the daughter of) his (i. e. 
Heraclius's) sister and her children, and nominated Constantine the 
son of the empress Eudocia, and made him head of the empire in 
succession to his father. And the two princes were treated with 
honour and distinction. 5. And David and Marinus seized Pyrrhus, 
the Roman Chalcedonian patriarch, and banished him to an island 
in the west of Africa, without any one being cognizant of what 
had been fulfilled; for no word of the saints falls (to the ground). 
6. Now it happened that the great Severus, patriarch of Antioch, 
wrote to Caesaria the patrician to the following effect : ( No son of 
a Roman emperor will sit on the throne of his father, so long as 
the sect of the Chalcedonians bears sway in the world/ 

7. And Constantine, the son of Heraclius, oh his accession to 
the empire mustered a large number of ships, and entrusted them 
to Kirjus and Salakrius, and sent them to bring the patriarch 
Cyrus to him that he might take counsel with him as to the 
Moslem, that he should fight, if he were able, but, if not, 
should pay tribute ; ? and that he should meet him in the imperial 
city on the festival of the holy Resurrection, and to cause all the 
inhabitants of Constantinople to assemble to carry out the same 
object. 8. And next he sent orders to Theodore 3 to come to him 
•' and leave Anastasius 3 to guard the city of Alexandria and the 

1 Ethiopic gives IlCft: owing to a faulty transcription of the Arabic. 

2 The words 'should pay tribute' occur in the text before 'as to the 
Moslem'. The Ethiopic is ungrammatical and unintelligible. I restore the 
text as follows : w£Ml >k<P>\ -M-fl**! /u£*i£V: 
flMli fcQ<ftt: As it stands the text runs: WW<\i ROfht; CihMV°l 

wCiXaDi W; Z-Xibii 'TWZ'Vi wa^ao; 

3 The text reads 'Anastasius . . . Theodore', but I have in concurrence 
with Butler's suggestion {op. tit. 303 n.) transposed them. He points out that 
Anastasius was actually governor of Alexandria prior to the return of Cyrus 
(see p. 573), and that Theodore was with Cyrus at Khodes on his way back to 
Egypt (see cxx. 6 sq.). 



CXVI. 9 

cities on the coast. And he held out hope** to Theodore that he 
would send him a large force in the autumn in order to war with 
the Moslem. 9. And when in conformity to the command of the 
emperor they had prepared the ships for setting out, the emperor 
Constantine forthwith fell ill, 1 and was attacked by a severe 
malady, and he vomited blood, and when the blood was exhausted 
he forthwith died. And this malady lasted a hundred days, 
that is, all the days of his reign wherein he reigned after his 
father Heraclius. And people mocked at Heraclius and his son 

10. And the members of the party of Gai'nas assembled in the 
church in the city of Dafashir near the bridge of the Apostle 
S. Peter. Now Cyrus the patriarch had robbed the church of 
large possessions in the time of the persecution, without any 
authorization on the part of the magistrates. 11. And when the 
Gai'nites sought to lay hands on the patriarch Cyrus, Eudocianus, 
the brother of the prefect Domentianus, being immediately apprised 
(of their purpose), sent troops against them to shoot them with 
arrows and prevent them from carrying out their intention. Some 
of them were so severely smitten that they died, while two had 
their hands cut off without legal sentence. 12. And proclamation 
was made throughout the city by the voice of a herald in these 
terms : ' Let every one of you withdraw to his own church, and 
let no one do any violence to his neighbour in defiance of the law/ 
13. But God, the Guardian of justice, did not neglect the world, 
but avenged those who had been wronged : He had no mercy on 
such as 2 had dealt treacherously against Him, but He delivered 
them into the hands of the Ishmaelites. 14. And the Moslem 
thereupon took the field and conquered all the land of Egypt. And 
after the death of Heraclius, the patriarch Cyrus on his return did 
not cease (his) severities and persecution against the people of God, 
but rather added violence to violence. 

Chapter CXVII. 1. And 'Amr the chief of the Moslem forces 
encamped before the citadel of Babylon and besieged the troops 
that garrisoned it. 2. Now the latter received his promise that 
they should not be put to the sword, and on their side undertook 
to deliver up to him all the munitions of war — now these were con- 

1 Text reads (D£$\ = ' he fell '. This I have emended into »&27?: = « fell ill '. 

2 Here I omit ttXlt; before H. 




siderable. 1 3. And thereupon he ordered them to evacuate the 
citadel. And they took a small quantity of gold and set out. And 
it was in this way that the citadel of Babylon in Egypt was taken 
on the second day after the (festival of the) Resurrection. 4. Thus 
God punished them because they had not honoured the redemptive 
passion of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who gave His life 
for those who believe in Him. Yea, it was for this reason that God 
made them turn their back upon them (i. e. the Moslem). 5. Now 
on that day of the festival of the holy Resurrection they released 
the orthodox that were in prison ; but, enemies of Christ as they 
were, they did not let them go without first ill-using them ; but 
they scourged them and cut off their hands. 6. And on that day 
these (unhappy ones) wept and their tears poured down their faces 
and they were spurned, even as it is written regarding those 
unclean persons : 'They have defiled the Church by an unclean 
faith, and they have wrought apostasies and deeds of violence like 
the sect of the Arians, such as neither pagan nor barbarian has 
wrought, and they have despised Christ and His servants, and we 
have not found any that do the like amongst the worshippers of 
false idols. 7. But God has been patient with the apostates and 
heretics who have undergone baptism a second time in submission 
to despotic emperors. Yet it is the same God who recompenses 
every man according to his deeds and does justice to him that has 
been wronged. 8. How then, is it not far better for us to endure 
patiently the trials and punishments which they inflict upon us ? 
They indeed think to honour our Lord Christ by so doing, whereas 
they are found to be perverted in their faith. They have not indeed 
voluntarily apostatized, but they persecute those who agree not with 
them in faith. God forbid (such agreement) ! for they are not 
servants of Christ : yet they think they are such in their thoughts/ 

Chapter CXVIII. 1. Now the capture of the citadel of Babylon 
and of Nakius by the Moslem was a source of great grief to the 
Romans. 2. And when 'Amr had brought to a close the operations 
of war he made his entry into the citadel of Babylon, and he 
mustered a large number of ships, great and small, and anchored 
them close to the fort where he was. 

3. And Menas, who was chief of the Green Faction, and Cosmas the 
son of Samuel, the leader of the Blues, besieged the city of Misr and 
1 I have emended the ungrammatical ►fllfr'J: into fl"H*ih 




harassed the Romans during the days of the Moslem. And fighting- 
men had gone up with fear-inspiring boldness from the western 
bank of the river in ships, and these made expeditions by night. 

4. 'Amr and the Moslem army, on horseback, proceeded by land 
till they came to the city of Kebrias of Abadja. And on this 
occasion he attacked the general Domentianus. 5. But when the 
latter learnt of the approach of the Moslem troops, he embarked 
on a ship and fled [in a ship] and abandoned the army and their 
fleet. And he sought to enter the small canal which Heraclius 
had dug during his reign. But finding it closed he returned and 
entered the city of Alexandria. 6. Now when the soldiers saw 
that their commander had taken flight, they cast away their arms 
and threw themselves into the river in the presence of their enemies. 
7. And the Moslem troops slaughtered them with the sword in the 
river, and none escaped save one man only, named Zechariah, 
a doughty man and a warrior. 8. And when the crews of the ships 
saw the flight of the troops, they too took to flight and returned 
to their own country. And thereupon the Moslem made their entry 
into Nakius, and took possession, and finding no soldiers (to offer 
resistance), they proceeded to put to the sword all whom they 
found in the streets and in the churches, men, women, and infants, 
and they showed mercy to none. 9. And after they had captured 
(this) city, they marched against other localities and sacked them 
and put all they found to the sword. And they came also to the 
city of fSa-t, 1 and there they found Esqutaws and his people in 
a vineyard, and the Moslem seized them and put them to the 
sword. Now these were of the family of the general Theodore. 
10. Let us now cease, for it is impossible to recount the iniquities 
perpetrated by the Moslem after their capture of the island of 
Nakius, on Sunday, the eighteenth day of the month Genb6t, 2 in 
the fifteenth year of the cycle, and also the horrors committed in 
the city of Caesarea in Palestine. 

11. And the general Theodore, who was in command of the city, 
even the city of Kililnas, quitted (this) city and proceeded to 
Egypt, leaving Stephen with the troops to guard the city and 

1 Since Sa = Sais, which being as far north as Damanlmr was beyond the 
range of the Arabs at this time, Butler (op. cit. 285 n.) reads Sauna, which is 
given in the heading of the chapter. 

2 Ninth Abyssinian month, beginning on May 8 according to the Gregorian 

CX1X. 9 



contend with the Moslem. 12. And there was a certain Jew with 
the Moslem, and he betook himself to the province of Egypt. And 
when with great toil and exertion they had cast down the walls 
of the city, they forthwith made themselves masters of it, and put 
to the sword thousands of its inhabitants and of the soldiers, and 
they gained an enormous booty, and took the women and children 
captive and divided them amongst themselves, and they made that 
city a desolation (lit. destitute). 13. And shortly after the Moslem 
proceeded against the country (city?) of fCoprosf and put Stephen 
and his people to the sword. 

Chapter CXIX. 1. And Egypt also had become enslaved to Satan. 
A great strife had broken out between the inhabitants of Lower 
Egypt, and these were divided into two parties. Of these, one sided 
with Theodore, but the other wished to join the Moslem. 2. And 
straightway the one party rose against the other, and they plundered 
their possessions and burnt their city. But the Moslem distrusted 

3. And 'Amr sent a large force of Moslem against Alexandria, 
and they captured Kariun, which lies outside the city. And 
Theodore and his troops who were in that locality fled and with- 
drew into Alexandria. 4. And the Moslem began to attack them 
but were not able to approach the walls of the city ; for stones 
were hurled against them from the top of the walls, and they were 
driven far from the city. 

5. And the inhabitants of Misr were at variance with those of 
Lower Egypt, and their strife ran high, but after a short time 
they made peace. 6. But when their discord came to an end, 
Satan stirred up another in the city of Alexandria ; for Domentianus 
the prefect and Menas the general were at variance with each other 
through lust for office and other motives. 7. Now the general 
Theodore took the side of Menas : he was moreover hostile to 
Domentianus because of his flight from Nakius and his abandon- 
ment of the troops. 8. And with Eudocianus, the elder brother of 
Domentianus, Menas was very wroth, because he had practised 
cruelties against the Christians during the season of the holy 
Passion in regard to the faith. 9. And Domentianus mustered a 
large force of the ' Blues '. And when Menas was apprised of this 
movement, he too mustered a large force of the f Greens ' and of 
the troops in the city. And thus these two kept up their hostility. 



CXIX. io 

10. It was subsequently to this that Philiades the prefect of the 
province of Arcadia arrived. Now Domentianus had become the 
foe of Cyrus the patriarch, and he showed him ill will, though he 
was his brother-in-law, and though previously they had been 
mutual friends. But subsequently he came to hate him without 
any good ground. 11. And Menas also who cherished a spiritual 
friendship 1 for Philiades and was not neglectful of him but invited 
him frequently out of respect for the priesthood ; for Philiades was 
the brother of the patriarch George. Now (Menas) was merciful 
and Godfearing and was grieved on behalf of those that were 
oppressed. But Philiades was not loyal in friendship, but acted 
unjustly, (and) cherished in secret evil designs. 12. Now in the 
days of the general Theodore, when a discussion was raised regarding 
the city named Manmna, and regarding the pay of the troops and 
the lands on which it should be levied, this wicked man straightway 
spake and said : 1 In place of twelve men, it will be better to have 
one ; then there will be one man to receive pay instead of 2 twelve, 
and so the tax in kind and the pay of the troops will be lessened.-' 
And in this incident Menas found an occasion against Domentianus. 
13. And all the troops loved and trusted him : for Menas loved the 
esteem of all men — not in order to receive idle praise, but by 
reason of his wisdom and modesty. 14. Now while he was present 
in the great church of Caesarion with all the people, all the 
inhabitants of the city gathered together against Philiades and 
sought to put him to death. But he took to flight and hid himself 
in a church. 15. And straightway the people proceeded to his 
dwelling and burnt it, and pillaged all his property, but they 
spared such persons as they found in the house, and did not slay 
them. 16. And when Domentianus was apprised (of these events) 
he sent a body of the 'Blues' to attack them. And a great strife 
ensued amongst them, and six men were killed and many wounded. 
17. And with great efforts and exertions Theodore established 
peace amongst them. And he deposed the general Domentianus, 
and appointed Artana chief of ten orders, who is named a decurion. 
And all the property which had been carried off as pillage from 
the house of Philiades was returned to him. It has been said that 
this strife and tumult originated in religious dissensions. 

1 I have transposed A<?$C; O0*\Um before rtfi-flSUft; Cf. text four lines 
lower. 2 I have here added before Xfflg: 

cxx. 2 BISHOP OF NIKIU 191 

18. And after the death of Constantine, the son of Heraclius, 
they brought forward Heraclius, his brother on his father's side,' 
though but an infant. But his accession to the empire was as 
idle as had been that of his brother who died. 19. And the patri- 
arch Pyrrhus, seeing that Heraclius, who was still a child, had 
become emperor through the intrigues of Martina his mother, 

whilst he Pyrrhus was still in exile 1 20. And after his 

accession to the empire he recalled Pyrrhus from exile by the 
advice of the Senate, and abolished the penal decree issued by his 
brother Constantine and his imperial predecessors ; for they abolished 
it because of the unjust accusation of Philagrius the treasurer. 
21. And it was through his agency that the churches were in 
tribulation: for he put an end to the gifts which the emperors 
were accustomed to make, and he confirmed the heavy charges 
(that were upon them). 

22. And subsequently he appointed him (Cyrus) a second time 
to the city of Alexandria) and the priests who were with him. He 
gave him power and authority to make peace with the Moslem and 
check any further resistance against them, and to establish a system 
of administration suitable to the government of the land of Egypt. 
And he was accompanied by Constantine, a general of the army^ 
who was master of the local levies. 23. And he had the army 
from the province of Thrace brought to the city of Constantinople, 
and he banished Philagrius the treasurer to the province of Africa 
where Pyrrhus had previously been in banishment. 24. And there 
were great dissensions, and the inhabitants of the city rose up 
against ^ Martina and her children because of the banishment of 
Philagrius the treasurer; for he was greatly beloved. 

Chapter CXX. 1. Now not only Cyrus the Chalcedonian patriarch 
desired peace with the Moslem, but also all the people and the 
patricians and Domentianus, who had enjoyed the favour of the 
empress Martina— (and so) all these assembled and took counsel with 
Cyrus the patriarch with a view to making peace with the Moslem. 

2. And all the clergy began to stir up odium 2 against the empire 
of Heraclius the younger, declaring: 'It is not fitting that one 
derived from a reprobate seed should sit on the imperial throne: 
rather it is the sons of Constantine, who was the son of Eudocia, 

1 There is a lacuna here. 

2 Reading fft&XTi instead of JZft&iXTl 



cxx. 3 

that should bear sway over the empire/ And they rejected the 
will of the elder Heraclius. 

3. And when Valentinus was apprised that all men were united 
against Martina and her sons, he took large sums of money out 
of the treasury of Philagrius, and distributed them amongst the 
soldiers and officers, and prevailed on them to act against Martina 
and her sons. 4. And some of them gave over warring against the 
Moslem, and turned their hostilities against their own countrymen. 

5. And thereupon they sent an envoy secretly to the island of 
Rhodes with this message to the troops with the patriarch Cyrus : 
•' Return to the imperial city and do not take sides with him.' 

6. And they sent also to Theodore, the prefect of Alexandria, the 
following message : f Do not hearken to the voice of Martina, and 
do not obey her sons/ And they sent likewise to Africa, and to 
every province under the sway of Rome. 

7. And when Theodore the general heard this news, he was 
pleased and kept the matter secret, and set out by night without 
the cognizance of any, and purposed proceeding from the island of 
Rhodes to Pentapolis, and he told only the captain of the ship. 
8. But the captain of the ship alleged (that he could not), saying : 
' The wind is contrary to us/ And he entered Alexandria on the 
night of the seventeenth day of Maskaram, 1 on the day of the 
festival of the Holy Cross. 9. And all the inhabitants of Alex- 
andria, men and women, old and young, gathered together to meet the 
patriarch Cyrus, rejoicing and giving thanks for the arrival of the 
patriarch of Alexandria. 10. And Theodore betook himself secretly 
with the patriarch to the Church of the monks of Tabenna and 
closed the door. And he sent for Minas and appointed him general, 
and banished Domentianus from the city. And all the inhabitants 
cried out : ' (Begone) from the city.' 

11. Now before the arrival of Cyrus the patriarch, George had 
been highly esteemed by the governor Anastasius ; for he had 
received the dignity from Heraclius the younger (?), and, when 
he was advanced in years, he enjoyed universal authority : even 
the patriarch suffered him to enjoy his authority. 

12. And when the patriarch Cyrus came to the great church of 
Caesarion, they covered all the way (with carpets) and chanted hymns 

1 First Abyssinian month, beginning on Sept. 10 according to the Gregorian 

°xx. I9 ! , BISHOP OP NIKIU 193 

in his honour (and the crowds increased) till the people trod each other 
down_ And after great exertions they brought him to the Church. 

bl f '"Z* ! ! < f ^ in wWch the H ^ had 

from that f ^ ^ ^ ( * ^ the — ble <«- 

from the Convent of the monks of Tabenna which he had received 

previously to lus exile from the general John.* 14. And when 

they began to celebrate divine service on the dav of the holy 

Resurrection mstead of chanting the psalm proper "to the day of 

the Resurrection, which is: 'This is the day which the Lord has 

made; we will rejoice and be glad in it- the deacon, desiring to 

praise the patriarch and to congratulate him on his return gave 

out another psalm that was not proper (to the day). 1 5 '. And 

when the people heard it, they said : < This is not the proper psalm ■ 

it is an eyil augury for the patriarch Cyrus : he will not see a 

second festival of the Resurrection in the city of Alexandria/ 

16. And all the congregation and the monks made predictions after 

this fash 10 n m public: 'He has acted contrary to what is ordained 

them' n ° ne Heard ^ ° f thGSe S ^ s believed 

17. And subsequently the patriarch Cyrus set out and went 
to .Babylon to the Moslem, seeking hv «,« offer of . . 
procure peace from them and put a stop to war in the land of 

?£ 'h Jli Amr „ We!c0med his ^val, and said unto him: 
t hen hast done well to come to us.' And Cyrus answered and 
«d unto hun: -God has delivered this land into your hands let 
there be no enmrty from henceforth between you and Rome • 
heretofore : there has been no persistent strife with you." 18 And 
they feed the amount of tribute to be paid. And as for the 
Ishmaehtes they were not to intervene in any matter, but were 
to keep to themselves for eleven months. The Roman troops in 
Alexandna were to carry off their possessions and their trelres 
and proceed (home) by sea, and no other Roman army was to 
return. But those who wished to journey by land were to nav 
a month y (?) tribute. 19. And the iLlemU to 
one hundred and fifty soldiers and fifty civilians and make peaT 

2 Ps. cxviii. 24. 



20. And the Romans were to cease warring against the Moslem, 
and the Moslem were to desist from seizing Christian Churches, 
and the latter were not to intermeddle with any concerns of the 
Christians. 21. And the Jews were to be permitted to remain in 
the city of Alexandria. 

22. And when the patriarch had concluded this negotiation, he 
returned to the city of Alexandria, and he reported to Theodore 
and the general Constantine (the conditions of peace), to the intent 
that they should report them to the emperor Heraclius and support 
them before him. 23. And straightway all the troops and the 
people of Alexandria and the general Theodore came together to 
him and paid their homage to the patriarch Cyrus. And he 
acquainted them with all the conditions which he had made with 
the Moslem, and he persuaded them all to accept them. 24. And 
while things were in this condition, the Moslem came to receive 
the tribute, though the inhabitants of Alexandria had not yet been 
informed (of the treaty). And the Alexandrians, on seeing them, 
made ready for battle. 25. But the troops and the generals held 
fast to the resolution they had adopted, and said : ' We cannot 
engage in battle with the Moslem : rather let the counsel of the 
patriarch Cyrus be observed/ 26. Then the population rose up 
against the patriarch and sought to stone him. But he said unto 
them : f I have made this treaty in order to save you and your 
children/ And plunged in much weeping and grief he besought 
them. 27. And thereupon the Alexandrians felt ashamed before 
him, and offered him a large sum of gold to hand over to the 
Ishmaelites together with the tribute which had been imposed 
on them. 

28. And the Egyptians, who, through fear of the Moslem, had 
fled and taken refuge in the city of Alexandria, made the following 
request to the patriarch : ' Get the Moslem to promise that we may 
return to our cities and become their subjects. And he negotiated 
for them according to their request. And the Moslem took posses- 
sion of all the land of Egypt, southern and northern, and trebled 
their taxes. 

29. Now there was a man named Menas, who had been appointed 
prefect of Lower Egypt by the emperor Heraclius : he was a pre- 
sumptuous man, unlettered and a deep hater of the Egyptians. 
Now after the Moslem had got possession of all the country, they 

cxx. 37 



established him in his (former) dignity : and a man named Sinoda, 
they appointed prefect of the province of Rif : and another named 
Philoxenus as prefect of the province of Arcadia, that is, Fajum. 
30. Now these three men loved the heathen but hated the Christians, 
and compelled the Christians to carry fodder for the cattle, and 
they forced them to f carry f 1 milk, and honey, and fruit and 
leeks, and other things in abundance: Now all these were in 
addition to the ordinary rations. 31. (The Egyptians) carried out 
these orders under the constraint of an unceasing fear. (The 
Moslem) forced them to excavate (anew) the canal of Trajan, which 
had been destroyed for a long time, in order to conduct water 
through it from Babylon in Egypt to the Red Sea. 32. And the 
yoke they laid on the Egyptians was heavier than the yoke which 
had been laid on Israel by Pharaoh, whom God judged with a 
righteous judgement, by drowning him in the Red Sea with all his 
army after the many plagues wherewith He had plagued both men 
and cattle. 33. When God's judgement lights upon these Ishmaelites 
may He do unto tbem as He did aforetime unto Pharaoh ! But it 
is because of our sins that He has suffered them to deal thus with 
us. Yet in His longsuffering our God and Saviour Jesus Christ 
will look upon us and protect us : and we also trust that He will 
destroy the enemies of the Cross, as saith the book which lies not. 
. 34. And 'Amr subdued the land of Egypt and sent his men to 
war against the inhabitants of Pentapolis. And after he had 
subdued them, he did not permit them to dwell there. And he 
took from thence plunder and captives in abundance. 35. And 
Abuljanos the prefect of Pentapolis and his troops and the rich men 
of the province withdrew into the city of Dushera — now its walls 
were strongly fortified — and they closed the gates. So the Moslem 
after seizing plunder and captives retired to their own country. 

36. Now the patriarch Cyrus was greatly grieved on account of 
the calamities which had befallen the land of Egypt. For 'Amr 
, had no mercy on the Egyptians, and did not observe the covenant 
they had made with him, for he was of a barbaric race. 37. And 
on the festival of Palm Sunday the patriarch Cyrus fell ill of a 
fever owing to excessive grief, and he died on the fifth day of 

1 The word ( = 'to carry', the same word as is used in the preceding 

clause) can hardly be right. Zotenberg renders it by ' fournir but it never has 
this meaning. 



Holy Week, on the twenty-fifth of the month Magabit. 1 38. Thus 
he did not live to see the festival of the holy Resurrection of our 
Lord Jesus Christ as the Christians had predicted regarding him. 
Now this event took place in the reign of the emperor Constantine 
the son of Heraclius (II). 

39. And after his (Heraclius II) death the Romans were plunged in 
war on account of the sons of the empress Martina ; for they had ex- 
cluded them from the imperial throne, and wished to make the sons of 
Constantine emperors (in their stead). 40. And Valentine who was 
leagued with Philagrius assisted them. And he drew over all the 
troops and marched to the city of Chalcedon ; for he thought and 
said : f Martina's strength lies in the fighting men which are with 
her sons/ And he prevailed on all to consent to the recall of 
Philagrius from exile. 41. And thereupon Heraclius the younger 
embarked on the imperial ships, accompanied by a great number of 
priests and monks and illustrious bishops, and passed over to 
Chalcedon. 42. And he made the following appeal to all the 
troops : ' Abandon not the duty of Christian integrity by becoming 
hostile to me; but make peace with God, and comply with the 
will of my father Heraclius ; for he laboured much on behalf of 
this country/ 43. Moreover he alleged that he would take unto 
him his brother's son and make him his colleague in the empire 
and there would no longer . be war or bloodshed between them. 
And he received the assent of all the patricians and said unto them : 
' I will bring back Philagrius from exile/ 44. And when Valentine 
learnt that all the people had submitted to him and received his 
words in peace, he took Domentianus and other patricians with 
him and placed the imperial crown on the younger Constantine, 
one of the sons of Constantine, the son of Heraclius the elder, 
whom Heracleonas had taken unto him (as colleague). And all the 
people dispersed without strife. 45. But they (the rebels) did 
not suffer this peace to be permanent. Shortly after they had 
raised Constantine to the imperial throne, the hatred of the two 
emperors grew in strength, that is, of Heraclius II and Constantine 
the younger. For Satan sowed dissensions between Heraclius II 
and the army. 46. And straightway the troops in the province 
of Cappadocia began to commit atrocities : moreover they produced 

1 Seventh Abyssinian month, beginning on Mar. 9 according to the Gregorian 

CXX. 54 



a letter to the following effect : 'This letter was sent by Martina 
and Pyrrhus the patriarch, of Constantinople to David the Ma- 
targuem (urging him) to make a vigorous war, and to take 
Martina to be his wife, and to put down the sons of Constantine (III), 
who had been emperor with Heraclius (II) his brother/ 1 

47. And when the inhabitants of Byzantium heard this news, 
they said : ' This project is concerned with Kubratos, chief of the 
Huns, the nephew of Organa, who was baptized in the city of 
Constantinople, and received into the Christian community in his 
childhood and had grown up in the imperial palace/ 48. And 
between him and the elder Heraclius great affection and peace had 
prevailed, and after Heraclius's death he had shown his affection 
to his sons and his wife Martina because of the kindness (Heraclius) 
had shown him. 49. And after he had been baptized with life- 
giving baptism he overcame all the barbarians and heathens through 
virtue of holy baptism. Now touching him it is said that he 
supported the interests of the children of Heraclius and opposed 
those of Constantine. 50. And in consequence of this evil report 
all the soldiers in Constantinople and the people rose up, and 
Jutalijus, the son of Constantine, named Theodore became the 
chief of their forces. And he was a doughty warrior like his 
father. 51. And when they had made preparations to fight with 
David the Matarguem, the latter fled and took refuge in a fortress 
of Armenia. And (Jutalijus) pursued him and, since none could 
render him aid, cut off his head and had it sent round all the cities 
of the east. 52. And next he marched with a large force to the 
city of Byzantium and he captured the palace, and he had Martina 
and her three sons, Heraclius, David, and Marinus, escorted forth 
with insolence, and he stripped them of the imperial crown, and 
he had their noses cut off, and he sent them in exile to Rhodes. 
53. And the patriarch Pyrrhus was deposed without having recourse 
to a council, and he was removed from the Church and sent in 
banishment to Tripoli where Philagrius was. And Philagrius 
• indeed was brought back from banishment. 54. And the youngest 
son of Martina was castrated, through fear, as they said, of his 
becoming emperor when he grew up. But the child could not 
endure the great wound, and straightway died. And the second of 
her sons was a deaf-mute, and so was unfit for the throne. For 
1 MSS. to be followed here : text wrongly emended by Zotenberg. 



CXX. 55 

this reason they did him no injury. 55. And they set at naught 
the will of Heraclius the elder, and they made Constans, the son 
of Constantine, emperor. And they appointed Paul of the city of 
Constantinople in the room of the patriarch Pyrrhus. 

56. (All these events) and the separation of Egypt and Alexan- 
dria during the reign of Heraclius the emperor of the Chalcedonians 
(fell out) as they are recorded in the letters of the great Severus 
the patriarch of Antioch, which he wrote to the Patrician in the 
reign of the emperor Anastasius, wherein he prophesied against 
the Roman empire in these terms : 'No son shall sit on his father's 
throne so long as the creed of the Chalcedonians prevails, who say 
that there were two natures in Christ after they became one, a 
creed which we cannot profess. Their doctrine that the manhood 
and the Godhead are two distinct natures after having become 
united, we believers cannot teach. It is not fitting that we should 
speak as the heretics/ 57. Or according to the statement of 
Gregory : ' We recognize God the Word to be of one nature 
derived from two. For God was united to the flesh and became 
one Substance. The Godhead indeed is not converted into the 
manhood, nor the manhood into the other nature, but the Word 
which became flesh had become unchangeable, and no change can 
affect the Word. But the Word which has become flesh is one 
divine Substance. 58. But this union is a marvel. That which is 
invisible has become visible : the Creator has been born and we 
have seen Him : He has healed us by His wounds ! ' 59. But we 
should cease giving citations from the words of the illustrious 
Fathers of the Church, who have been learned in investigation : 
for the Romans do not believe in aught now save the Passion. 
60. But for those who welcome the flavour of true knowledge 
I will set it forth briefly. When they rejected the orthodox faith, 
which is our faith, in like manner were they rejected from the 
imperial throne. And there has followed the undoing of all 
Christians that are in the world, and we have not experienced the 
mercy and compassion of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

61. And in those days there arose great troubles through Valentine ) 
for he had assumed the imperial robes and sought to make himself 
emperor. But when the people of Constantinople heard, they arose 
against him, and straightway he put off the (imperial) robes. 
62. And forthwith they seized him and conducted him before the 

CXX. ?o 



emperor Constans. And he sware a terrible oath to this effect : 
' I have not done this with any evil intent, but in order to contend 
against the Moslem/ 63. And when they heard this statement, 
they set him free and made him commander-in-chief of the army, 
and arranged with him that he should give his daughter in marriage 
to the emperor. And on that occasion they had her proclaimed 
through the voice of the herald by the imperial name of 

64. And the evil-doer Valentine accused Arcadius the archbishop 
of the island of Cyprus. Now this man was an ascetic in purity of 
life, and well known (as such) unto all men. And (Valentin) said 
touching him : f He was an ally of Martina and the patriarch 
Pyrrhus, and a foe of the new emperor Constans.' 65. And (the 
emperor), acting on this evil counsel, sent from Constantinople a 
numerous band of soldiers to fetch in great ignominy Arcadius the 
archbishop. But by the command of God he found (his) consum- 
mation and died after the manner of- all men. 66. But Cyrus the 
Chalcedonian patriarch in Alexandria was excessively grieved when 
he heard (of these events) — the exile of Martina and her sons who 
had brought him back from exile, the deposition of Pyrrhus the 
patriarch of Constantinople, the restoration of Phiiagrius his enemy, 
the death of the archbishop Arcadius, and the triumph and power 
of Valentine. 67. And for these reasons he wept unceasingly ; 
for he feared lest he should suffer the same fortune that had befallen 
him previously. And in the midst of this grief he died according 
to the law of nature. And his chief grief was due to the Moslem, 
who had refused his request on behalf of the Egyptians. 68. And 
before he died he wrought the works of the apostates and persecuted 
the Christians; and for this reason God, the righteous Judge, 
punished him for the evils he had wrought. 

69. And the general Valentine and his troops were not able to 
give any assistance to the Egyptians ; but the latter, and par- 
ticularly the Alexandrians, were very hard pressed by the Moslem. 
And they were not able to bear the tribute which was exacted from 
them. And the rich men of the city (country ?) concealed them- 
selves ten months in the islands. 

70. And subsequently Theodore the governor and Constantine 
the commander-in-chief of the army, and the remaining troops, 
and likewise those which had been hostages in the hands of the 


Moslem, set out and embarked, and came to Alexandria. 71. And 
after the festival of the Cross they appointed Peter the deacon 
to be patriarch on the twentieth of Hamle, 1 on the festival of the 
holy Theodore the martyr, and placed him on the patriarchal throne. 

72. On the twentieth of Maskaram, 2 Theodore and all his troops 
and officers set out and proceeded to the island of Cyprus, and 
abandoned the city of Alexandria. And thereupon 'Amr the chief 
of the Moslem made his entry without effort into the city of 
Alexandria. And the inhabitants received him with respect; for 
they were in great tribulation and affliction. 

Chapter CXXI. 1. And Abba Benjamin, the patriarch of the 
Egyptians, returned to the city of Alexandria in the thirteenth 
year after his flight from the Romans, and he went to the Churches, 
and inspected all of them. 2. And every one said : c This expulsion 
(of the Romans) and victory of the Moslem is due to the wickedness 
of the emperor Heraclius and his persecution of the Orthodox 
through the patriarch Cyrus. This was the cause of the ruin of 
the Romans and the subjugation of Egypt by the Moslem. 

3. And 'Amr became stronger every day in every field of his 
activity. And he exacted the taxes which had been determined 
upon, but he took none of the property of the Churches, and he 
committed no act of spoliation or plunder, and he preserved them 
throughout all his days. And when he seized the city of Alexandria, 
he had the canal drained in accordance with the instructions given 
by the apostate Theodore. 4. And he increased the taxes to the 
extent of twenty-two batr of gold till all the people hid themselves 
owing to the greatness of the tribulation, and could not find the 
wherewithal to pay. And in the second year of the lunar cycle 
came John of the city of Damietta, 

5. He had been appointed by the governor Theodore, and had 
lent his aid to the Moslem in order to prevent their destruction 
of the city. Now he had been appointed prefect of the city of 
Alexandria when 'Amr entered it. And this John had compassion 
on the poor, and gave generously to them out of his possessions. 
And seeing their affliction he had mercy upon them, and wept over 
their lot. 6. 'Amr deposed Menas and appointed John in his stead. 

1 'Mensis Abyssinorum undecimus qui xxv° Junii sec. Calend. Jul., vii° Jul. 
see. Cal. Greg, incipit ' (Dillmann, Lexicon, 71). 

2 This month begins on the 10th of Sept. according to the Calendar of Gregory. 




Now this Menas had increased the taxes of the city, which 'Amr 
had fixed at 22,000 gold dinars, and the sum which the apostate ' 
Menas got together was 32,057 gold dinars — he appointed for the 
Moslem. 1 7. And none could recount the mourning and lamenta- 
tion which took place in that city : they even gave their children in 
exchange for the great sums which they had to pay monthly. 
And they had none to help them, and God destroyed their hopes, 
and delivered the Christians into the hands of their enemies. 8. But 
the strong heneficence of God will put to shame those who grieve 
us, and He will make His love for man to triumph over our sins, 
and bring to naught the evil purposes of those who afflict us, who 
would not that the King of Kings and Lord of Lords should reign 
over them, (even) Jesus Christ our true God. 9. As for those 
wicked slaves, He will destroy them in evil fashion : as saith the 
holy Gospel : ' As for Mine enemies who would not that I should 
reign over them, bring them unto Me.' 10. And now many of the 
Egyptians who had been false Christians denied the holy orthodox 
faith and lifegiving baptism, and embraced the religion of the 
Moslem, the enemies of God, and accepted the detestable doctrine 
of the beast, this is, Mohammed, and they erred together with 
those idolaters, and took arms in their hands and fought against 
the Christians, li. And one of them, named John, the Chalce- 
donian of the Convent of Sinai, embraced the faith of Islam, and 
quitting his monk's habit he took up the sword, and persecuted the 
Christians who were faithful to our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Chapter CXXII. "1. And now let us glorify our Lord Jesus 
Christ and bless His holy name at all times ; for unto this hour He 
hath preserved us Christians from the errors of the erring heathen, 
and from the transgressions of the apostate heretics. 2. And may 
He also strengthen and help us to endure tribulation through hope 
in His divinity. And He will make us worthy to receive, with 
a face not put to shame, the inheritance of His eternal (and) 
incorruptible Kingdom in heaven. And (let us bless) His Father, 
(pre-eminently) good, and the Holy Lifegiving Spirit for ever and 
ever, Amen. 

Chapter CXXIII. 1. (Herewith) ends this blessed book which 
John the rector bishop of Nikius composed for the profit of the soul. 

1 The Ethiopic is irregular. 



Now it contains divine mysteries and heavenly marvels which have 
befallen apostates from the faith. 2. At one time the earth quaked 
on account of the denial (of the faith), and the great city of Nicaea 
was destroyed. At another it rained fire from heaven : at another 
the sun was darkened from the hour of dawn till evening-. 3. On a 
certain occasion the rivers rose.and overwhelmed many cities ; while 
on another houses were overthrown and many men perished and went 
down to the depths of the earth. 4. And all these things fell out 
because they divided Christ into two natures, whilst some of them 
made Him (merely) a created being. 5. Also the Roman emperors 
lost the imperial crown, and the Ishmaeiites and Chuzaeans won the 
mastery over them, because they did not walk in the orthodox faith 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, but divided the indivisible. 

6. The transcription of this book began on the twenty-eighth day 
of Hamle, and was finished on Monday on the twenty-second day of 
Teqmet, 1 at the sixth hour of the day, when the sun was in the 
sign of Scorpion, and the moon in the sign of Aquarius. 7. And 
the course of the sun was then in (its) 195th degree, and its zenith 
was at eighty-seven degrees thirty minutes. And the day was 
eleven hours, and the night thirteen. And the day increased and 
the night decreased daily by twenty minutes. 8. And the dominion 
of Elgufr from Manazel was then, in the 7594th year of the world, 
the 1947th year of Alexander, the 1594th year of the Incarnation 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, the 1318th year of the Martyrs, the 
980th year of Hagar according to the solar reckoning, but the 
1010th year according to the lunar reckoning: four years seven 
months and eight days after the accession of Malak Sagad the 
younger, son of Malak Sagad the elder, who was named Jakob 
when he received the grace of baptism : eight years three months 
and five days after the accession of the Godloving queen Malak 
Mogasa, who was named Marjam Sena on receiving the grace 
of baptism. 

9. We have translated this book with great care from Arabic 
into Ge'ez, even poor I, the most worthless amongst men and the 
vilest amongst the people, and the deacon Gabriel the Egyptian, 
son of the martyr John Kolobos, 2 by the order of Athanasius 

1 This month begins on the 10th of October according to the Gregorian 

* i. e. ' the small '. 

cxxiii. 10 BISHOP OF NIKIU 


commander-in-chief of the army of Ethiopia, and by the order of 
the queen Marjam Sena. 10. God grant that it may serve to the 
salvation of the soul and the preservation of the body. And praise 
be unto Him, who has given us power to begin and to finish (this 
work), for ever and ever. Amen and amen. So be it. Sobe-ib. 



(This index does not include the proper names in the table of contents 
of the book, pp. 1-14.) 

Aaron 50 1 
Abakiri 113 1 
Abaskir&n 97 1 . 2 > 25 
Abba Severus 90 86 
Abraham 27 14 &c. 
Abrais 109 10 

Abrakjun ( = Bruchium? So Zotenberg) 
8220 \ 

Abratus 15 1 

Absai (= Nikiu) 31 1 

Abtris, convent of, 107 42 

Abftit, city of, 111 11 - 13 112". 12 

Abuljands, governor of Pentapolis, 120 35 

Abunaki 105 2 

Abdsan, city of Egypt, 97 24 > 29 

Abusir, see Busir 

Abyssinia 59 6 &c. 90 71 

Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, 88 62 

Achaia 43 s 

Achaicus 43 2 

Ada ll 2 

Adagshan, the, 107 18 
Adam 1 

Addaeus, patrician, 90 55 

t Adrian f, corrupt for Urbicius (?), 88 71 

Aelius Antoninus Pius 74 1-10 

Aeneas 52 53 1 

Aetherius, patrician, 90 65 

Africa 75 s &c. 

Africanus, Chronicle of, cited, 29 2 
Afrud, fee Nimrod 
Afrudit (i. e. Frumentius) 77«i-"a 
Agathias, the historian, 92 20 
Agathon, prefect of Alexandria, 94 8 
Agenor 23 2 

Aglands (= TXw/i ?) 9 0 63 . 64 
Ahif, a city of Egypt, 51 44 
Aijes, see Timothy Salofacius 

Aikela, city of Egypt, 97 ] » 3 » 6 . 8 . 9 > 10 . 11 - 
Ailas, a deacon, 97 11 
Ain-shams, see 6n 
Aiqasbera 13 1 
Aiwani 48 2 

Akela, city of Egypt near Sa, 89 91 
Akhmlm, city of Egypt, 97 30 
Akrasisl06 B 

Akregas (= the myrtle) 31 5 

Akrejfts, see Darius 

Aksenja, city, 92 7 

Alamundar, king of Hedjaz, 90 79 

Alaric 84 18 - 19 88 56 (n.) 

Alba Longa 54 

Alexander the Great 51 62 > 63 59 1 &c. 
Alexander, patrician, 103 10 
Alexandria 59 1 72 14 &c. 74 B - B &c. 

— canal of, 10 7 48 121 s 

— churches of: of Arcadia 83 s7 ; of 
S. Athanasius 84 96 ; of Caesarion 64 10 
84 101 ; of SS. Cosmas or Damian 83 38 ; 
of S. George 8 4 98 ; of Honorius 83 38 ; 
of S. Mark 95 10 ; of S. Michael 64 9 ; of 
S. Peter 83 38 ; of S. Theodore 107 17 ; 
of Theodosius 83 37 

Amandra, ancient name of Iconium, 21 6 
Amantius, officer of Anastasius' court, 
90 s 

Amanus 84 45 
Amida 90 23 > 32 
Amides 80 36 ( = Amida (?)) 
Ammonius, monk of HezSna, 89 3 > 8 i 9 
Ammonius, monk of Pern6dj, 84 94 
Amosius, king of Egypt, 30 1 
Amphilochiu8, bishop of Iconium, 83 6 > 9-12 
Side 88 20 

*Amr, son of Al-'As 112 2 . 4 > 8 113 1 - 4 114 2 
115 1 117 1 118 1 . 2 > 4 120 17 ' 34 > S6 > 72 121 B > 9 


Amycus, king of Pontus, 41 6 > 12 
Anastasius, emperor, 89 1 ' 66-93 

— prefect of Alexandria under Conetan- 
tine 111 13 116 8 120 11 

Anchialus 89 86 
Anderwan 80 3S 

Andrasus, ancient name of Tarsus, 21 8 
Andrew, officer of Tiberius, 95* 
Andubarius 5 1 n. 

Anthimus, patriarch of Constantinople, 

9 0 85 94 7 
Antigonia 61 s 

Antigonus, king of Asia and Cilicia, 61 ] > 3 
Antinoaea, a quarter of the town of 

Tarsus, 100 2 
Antinoe 73 2 &c. 

Antioch 61 B 66 2 74 7 &c. 83 44 9< >o- 90 26 &c. 
Antiochus, son of Antigonus, 61 B 
Antiochus Epiphanes 63 
Antoninus, emperor, 74 1 . . 

Apamea 61 7 
Aphrodite 2 1 

Apollinaris, bishop of Laodicea, heresy 

of, 84 62 

— patriarch of Alexandria, 92 9 94 8 (?) 24 

• — count of the Monastery of Banton, 94 8 
Apollo 14 40 5 56 17 79 s 80 4 
Apries 51 18 > 25 

Apulon or Balalun, name of an official, 

15, 21, 23 

Arabia 89 33 

Arcadia, city of Egypt, 79 1 

— sister of Theodosius II, 84 25 87 2S 
Arcadius, emperor, son of Theodosius I, 

83 9 84 1 " 3 . »-» 

— officer under Zeno, 88 96-96 

— archbishop of Cyprus, 120 64 > 68 
Archelaus, governor of Cappadocia, 65 J > 2 

69 1 

— count of the east under Theodosius II, 
84 63 

Ares 2 1 

Argives 22 x » 3 

Argonauts 40 1 41 1 

Ariadne, wife of Anastasius, 88 68 \ 

Arians 81 4 83 4 > W" 43 &c. 117 fl \ 

Ariobindus 8 9 65 x 

Aristomachus, duke of Egypt, 91 3 sq<1 ' 

— of Nikiu, 95 3-20 

— officer of Justinian, 92 4 
Arius 78 5 

Armatus, general of Basiliscus, 88 s ** 

Armenia 77 33 
Arphaxad 4 1 
Artana 119" 
Artaxerxes 51 so > 54 i B9 > 60 
Artaxerxes II 51 83 
Artemis 79 s 

Arutigu, a quarter in Alexandria, 91 2 
Asia 42 4 &c. 
Aspar, general, 84 46 
Assuan 51 44 

Assyria 6 3 8 1 21 1 . B . « & c . 

Astera (= To/scryf ?) 90 63 > 65 

Astyages 51 1 ■■ \ 

Athalaric 88 66 

Atbanasius 78 n > 14 > «> 22 > 30 79 7 . 3 81 10-17 

— general of the Ethiopic forces, 123 9 
Athenais, subsequently named Eudocia, 

84 28 - 37 . See Eudocia 
Athenians 35 1-8 37 1 
Athens 37 s 

Athrib, town in Egypt, 107 29 > 30 113 2 
Atris, convent of, 107 42 
Atroku, island of, 98 27 
Attalus 67 12 
Attica 35 1-6 

Atticus, patriarch of Constantinople, 

§442, 69, 67, 79 

Aubaruns 91 2 

Augustus, emperor, 67 u > 13-17 
Aurelian, emperor, 76 1-5 
Aurelians 76 B 

Auxentius, Arian bishop, 78 22 
Awtamdn (?), city of, 84 31 
Azarias, a rebel, 97SO-S3 

Babel Fegor 14 • . 

Babylon, Babylonia, 5 2 51"»« 61 s &c. '. 

— in Egypt, 72 16-18 111 13 . 118' 114* 
115 4 ' 5 117 s 118 1 ' 2 120 31 

Baduarius, general, 90 69 
Bahnasa, city of Egypt, 111 8 
Balach 90 62 

Balqa, city of Egypt, 105 2 
BanOn, son of Ammon, 97 20 > 21 
Banton, monastery of, 94 8 
Bardane, wife of Cyrus, 51* 
Barlaam, church of S., 88 44 
Basil, bishop of Caesarea, 80 20 » 23-26 81 18 



Basiliscus, emperor, 88 26 > 2S > 3 °- 34 i 38-43 

— son of Arinatus, 88 46 
Basilius (Mar.) 87 10 

Basta, city of Egypt, 51 28 105 2 
Belisarius, general of J ustinian, 90 52 
Belshazzar 51 4 > 24 
Belus, son of Picus, 8 1 

— sou of Poseidon, 23 2 
Bena, city in Egypt, 97 4 

Benjamin, patriarch of Alexandria, 121 1 

— of Antinoe, 110 8 
Bethlehem 67 11 

Bikuran, city of (? Rhinococura), 107 S4 
BilawQn 45 1 
Bithynia 78 28 

Blue Faction, the, 90 16 107 2B 108 14 109 16 

110 s 118 3 119 9 . 18 
Boa, queen of the Huns, 90 61-65 
Bonakis, general of Heraclius, 107 3 > 12 &c. 
Bonosus, count of the east, 105 s 107 10 > 

19 . 24 &c. HO 2 - 4 > 7 \ 
Bottia 61 4 

Bruchium, see Abrakjun 
Bulgaria 89 7B 

Busir 13 2 30 13 51 33 97 4 > «> 11 114 8 
Byzantium (see Constantinople) .41 9 77 42 

89 69 &c. 97 6 

Cabades 90 39 . 4S - 46 . 62 95 23 
Caesar, Julius, 64 1-10 

— an officer of Theodosius, 83 49 
Caesarea in Cappadocia 65 2 

— in Palestine 107 23 118 10 
Caesaria, the patrician, 90 13 
Caesarion 64 7 

— church of, 64 10 84 101 119 14 
Cainan 4 

Calandio, patriarch of Antioch, 8S 44 ' 63 
Calotychius 90 90 

Cambyses 51 1 ' 17 > 19_J2 > 24-26 > 31 » 36 " S8 . 40 » 

46-47, 49-60 

Canaan 23 s &c. 

Candace, queen of Ethiopia, 59 8-6 

Capitol, the, 56 s 

Cappadocia 65 2 &c, 

Carthage 55 4 110" 

Casius, city near Antioch, 80 4 

Cecrops 35 6 > 8 

Celestine, patriarch of Rome, 84"~ 74 
Cerycus, general, 90 52 
Chalcedon, 41 2 42* 85 1 &c. 

Chalcis, city of Isauria, 88 85 ' 
Cheops 19 2 

Chosroes, king of Persia, see Cabades. 

— 96 8 " 19 103 9 
Christodora 107 s0 ' 33 ' 40 % 
Chrysopolis 59 2 

Chrysorroas (i. e. the Nile) 31 4 59 J 
Chrysostom, John, 83 53 84 13 » 42 > ™ 
Chuzaeans 123 5 

Cilicia 21 7 " 9 23 8 &c. 

Cilix 23 4 

Cinaron, quarter of Alexandria, 84 102 

Circesium 75 3 

Claudius, emperor, 70 1 

Cleopatra 64«- 7 67 1 - 3 ' 9 

Clysma, city in Egypt, 72 19 

Commentiolu", general, 95 2 

Constans I, son of Constantine the Great, 

781-4, 10-11, 13-16 

— II, son of Constantine III (officially 
called Constantine on his coins : also 
in 120 38 > 44 > 4B ), 120 65 > 64 

Constantia, sister of Constantine the 

Great, 77 46 
Constantina, empress, 95 1 103 8 
Constantine the Great I 41 9 42 J » 3 77«-i04, 

113 sqq. 

— II, son of Constantine I, 78 1-3 

— Ill, son of Heraclius I and Eudocia, 
II6 4 - 9 119 18 120 38 > 46 

— son of Constantine III (also called 
Constans II in 120 55 ' 64 ), 120 S8 » 44 . 45 

— general, 119 22 1 2 0 22 . 60 . 70 

— prefect of Alexandria, 97 27 
Constantinople (or Byzantium) 41 9 42 3 

592 7742, 67 7 8 2 sis, 20 825 8412, 21 &c> 

— churches of : S. John Baptist, 103 4 - 
S. Mamas, 88 4 89 85 

S. Sophia, 110 s 

S. Thomas, 110 5 ' 9 

Constantius (Chlorus) I, father of Con- 
stantine the Great, 77 2 > 14 » 41-42 

— II, son of Constantine the Great, 

77104 781-2, 4-8, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 24, 28-34 

— ! III, general of Honorius, emperor, 

married Placidia 84 20 - 21 > 23 
Cosmas, martyr, 83 s8 

— son of Samuel, chief of the Blues in 
Egypt, 97 20 > 21 « 27 » 33 109 15 118 3 

— Egyptian, 109 19 
Crete 24 2 


Creusa 54 

Croesus 51 2 > 7 - 10 > 1S - 15 
Crispus, son of Constantine the Great, 

Cronus 2 1 6 X > 4 > 5 
Cynegia, city of, 90 79 
Cyprus 97 10 
Cyrene 72 14 

Cyril, patriarch of Jerusalem, 78 9-10 > 38 

Alexandria, 79 12 84 42 . 43 » w » 103 

3720, 24 92 i2 945 

— general 89 74 ~ 76 

Cyrus, king of Persia, 51 1 . 4 > 7 > 10 -". 23 > 61 

— patriarch of Alexandria, 11 6 7 > 10 » "> 14 

IIQIO, 22 1 20 1 ! 9 i n » 16 > 17 > 23 i 26 » S6 » 37 « 66 
121 2 

— prefect of Constantinople, 84 48-58 
Cyzicus 40 2 ' 4 

Cyzicurn 40 4 

Dafashir 109 3 < 8 116 10 

Dairus (i. e. Tyre) 23 3 

Dalas 113 1 

Damascus 51 60 7 7 78 

D ami an, martyr, 83 38 

Damietta, city of Egypt, 114 9 115 s 121 4 

Damnus, king of the Homeritae or Him- 

yarites 90 72 ~ 76 
Daniel, the prophet, 51 B > 7 > 16 
Daphne 89 23 90 s3 
Dares, governor of Samnud, 113° 
Darius, king of Persia, 51 4 > 6 > 61 59 s > 4 

— surnamed Akrejfts, king of Persia, 51 63 
David, king of Israel, 32 s 

— son of Heraclius, 116 5 120 52 

the Matarguem or Aoyo04rt]S, 120 46 » 61 

— envoy, 105 2 
Decius, emperor, 75 1-3 
Demgaruni,* city of Egypt, 107 49 
Deucalion 34 s 

Dexiphanes 67 6 
Didastana 81 19 
Dido 55 1 

Didusja, city of Egypt, 79 u 
Dik, canal of, 17 5 
Diocletian, emperor, 77 1-22 
Dionysius, metropolitan of Italy, 78 22 
Dionysus 13 1 

Dioscorus, patriarch of Alexandria,87 34 ' 42 
88 15 89 37 90 86 

— prefect of Alexandria, 92 4 
Dlr6 23 s 

Domentianus, governor of the Eajum, 
Nikiu, Alexandria, brother-in-law of 
the patriarch Cyrus, 112 12sc "i- 114 8 
116 u 118 4 119 9 . 10 > 12 > 16 > 17 120 J > 44 

Domentiolus 95 1 

Dometius, martyr, 80 s 

Domitian, emperor, 7l 1-10 

— bishop of Melitene, metropolitan of 
Roman Armenia, 96 B > 13 99 2 

Domitianus or Domitianopolis 7l 6 
Domjds (i.e. Domnus), first king of 

Persia, 6 2 
Domnus, patriarch of Antioch, 87 35 
Doras 89 39 

Doritheus, an Alexandrian, 89 62 

Draco, river, 61 1 ' 3 

Dragon, canal, 107 14 109 2 

Drusis, martyr, 72 u 

Dushera, a city in Pentapolis, 120 8S 

Ecclesiarius, general, 109 23 

Egypt, Egyptians, 9 3 > 4 < 6 &o. 51 26 > 28 &c. 

— ■ Lower, 119 s 

Elbanja (= Lavinium) 54 

Elbawna 21 B 

EleutheruB 89 26 

Elijah 34 2 

Elkad 51 3G » 41 

Ellebichus, general, 83 49 

Elwanja ( = Alba Louga) 54 

Elwarlk6n ( = Illyria ?) 89 87 

Elwates (= Cecrops?) 35 1 

Endas, king of the Indians, 90 71 

Enderjan 47 1 

* Butler (Arab Conquest of Egypt, p. 22) points out that Dim is a prefix in / 
ancient Egyptian meaning town, and that accordingly Demqaruni is merely a Coptic j 
form of Kariun, which was thirty-eight kilometres from Alexandria. If Butler is / 
right, then there must have been two towns named Kariun ; for in our author 119 3 
Kariun is said to lie outside Alexandria. Further, we muet suppose that the trans- 
lator has wrongly transliterated the word as Demqaruni instead of Demkarunl. The 
text seems to favour the idea that there were two towns so named. 



Endymion 28 3-6 " ' 

Ensina 73 2 

Ephesus 71 12 84 61 87 34 
Ephraim, prefect and subsequently patri- 
arch of Antioch, 90 32 
Epimetheus 34 1 
Epiphanius 50 7 
Eshmun, city of Egypt, 51" 
Esn&, city of Egypt, 30 13 100 1 
Esqutaws 118 9 

Ethiopia, Ethiopians, 5 1 51 4Z 90 71 ' 78 &c. 

Euchaites in Pontus 8 8 43 8 9 46 

Eudocia, wife of Theodosius II, 84 28 s «-i 47 

8^8, 12, 13, 18 sqq., 31, 45 sq. 

— wife of Heraclius the Elder, 116* 
Eudocianus, brother of Domentianus, 

116 11 119 8 

Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II and 
wife of Valentinian III, 84 37 > 47 87 17 

— daughter of Valentinian III, 84 47 
Eudoxius, an Arian bishop, 83 6 \ 
Eugenius, usurper, 83 16-17 
Eulogius, patriarch of Alexandria, 97 u 
Eumenes 67 12 

Euphemius, patriarch of Constantinople, 
89 39 

Euphrasius, patriarch of Antioch, 90 32 
Euphrates 100 2 109 21 
Europa 24 3 

Europe 24 2 59 2 &c. 89 77 
Eusebius, bishop of Vercelli, 78 35 
Dorylaeum, 87 SB 

— noble under Heraclius, 108 1S 
Eustathius, bishop of Berytus, 88 19 
Eutocius 10 2 1 

Eutyches 88 22 

Eutychius, patriarch of Constantinople, 

943, 7, 11, 15, 23 

Ezra 51 23 68 1 -*. 6 

Fabia, daughter of Heraclius the younger, 
10 6 4 

Fajdm 111 4 . 14 112". 12 113 1 115 10 
Far, convent of, 89 90 
Farma, city of Egypt, 45 1 51 25 > 61 67 1 107 34 
Faunus 9 1 

Felix, patriarch of Rome, 78 2s 
Firmus, a patrician, 88 52 
Flskls, false Messiah in Crete, 86 1 
Flacilla, wife of Theodosius I, 83 4e > 66 84 1 
Flavian, patriarch of Constantinople, 87 27 

Flavian, patriarch of Antioch, 89 89 
Frumentius 77111-112 

Fftsid (written Jasid in the introductory 
summary) 51 25 > 29 « s0 > 3 « 

Gabala, city in Syria, 88 35 

Gabriel, translator of this work into 

Ethiopic, 123 9 
Gainas, patriarch of Alexandria, 92 2 > 6 

— usurper, 84 11-12 
Gainians 94 2 > 6 116 10 
Galatia 81 20 

Galerius Maximianus 77 2 
Gallus, nephew of Constantine the Great 
and cousin of Constantius II, 78 2f >- 28 ' 30 
Gandubarius 5 1 {n. 6) 
Gangra 88 23 
Gaul, island of, 95 20 
Gaza 51 2B 

Gelasinus, martyr, 7778-82 
Genesius 84 29 . 35 

George, patriarch of Alexandria, 119 11 

— an ecclesiastic of Alexandria, 120 11 

— prefect of Qaljub, 113 2 
Germanus, patrician, 94 28 
Gihon 16 2 67 7 72 19 95 13 
Godilas, see Tulilan 
Golanduch 96 1 " 14 
Golgotha 27 9 

Goliah 48 s 
Gorgon 21 2 ~ 7 
Gortyna 24 3 

Goths, i. e. barbarians, 88 50 
Gratian, emperor, 82" 83 1 . 8 > 14 > 18 
Greeks 14 2 8 2 3 4 2 &c. 
Green Faction 8 9 27 1 07 46 109 16 > 25 110 
118 s 119 9 

Gregory of Nazianzum 83 5 > 24_26 ' 29-30 94 9 

— Nyssa 83 6 

Grepes (f Akraidsf in text) 90 7 ° 

Hadrian, emperor, 73 1-3 

Ham 5 1 

Heber 27 14 " 16 

Hebrews 2 3 27 9 ' 14 » 17 &c. 

Hecuba 47 1 

Hedjaz, king of, 90 79 

Helena 7 7 63 ' 72 

Heliopolis (in the Lebanon) 77 78 

— city of Egypt 12 2 . See 6n t . 


Hellas 44 1 ' 8 
Hellenes 44 2 
Hellespont 40 1 

Henoticon of Zeno 88 62 89 89 90 6 i 86 
Hephaestus 10 1 12 1 
Heptastadion 82 22 
Heracleonas, see Heraclius II 
Heracles 40 1 

Heraclitus, father of Eudocia the empress, 
84 J9 > 82 

Heraclius, governor in Africa, 107 2 109 22 

— I (the Elder) 109 25 110 1 . 13 II6 1 - 3 
120 2 > 44 121 2 

— II, or Heracleonas (the younger son 
of Heraclius by Martina), 109 2B 110 2 

119 18 120 2 ' 39 i 41 i 44 i «, 4G, 52 

Hermes 9 1 sc "i- 

— (Trismegistus) 15 1 sq - 

— the planet, 2 1 
Herod 65 1 
Hesiod 28 1 " 2 

Hexahippium, portico in Constantinople, 
89 21 ' ' 

Hezekiah 56" 
Hezena 89 3 > 4 i 8 > 16 
Hierapolis, on the Euphrates, 96 4 
Hierax 84 91 » 93 

Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, 78 3B 
Homeritae ( = Himyaritae) 9 0 72 j 74 
Honorius, emperor (son of Theodosius I), 

83 9 ' 38 84 1_n > 15 > 17-23 
Hormisdas, king of Persia, 95 23 !< "> 

96 7 - 8 
Huns 9 0 42 sqq -. G1 > 70 
Hypatia 8 4 87 - 102 
Hypatius 89 73 

Ibas, bishop of Edessa, 87 35 
Iconium (formerly Amandra) 21 6 
Ignatius, patriarch of Antioch, 72 s 
IUus, general, 88 6B »•"• 
Illyria, Illyrians, 84 35 8 9 37 (?)> 74 109 18 
Inachus 22 1 

India, Indians, 5 1 77 108 *«• 

Inmestar 85 1 n. 

Io 22 s 

Ionians 21 14 

lopolis 22 s 61 4 

Irai, island of, 89 2 > 15 

Irenaeus, general of Justinian, 90 52 

— — Anastasius, 89 28 

Isaac, a leader of the factions, 97 10 . 2B 
Isauria, Isaurians, 21 7 7l 6 84 40 88 85 &c. 
Ishmaelites 111 9 . 10 > 16 120 33 123 6 . See 

Isidore of Mandf 107 42 

— general, 109 23 
Isocasius 88 7 
Italy 53 1 77 M 

J acob of Aikelah, a faction leader, 97 J » »» 

— Malak Sagad 123 8 
Jambres 30 1 
Jannes 30 1 
Japheth 28 1 

Jar6ks (= Tpwdl or tSvSa?) 90 66-67 
Jason 40 1 

Jebus (i. e. Jerusalem) 32 1 
JeqbarJ, commander Under Theodore, 
114 3 

Jeremiah, the prophet, 50h 4 

— Abba, 89 4 ~ 14 

— faction leader, 111 12 
Jeroboam, king of Israel, 93 5 
Jerusalem 27 13 32 1 51 24 72 17 &c. 

Jews, children of Israel, 27 10 > 12 30 1 * 8 i 10 

J ohn the Baptist, body of, 78 42 

— evangelist, 71 s 

— theologian, 7I E> 12 

— Tabennesiotes or Talaia, patriarch of 
Alexandria, elected a. d. 482, 88 60 j 61 

— patriarch of Alexandria in the reign 
of Tiberius (578-582), 94 23 

— Niciota, Monophysite patriarch of 
Alexandria, 8 9 90 

— prefect of Alexandria under Maurice, 

973, 7-8, 14-18 

under Phocas, 107 7 

Antinoe, 115 10 

— prefect of Damietta and of Alexandria, 
114 9 121 6 

— patriarch of Antioch, 84 el 87 24 

— Chrysostom, see Chrysostom. 

— patriarch of Constantinople, 94 U_1B > 23 
9510-12 gge, 7 

— bishop, 87 85 
of Nikiu, 123 1 

— monk of the convent of Sinai, 121 11 

— general of the local levies, 111 1 / 8 * B > 8 » 

11, 15 116 1 12 01S 

(of Maros), 111 3 116 1 



John of Manuf, 107 42 

— usurper, 84 24 > 46 > 81 

— officer of Bonosus, 109 6 

— Colobos, 123 9 
Josephus 27 10 

Joshua, the son of Nun, 29 1 32* 

— the high priest, 51 23 

Jovian, emperor, 80 34-36 • ' 

Jozadak 51 23 

Judah, kingdom of, 56 1 

Judas, high priest of Jerusalem, 58 1 

Judea 65 1 

Julian, the Apostate, 78 2Ss ^-> 31 » 35-41 

80 1, 4, 8-18 

— a Gralnian bishop, 94 6 

— of Manuf, 107 42 
Juliana 89 66 
JuljanSs 51 62 
Junia, martyr, 72 10 
t Juatenf 53 2 
Justin, emperor, 90 1-48 

— governor of Alexandria, 103 12 
Justina, empress, 82 13 

Justinian, emperor, 90 16 > 18 > 49 > 70 > 77 94"- 16 
Juvenal, bishop of Jerusalem, 87 45 
Juvenalia, a woman of patrician rank, 

88 B2-54 

Kabsen, city of Egypt, 107 13 
Kaladji 11 4«- 8 
Kardimas 55 2 

KLariun, a suburb of Alexandria (see 

Demqaruni, note), 108 12 119 3 
Kebrias of Abadja, city of Egypt, 118 4 
Kerteba, city of Egypt, 105 2 
Kilunas 118 11 
Kirjus 116 7 

Kisil, prefect of Tripolis, 109 24 
Kudis, chamberlain, 103 11 

— general, 107 38 
Kubratos, Hun chief, 120 47 
Kuerdis 113 2 

Labdacus 25 n. 
Lacon, Laconia, 43 1 ' 3 
Lahun, city of, 111 6 
Laius 25 
Lamech ll 1 ' 3 
Laodicea, city of, 61 6 83 47 

— daughter of Antigonus, 61 6 
Lapathus 43 1 


Latinus 52 56 2 
Lavinia 52 
Lazaeans 9 0 35-39 

Lemnas, a fortress in Cappadocia, 88 42 
Leo, letter of the patriarch, 89 37 > 69 > 91 90 6 
92' 8 

— emperor, 88 1 ' B > 12 > 17 i 28 

— logothete, 95 18 

Leontius, usurper, 88 75 > 78 ~ 79 > 82 . 84 « 87 » 9 °- 91 

— prefect of Mareotis, 107 4 > 13 > 38 108 12 

— general, 108 12 111 13 

— chamberlain of Phocas, 110 6 > 7 
Libanius 78 35 . 

Liberius, patriarch of Home, 7 8 22 > 24 > 25 
Libya, wife of Poseidon, 23 1 

— country of, 23 2 55 4 

Licinius, brother-in-law of Constantino 
the Great, 77 46_48 > 73 - 74 » 87 - 90 . 


Lilianus (?) 88 84 

Llwnakis, commander of Samnud, 107 27 
LokjOn, island of, 111 1 
Longinus, brother of Zeno, 88 67 
Lucifer, metropolitan of Sardinia, 78 22 > 35 
Lucuas, a leading Jew of Alexandria, 

72 14 
Lycaonians 21 5 
fLydiaf 28 s 

Maccabees, the, 63 

Macedonia 5 1 63 5 9 1 &c. 

Macedonius, patriarch of Constantinople, 

89<6-47, 50, 53, 54, 58, 62, 68 

Madjus 87 35 

Magi, the, 72 17 96 15 

Magnentius 78 18 > 25 

MahallS, formerly Didusja, 79 11 

Malak M&gasa, queen of Abyssinia, 123 s 

— Sagad, king of Abyssinia, 123 8 
Mamuna, city of, 119 12 
Manasseh, king of Judah, 102 7 
Manes 78 17 

Manichaeans 78 17 

Manlius of Cappadocia 67 14 

Manuf (Upper) 30 13 7 2 20 8 9 2 > 4 > 8 > 16 107 9 » 

25, 37, 42 109 9 > 11 113 S 

Mar Basilius 87 10 
Maccian, emperor, 87 36-44 

— prefect of Athrib, 107 29 > 33 > 40 108 12 
Marcus, son of Basiliscus, 8 8 26 . 
Marcus AureliuB 74 10 




Marcus Turbo, general, 72 15 
Mardias, general, 109 23 
Mareotis 107 4 109 s 
Marikds 95 13 

Marina, sister of Theodosius II, 84 25 

87 23 

— empress, 82 10 " 14 

Marinus, son of Heraclius I, 116 B 120 5z 

— officer of Anastasius, 89 61 > 62 > 78-86 
Mards, city of Egypt, 111 3 
Marsos of Isauria 88 76 

Marsyas 39 1-3 

Martina, second wife and niece of Hera- 
clius I, 116 4 119 19 > 24 120 l > 6 « 39 > 40 > 48 

Masides, magician, 90 54-60 

Matunavis 13 1 

Maurianus, astrologer, 88 92 

Maurice, emperor, 95 J > 14 sqq * 103 9 

Mauritanian 31 1 95 13 

Maxentius, emperor, 7736-40, 50-55 

Maxiinus, intruding patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, 83 28 ' 29 » 31 

— usurper, 83 14-1B > 17 > 34 > 36 

— augur, 78 36 

Maximian, patriarch of Constantinople, 

8 465, 72, 73 

— I (Herculius), emperor, colleague of 
Diocletian, 77 2 > 13 > 23-!,4 > 36 

— II, son-in-law of Diocletian, 77 13 ' 


Maximin, Galerius Valerius, 77 47 > 73-7B t 

83, 88-92 

Mazabdan, original name of Laodicea, 61 6 
Mazaca, original name of Caesarea in 

Cappadocia, 65 2 
Media 51 J °. 47 
Melchizedek 27 1-B > 8-13 32 1 
Meletius, patriarch of Antioch, 78 35 83 8 
Melitene 96 13 

Memphis 19 2 30 2 . 5 51 18 < 27 > 32 > 33 » 3B » «• 38 
79 1 

Menas, the assistant, 97 11 

— a faction leader, ' chief of the Greens', 
97* &c 118 s 

— Roman general, 119 6 - 7 > °. ». 13 120 10 

— patriarch of Constantinople, 94 14 

— prefect (of Antioch ?), 89 25-27 

of Alexandria, 97 34 

of Lower Egypt, 120 29 1 21 6 

— scribe of Nikiu, 107 s3 
Merada, city of Egypt, 105 1 

Mercury, martyr, 80 19 » 21-22 i 28 

Methuselah ll 1 

Mezad48 4 

Michael, archangel, 41 
Milan, Council of, 78 20 
Miph&mdnis, the new Shatra, 107 49 
Misr (see Babylon, city of) 112 2 > *> 5 113 s 

118 s 1196 
Moesia 88 47 
Mohammed 121 10 
Moses 30 1 60 1 . 2 > 5 

Moslem, the, 111 2 . «. 7 > 12 > " H2 2 *> B > 

9 sqq. H4I sqq. 

Muhll 51 18 

Muzab, king of Egypt, 51 36 > 39 > 41 
Mysia 89 72 

Mystagogia, book entitled, 94 13 

Nablus (i.e. Shechem) 32 2 93 4-6 
Narses, general, 96 13 > 1B < 18-19 
Nebuchadnezzar 48 B 49 s 50 1 72 17 > 18 
Nectarius, patriarch of Constantinople, 


Nectanabus, king of Egypt, 51 61 
Nehemiah 51 E1 
Nephalius, monk, 89 48 
Nero 70 1-6 
Nerva 71 11-13 
Nestorius 84 E9 '""-i 7B > 78 
Nestorians 87 2S s< J q « 
Nicaea 77 72 78 8 82 19 

Nicetas, son of Gregory, general of 
Heraclius, 107 4 ' u » 45 sq - 108 2-8 > 13-15 

109 4-9 

Nicomedia 78 29 

Nikiu (also Nikius, Nakjus, or Absai) 
31 1 &c. 79 4 > 5 96 3 > 6 107 26 > 39 > 43 109 12 
111 13 112 10 . 11 115 12 118 1 ' 8 > 10 

Niks 7 1 

Nile 30 4 

Nimrod 5 2 

Nineveh 6 3 

Ninus 6 s 8 1 21 1 

Noah 3 4 1 6 1 22 1 

Nubia, Nubians, 5 1 40-42 9 0 74 > 76 > 76 
Numa 57 1 

Ochus, king of Persia, 51 {3 
Odoacer, king of Italy, 88 BO 
Odrysae, city of Thrace, 36 1 
Odysseus, city of Thrace, 89 75 **' 


Ogyges, king of Attica, 29 1 
Omar, son of Al Khattab, 112 B 
6n 108 6 112 2 

Orestes, prefect of Alexandria, 84 93 > 99 
Organa, a Hun chief, 120 47 
Orion 5 3 

Orontes, the, 21 13 
Orpheus 36 1 
Osiris 14 
Ovid 2 3 

Palamedes 46 
Palestine 51 sl > 23 &o. 
Pallantium 56 2 &c. 
Pallas 53 1 . 3 
Palmyra 48 2 

Pampretius 88 76 . 78 > 88 s i- 
Panoptes 33 

Papyris, a castle in Isauria, 88 87 
Patmos 71 B n. 

Patricius, master of the imperial house- 
hold, 88 27 
Paul, patriarch of Alexandria, 92 6-7 

Antioch, 90 9 > 10 > 14 

Constantinople, 120 55 

— prefect of Alexandria, 97 8 

Samnud, 107 26 ' 27 > 28 > 33 109 15 

Paulinus, patriarch of Gaul, 78 22 

— master of the household, 87 1-13 ' 28 

— demon-worshipper, 98 1 ' 7-13 
Pausanias 62 

Pelagius, a Silentiarius, 88 93 sq 
Peloponnesus 44 1 " 3 
Pelops 44 1 

Pentapolis 31 1 (?) 77 2B 107 a 120 7 > 35 
Pernod j, convent of, 84 94 
Perseus 21 1 ! 16 
Persia 6 s 21 10 > 17 59" &c, 
Persians 5 2 8 3 21 12 > 18 51 1 &c. 
Peter, S., the apostle, 72 3 

— patriarch of Alexandria, 78 45 

— Mongus, patriarch of Alexandria, 88 68 

— martyr 77 11 (90 88 ?) 

— the Fuller, patriarch of Antioch, 88 36 ' 

43, 44, 63 

— the monk who attacked Hypatia, 84 100 

— general of J ustinian, 90 63 

— magistrate of Alexandria, 84 100 
Petissonius, i.e. Pharaoh Amosius, 30 1 ' 


Petra in Palestine 89 70 

Pharnace 61 7 
Pharos 107 22 

Phile, city of Egypt, 51" 
Philaletkes, book entitled, 89 53 
Philagrius, treasurer of Heraclius, 119 23 > 

24 120 s ) *<>> 43 > 53 
Philiades, prefect of Arcadia (i.e. FajClm), 

1 19 10, 11, 14, 17 

Philip, king of Macedon, 58 1 

— elder brother of Alexander, 59 10 
Philistines 32 1 

Philoxenos, prefect of Fajam, 120 29 
Phocas, emperor, 102 11 103 4 > 9 110 4 " 7 
Phoenicia 23 6 

Phoenix, king of Tyre, 20 2 23 4 ' 6 
Photion, monk, 94 17 
Photius 110 6 
Phrygia 39 1 45 2 47 1 
Phusid, see FCtsid 
Picus (= Zeus) 6 3 > 5 7 1 9 1 23 1 24 3 
Pidrakdn, canal of, 107 14 109 2 
Placidia, sister of Honorius, wife of 
Constantine III, 84 18 > 46 

— daughter of Valentinian, 84 47 
Planets, the seven, 2 2 

Plato, minister under Anastasius, 89 59 

— general, 10 7 32 > 34 > 38 ' 42 
Plutarch 2 s 

Pontus 41 2 90 68 
Poseidon 23*» 3 

— son of Poseidon, 23 2 
Priam 45 2 47 1 
Principus 41 1 

Proclus, patriarch of Constantinople, 

8465, 72-74, 77, 84 go43 

— philosopher, 89 78 - 79 > 88 
Procopius, count of the east, 89 24 > 26 » 28 

— author of History of the Wars of the 
Vandals, 92 20 

Prometheus 34 1 

Prosopis, early king of Nikiu, 31 1 
Proterius, patriarch of Alexandria, 88 12 > 


Ptolemais (?) 107 30 

Ptolemy Dionysus, king of Egypt, 64 6 

— Lagus, king of Egypt, 59 10 

— Philadelphus, king of Egypt, 60 1 

— general, 9 7 11 

— fApuldnf of Athrlb, 107 9 
Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II, 84 s5 ' 

8728-83, 86, 44 


Pusaeus, prefect, 88 7 
Pygmalion 55 s 
Pyramids 19 2 ~ 7 
Pyramus, river, 78 7 

Pyrrhus, patriarch of Constantinople, 
116 4_B 119 19 > 20 120 46 » M » 66 

Qabel II 2 

Qaljub, city of Egypt, 113 2 
Qalunja (?) 23 1 
Qamds 90 21 
Q6r6nt6s 21 2 
Qusum 107 10 

Rakoustis 59 2 

Rampsinitus (one of the Pharaohs) 19 1 

Ravenna 84 20 

Red Sea 30 7 72 19 120 s1 

Remus 56 3 > 4 > 5 

Rhea 6 s 7 1 40 4 

Rhodanus 82 7 > 8 

Rhodes, island of, 72 13 120 5 ' 52 

Rif, province of Egypt, 100 1 113 1 114 6 

Roilas 84 88 

Rome, Romans, 42 3 56 4 > 5 > 9 > 18 i 20 77 49 


Romulus 56 1 * 4 > 6 i 10 > 1Z » 18 si<i. 
Roxana 59* 

Sa 89 91 118 9 

Sabacon, king of India (i.e. Ethiopia) 

and Egypt. 18 1 ' 6 
Sabendls, faction chief, 114 9 
Sabines 56 16 

Sahraisht, city of Egypt, 30 13 
Said, province of Egypt, 17 s 
Sais, city of Egypt, 51 30 < 31 
Saka, city of Egypt, 115 2 
Salakrius (?), officer of Constantine III, 
116 7 

Salami,, convent of, 92 9 

Salem (i.e. Jerusalem) 27 9 

Sallust, prefect of the Praetorians, 

82 2 i 3 > 4 
Samaritans 93 4-8 99 2 
Samnud 14 30 13 107 26 ' 48 
Samson 43 1 

San, city of Egypt, 5l 25 105 2 
Sanhur, city of Egypt, 51 2D 105 2 
Sapor Arsaces 78 6 80 s ' 
Saqilja 47 a 
Sarabaros 77 81 n. 

Sardanapalus 21 9 

Satfari 114 s 

Sauna 118 9 n. 

Scete, desert of, 87 u 

Scholarius (for Sporacius?) 88* 

Seleucia 90 33 

Seleucus Nicanor 6 1 2 

Selymbria 88 48 

Semiramis 8 2 

Septuagint 60 

Serapis, temple of, 83 38 

Serbat6s, general, 88 s7 

Sergius, apostate, 109 19 

Seruch 26 1 

Sesostris 17 1 ' 4 

Setabarja 47 2 

Seth 2 1 

Severus, Abba, 90 86 

— chief of monks of Palestine, 89 49 > B2 > 

54, 64 

— patriarch of Antioch, 90 7 > 12 ~ 14 116 6 
120 56 

Shabra, the new, 107 49 
Shechem 32 2 
Shorn 4 1 6 1 
Shenufi 51 56 - 58 
Sichaeus 55 1 
Sidon, city of, 27 7 
Sidus, king of Egypt, 27 4-6 
Silentiarius 88 93 ~ 94 
Silpion 61 4 

Sinai, convent of, 102 5 121 11 

Sindda, prefect of Rif, 120 29 

Sirmium, city of, 90 79 

Sisinnius, patriarch of Constantinople, 

8469, 67 

Smyrna 84 54 

Socrates, the astronomer, 68 4 

Solomon 32 s 38 1 " 2 48 1 

Sosthenium 4 1 8 . 9 8 9 77 . 87 

Stephen, patriarch of Antioch, 88 44 > 63 

— military commander, 118 u > 13 
Straton's Tower 66 1 
Successus 94 5 

Suflr 51 39 
Sufiru 51 18 

Sycae, suburb of Constantinople, SQ 71 
Sycene 88 49 

Sylvester, patriarch of Rome, 77 60 
Syria 21 13 23 7 51 21 
Syrus, king of Syria, 23 4 



Tabenna, convent of, 88 60 91 6 92 5 
1201O, is 

tTaninusf 30 s 

Tarsus, city in Cilicia, 21 8 88 78 100 2 
Tatian, prefect of Alexandria, 82 20 
Taurus, king of Crete, 24 1 
Telemachus, monk, 84 8 > 9 
Tendunia, 112 3 > 7 > 10 
Tenkera, 107 5 
Thebes 51 18 > 2B > 28 72" 
Theodora, empress, 90 49 ' 87 > 89 9 3 3 94 15 
106 3 (?) 

Theodore, patriarch of Alexandria, 1 07 6 » 


— bishop of Mopsuestia, 92 11 ' 18 
Nikiu 10 7 26 > 33 > 39 

— commander-in-chief in Egypt, 111 14 
[ «w. 112 1 114 2 116 8 118 11 119 1 ' 3 > 7 > 17 

120 7 > 70 121 s 

— general, son of Zechariah, 97 15 > 19 
106 2 1 07 32 ' 42 

— officer over grain supply, 107 7 

— the Illustrious, 109 26 

— son of Menas, 107 5 

— general, son of Constantine, 120 50 

— the vicar, 107 18 

— corrupt for Theodora, 106 3 
Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, 8 7 35 92 12 » 

14, 18 

Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, 

emperor of Rome. 88 47-56 
Theodosius I, emperor, 83 1 - s - 14 > 34 < 

36, 39-65 g^77 

— II, emperor, son of Arcadius, 84 14 i 15 > 

21, 25-42, 44, 48, 80 sqq. 86-87 3B 

— patriarch of Alexandria (a.d. 537), 
92 1 . 3 95 3 (?) 

— prefect of Alexandria, 89 35 
Arcadia, 111 1 

— son of Maurice, 103 8 

— general of Heraclius, 111 9 » 13 

— Monophysite monk, 87 4B 

— agent of Nicetas, 108 2 
Theodosians 94 2 

Theodotus, prefect of Constantinople, 

9()17-19, 23 

Theognosta, S., 77 106 " 8 110 
Theogony 36 2 

Theonius, bishop of Yemen, 77 no 
Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, 
j- 8 44- 6, 791, 12-17 

Theophilus, the Stylite, 108 1 " 4 . 109 14 

— governor of five cities, 105 1 
Thessalonica 58 2 83 41 "i* 
Thessaly 58 1 

Thrace, Thracians, 88 48 89 72 102 9 
Tiberia in Thrace 69 2 
Tiberias 84 40 

Tiberius I, emperor, 69 1-2 83 40 

— II 94 19 - 22 95 8 ~ 12 

Timothy, patriarch of Alexandria (con- 
secrated 381), 83 26 ' 28 

— Aktemon, patriarch of Alexandria, 

78 46 

— Aelurus, patriarch of Alexandria, 88 14 > 

16, 23-25, 57 

— Salofaciolus, patriarch of Alexandria 
(see Ajes), 88 59 n. 

— patriarch of Alexandria (a.d. 520-537), 


— chronicler, 36 2 
Titus, emperor, 71 1 
T6bel ll 2 . 3 

Tower of Straton 66 1 
Trajan 72 1 - 20 

— canal of, 72 19 120 31 
Tree, city of the, 30 1S 
Tripolis 107 2 109 22 . 24 120 53 
Tros 47 1 

+Tulilanf 90 68 
Tyre 23 s 24 1 49 1 
Tzatbius, the Lazaean, 90 40 

Valens, emperor, 82 5 > 17-19 

— general, 108 12 
Valentia 56 2 

Valentine, general, 120 3 > 40 > 44 ' «. 64 . 66 > 69 
Valentinian I 82 1 " 16 

— II, son of Valentinian I and Justina, 

83 15, 16, 18 

— son of Oonstantius III, 84 !3 > 46 
Valerian 8 i K > 35 

Va.lja.n6s of Isauria 88 76 
Vandals 92 19 

Verina, empress, 88 27 ' 40 ' 66 ' 75 ~ 88 
Vigilius, patriarch of Eome, 92 11 94 14 
Virgin Mary 40 9 
Vitalian, general, 89 71 - 86 9 0 5 " 8 . 11 

fWaikaf 25 

Walwarja, Moslem general, 112 s 



\Varjan6s, abba, 89 14 
Wards, island, 77 19 
Watan, castle, 82 16 

Yemen accepts Christianity 77 106 

Zawja, a city in Egypt, 97 1 

Zechariah, soldier, 118 7 

— military commander, 97 15 > 16 

Zeno, emperor, 40 8 > 9 42 s 88 3fi - 87 89 69 
Zenodia, empress, wife of Basiliscus, 88 41 
Zerubbabel 51 23 
Zeus 2 1 21 1 . 3 56 s 

Zeuxippus, a gate of Constantinople, 88 8 
Ziligdes, Hun chief, 90 42-B 
Zillah ll 1 
Zion 27 9 

Zoilus, patriarch of Alexandria, 92 7-10 



2 Sam. I 27 
Ps. 76 1 
81 3 
110 4 

116 18-19 

118 24 
Luke 19 27 
1 Pet. I 24 

Ch. 111 s 
27 i2 

56 24 
27 11 
87 18 
12 0 14 
122 9